Central African Republic
On 22 March, the 2127 CAR Sanctions Committee met with the Group of Experts assisting it, to discuss their programme of work for the year. On 26 March Special Representative and head of MINUSCA Mankeur Ndiaye briefed the Council under “any other business”.
On 13 February, Council members issued a press statement welcoming the signing of the Global Peace Agreement in the CAR. On 21 February, Departing Special Representative and head of MINUSCA Parfait Onanga-Anyanga briefed the Council on the latest MINUSCA report. Ambassador Smaïl Chergui, the AU Commissioner for Peace and Security; Koen Vervaeke, the European External Action Service Managing Director (via video teleconference); Ambassador Gbolié Desiré Wulfran Ipo, Deputy Permanent Representative of Côte d’Ivoire, which chairs the 2127 CAR Sanctions Committee; and Ambassador Omar Hilale (Morocco), chair of the Peacebuilding Commission’s CAR configuration, also addressed the Council. On 22 February, the 2127 CAR Sanctions Committee discussed the Panel of Experts’ “progress update” with its coordinator.
On 7 December, the 2127 CAR Sanctions Committee met to discuss the final report of its Panel of Experts. On 13 December, the Council adopted resolution 2448, extending the mandate of MINUSCA and the authorisation to use all the means to provide operational support to MINUSCA until 15 November 2019 (S/PV.8422). China and Russia abstained on the vote.
On 12 November, the Chair of the 2127 CAR Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Léon Houadja Kacou Adom (Côte d’Ivoire), briefed on his recent visit to the country. On 15 November, the Council adopted resolution 2446, extending the mandate of MINUSCA until 15 December, in a “technical rollover”. On 18 November, Council members issued a press statement condemning an attack by suspected members of an armed group, which resulted in the death of one MINUSCA Tanzanian peacekeeper (SC/13588).
On 13 July, the Council adopted a presidential statement expressing its concern over the continuing violence perpetrated by armed groups in the CAR and reaffirming its support to the African Initiative for Peace and Reconciliation in the CAR. The 2127 CAR Sanctions Committee met on 13 July to discuss the midterm report of the Panel of Experts assisting the Committee.
On 11 June, Council members issued a press statement, condemning a 10 June attack against a MINUSCA patrol in Bambari, resulting in one Burundian peacekeeper killed and another injured. On 21 June, Special Representative for the CAR and head MINUSCA, Parfait Onanga-Anyanga, briefed the Council on the latest MINUSCA report. Special Representative of the AU to the CAR Bédializoun Moussa Nébié, and Brigadier General Hermínio Teodoro Maio, force commander of the EU Military Training Mission in the CAR also briefed, both by video teleconference. An informal interactive dialogue with Onanga-Anyanga and Nébié followed. The CAR Sanctions Committee held an informal meeting on 22 June, where representatives of the National Commission to Combat the Illicit Proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons in Côte d’Ivoire, the UN Mine Action Service, and the UN Institute for Disarmament Research briefed on weapons and ammunition management.
On 3 April, Council members issued a press statement condemning the attack on a temporary operating base of MINUSCA in Tagbara (prefecture of Ouaka) on the same day, by suspected anti-Balaka elements, which resulted in one Mauritanian peacekeeper killed and 11 others injured. On 11 April, Council members issued a press statement condemning an attack on MINUSCA in Bangui the day before by armed groups, which resulted in one Rwandan peacekeeper killed and eight others injured. On 18 April, AU Commissioner for Peace and Security Smail Chergui (via video teleconference) and Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Jean-Pierre Lacroix briefed Council members in an informal interactive dialogue on their joint visit to Sudan and the CAR from 7 to 13 April. During the visit to the CAR from 10 to 13 April, Lacroix and Chergui met in Bangui with senior government officials, including President Faustin-Archange Touadéra and Prime Minister Simplice Sarandji. They also met with members of the National Assembly, and jointly chaired with the Economic Community of Central African States a meeting of the International Support Group for the CAR, which is intended to buttress international efforts to support the peace process and provide humanitarian relief.
On 6 March, Council members issued a press statement condemning an attack against education workers near Markounda in the north‑western part of the CAR on 25 February 2018 by unknown assailants, which resulted in the killing of one UNICEF education consultant, two officials of the Ministry of Education of the CAR, and three members of a UNICEF national partner organisation, Bangui Sans Frontières. On 16 March, the Panel of Experts assisting the 2127 CAR Sanctions Committee presented their programme of work to the committee.
On 22 February, the Council was briefed on CAR by Special Representative to the CAR and head of MINUSCA Parfait Onanga-Anyanga; the chair of the 2127 CAR Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Bernard Tanoh-Boutchoué (Côte d’Ivoire); the chair of the Peacebuilding Commission CAR configuration Ambassador Omar Hilale (Morocco); the Special Representative of the AU to the CAR, Bédializoun Moussa Nebie (via video teleconference); and the Director General of the EU Military Staff, Lieutenant General Esa Pulkkinen. Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Bintou Keita participated in the consultations that followed the briefing. On 27 February, Council members released a press statement, deploring attacks against civilians and incitement to ethnic and religious hatred and violence. They also reaffirmed their support to the African Initiative for Peace and Reconciliation in the CAR as the main framework for a political solution (SC/13226). The 2127 CAR Sanctions Committee amended identifying information regarding an individual on its sanctions list on 16 February (SC/13212). The committee was briefed by the Panel of Experts assisting it in informal consultations on 23 February.
On 4 December, Council members issued a press statement condemning an attack on a MINUSCA detachment in Bria that day by suspected anti‑Balaka elements, which resulted in one Mauritanian peacekeeper killed and two other Mauritanian peacekeepers and one Zambian peacekeeper injured. Also on that day, the CAR Sanctions Committee met with its Panel of Experts to discuss the final report of the panel and hear briefings by the UN Mine Action Service and UN Institute for Disarmament Research on weapons and ammunition management in the country.
On 6 November, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for the CAR and head of MINUSCA, Parfait Onanga-Anyanga; the Special Representative of the AU to the CAR, Bédializoun Moussa Nébié (via video teleconference); and the Head of International Relations at the Community of Sant’Egidio, Mauro Garofalo, briefed the Council (S/PV.8084). The briefing was followed by consultations in which the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, Jean-Pierre Lacroix, participated. On 15 November, the Council adopted resolution 2387, renewing the mandate of MINUSCA until 15 November 2018 (S/PV.8102). On 27 November, Council members issued a press statement condemning an attack on MINUSCA the day before, which resulted in one Egyptian peacekeeper killed and three others injured (SC/13092).
In a meeting on 13 July, the Council adopted a presidential statement that “expresses concern at the ongoing clashes between armed groups in the CAR and the targeting of civilians from specific communities, UN Peacekeepers and humanitarian workers”. At the subsidiary level, the 2127 CAR Sanctions Committee met on 21 July to discuss the six-monthly report of the committee’s Panel of Experts. In a press statement on 24 July Council members condemned the attack on a MINUSCA convoy in Bangassou (Mbomou) on 23 July by anti-Balaka elements that resulted in one peacekeeper killed and three injured. Another press statement was issued on the Central African Republic on 26 July, condemning the 25 July attacks on MINUSCA peacekeepers. On 27 July, Council members discussed recent developments in the CAR under “any other business”.
On 12 June, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for the CAR, Parfait Onanga-Anyanga, briefed the Council on the implementation of MINUSCA’s mandate. Onanga-Anyanga described the recent increase in violence in the CAR, particularly of violence directly targeting civilians and MINUSCA personnel, and insisted that MINUSCA would maintain a robust posture towards armed groups, although this would need to be accompanied by increased peacebuilding efforts. Onanga-Anyanga was joined by the President of the Community of Sant’Egidio, Marco Impagliazzo, who described his organisation’s efforts to enhance inclusive dialogue by all groups.
On May 10, Council members issued a press statement condemning the attack on a MINUSCA convey in Bangassou by anti-Balaka militants that resulted in the deaths of five peacekeepers and the wounding of ten others. On May 15, Council members issued a press statement condemning anti-Balaka attacks on MINUSCA and civilian populations in Bangassou. On 17 May, the 2127 CAR Sanctions Committee approved targeted sanctions against a former Minister identified as “engaging in or providing support for acts that undermine the peace, stability or security of the CAR”.
On 4 April the Council issued a presidential statement reaffirming the Council’s support for CAR President Touadera, expressing concern at the ongoing violence between armed groups, acknowledging reconciliation efforts, and condemning attacks against civilians. The statement followed the 16 March briefing of the Council by President Touadera and then Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous. The delay between the March briefing and the issuing of the presidential statement was reportedly due to scheduling rather than any significant disagreement amongst Council members.
On 16 March, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous and the CAR President Faustin Archange Touadera briefed the Council on the situation in the CAR. The Panel of Experts assisting the 2127 CAR Sanctions Committee met with the Committee to present its programme of work on 31 March. Council members held an informal interactive dialogue on 13 March with the Special Representative of the Chairperson of the AU Commission and Head of the AU Mission for Central Africa and the Central African Region, Mohamed El Hacen Lebatt.
On 15 February, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed the Council on the latest Secretary-General’s report on the situation in the CAR. The chair of the CAR configuration of the PBC, Ambassador Omar Hilale (Morocco) also spoke. In addition, Ukrainian Ambassador Volodymyr Yelchenko addressed the Council in his capacity as Chair of the CAR 2127 Sanctions Committee. The briefings were followed by consultations. On 17 February the Sanctions Committee met to discuss the Panel of Experts’ latest progress report.
On 27 January, the Council adopted resolution 2339, renewing the CAR sanctions regime until 31 January 2018 and the mandate of the Panel of Experts until 28 February 2018. Council members issued two press statements on 4 January and 6 January condemning attacks that resulted in the death of 1 Bangladeshi and 2 Moroccan peacekeepers in the CAR, respectively. On 25 January, the CAR Sanctions Committee held a meeting with representatives of the CAR, Cameroon, Chad, the DRC, Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa, Sudan and Uganda.
On 10 October, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed the Council on the MINUSCA report. The Chair of the Central African Republic configuration of the Peacebuilding Commission, Abderrazzak Laassel (Morocco), also briefed.
On 9 September, the Central African Republic (CAR) Sanctions Committee held a meeting with the representatives of the Central African Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, South Africa, Sudan and Uganda in connection with the midterm report of the Panel of Experts dated 11 August 2016.
On 5 August, the coordinator of the Panel of Experts of the 2127 Central African Republic Sanctions Committee briefed members on the Panel’s mid-term report. Also on 5 August, Zainab Bangura, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Sexual Violence, briefed members, emphasising the important role of the UN and humanitarian actors in ending impunity with regard to sexual violence in the Central African Republic. On 23 August, the Committee imposed targeted sanctions on Ali Kony and Salim Kony, deputies in the Lord’s Resistance Army).
On 8 July, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed the Council on the special report on the strategic review of MINUSCA. The chair of the CAR configuration of the PBC, Omar Hilale (Morocco), also briefed. Volodymyr Yelchenko (Ukraine), in his capacity as chair of the 2127 CAR Sanctions Committee updated the Council on the recent activities of the Committee. On 23 July, the 2127 Committee met with the Secretary-General’s Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict, Zainab Bangura. On 26 July, the Council adopted resolution 2301, renewing the mandate of MINUSCA until 15 November 2017.
On 15 April, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed the Council on the latest MINUSCA report. The chair of the Burundi configuration of the Peacebuilding Commission, Abdeslam Jaidi (Morocco) also briefed. On 26 April, the Council adopted resolution 2281 that extended MINUSCA’s mandate until 31 July and requested the Secretary-General to conduct a strategic review of its mandate by 22 June. Council members issued a press statement on 18 April condemning the killing of a MINUSCA peacekeeper. The 2127 CAR Sanctions Committee held a meeting on 29 April with representatives of the EU regarding the activities the European External Action Service and the planned EU training mission in the CAR.
On 17 March, Council members discussed the MINUSCA mandate renewal under “any other business”. On 7 March, at the request of France, the UK and the US, the 2127 Committee added the LRA and its leader, Joseph Kony, to the CAR sanctions list. The Committee held a meeting on 9 March with the Secretary-General’s Special Representative, Parfait Onanga-Anyanga, (via video teleconference from Bangui) and a representative of the UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS) to discuss the sanctions-monitoring mandate of MINUSCA and the role of UNMAS in the management of weapons and ammunition in the CAR. On 18 March, the 2127 Committee met with its Panel of Experts to discuss their tentative programme of work for the next year.
On 9 February, the Council adopted resolution 2264 to increase the number of corrections officers in MINUSCA from 40 to 108.
On 5 January, Council members were briefed under “any other business” on the situation in the CAR by Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous. On 27 January, the Council adopted resolution 2262 renewing the CAR sanctions regime. Ahead of the renewal, Council members considered the final report of the 2127 Sanctions Committee’s Panel of Experts (S/2015/936). At press time, it seemed likely that the Council would soon adopt another resolution on CAR to authorise an increase in the number of corrections officers in MINUSCA.
On 3 December, the 2127 CAR Sanctions Committee and the Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict held a joint meeting during which they were briefed by the Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict, Leila Zerrougui. Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous and the chair of the Committee, Raimonda Murmokaitė (Lithuania), briefed the Council on the report on 14 December, followed by consultations. The Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of MINUSCA, Parfait Onanga-Anyanga, also participated in the consultations. On 17 December, the Sanctions Committee added Haroun Gaye, one of the leaders of the FPRC acting in the PK5 neighbourhood, and Eugène Barret Ngaïkosset, an anti-Balaka leader, to the sanctions list at the request of France, the UK and the US (SC/12169).
On 11 November, Council members issued a press statement condemning recent attacks against Internally Displaced Persons and an attack that led to the death of a Cameroonian peacekeeper in the Central African Republic. On 16 November, Council members were briefed by Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous and Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator Stephen O’Brien in consultations. In an exchange of letters with the Secretary-General on 17 and 19 November (S/2015/894 and S/2015/895 respectively), the Council authorised the temporary deployment to MINUSCA of 300 Senegalese troops currently serving in Côte d’Ivoire for a period of eight weeks. On 20 November, the 2127 CAR Sanctions Committee met with its Panel of Experts to discuss their annual report.
On 7 October, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed Council members under “any other business” on the deteriorating security and political situation in the CAR. On the same day, Council members condemned an attack on a MINUSCA convoy which resulted in the death of one Burundian peacekeeper the day before. On 20 October, the Council adopted a presidential statement expressing its deep concern about the recent upsurge of violence and instability and reiterating the importance of holding the constitutional referendum and first rounds of presidential and legislative elections by the end of 2015.
On 10 September, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed Council members under “any other business” on his recent visit to the CAR. Later that day, the chair of the 2127 CAR Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Raimonda Murmokaité (Lithuania), briefed the Committee on her 24-29 August visit to the CAR. On 28 September, Council members issued a press statement reiterating their support for the Transitional Authorities and called for an immediate end to the recent upsurge in violence in Bangui.
On 3 August, Council members issued a press statement condemning an attack against a MINUSCA convoy in Bangui (SC/11995). On 9 August, Council members issued another press statement expressing sorrow at the death of five peacekeepers when one killed himself and four others (SC/12004). On 5 August, the Council was briefed on the latest MINUSCA report by the then Special Representative and head of MINUSCA, Babacar Gaye, and by the Deputy Permanent Representative of Morocco, Abderrazzak Laassel, in the stead of Ambassador Omar Hilale, the chair of the CAR configuration of the Peacebuilding Commission. The briefing was followed by consultations with Gaye. On 13 August, the Secretary-General briefed Council members on allegations of sexual exploitation and abuse committed by MINUSCA peacekeepers in the CAR. On 18 August, Council members issued a press statement, expressing their outrage at these allegations and welcoming the commitment of the Secretary-General to strictly enforce his zero-tolerance policy (SC/12010). They also took note of the Secretary-General’s decision to ask for the resignation of Gaye, and of the appointment of Parfait Onanga-Anyanga (Gabon) in his place as acting head of MINUSCA. The 2127 CAR Sanctions Committee met on 3 August with the regional countries to discuss the arms embargo (SC/11999). On 21 August it met with the regional countries again regarding the arms embargo and then with its Panel of Experts to discuss the Panel’s recent midterm report (SC/12024). The Committee added three individuals and one entity to its sanctions list on 20 August (SC/12018). Finally, the chair of the 2127 CAR Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Raimonda Murmokaité (Lithuania), began a five-day visit to the CAR on 24 August.
On 7 May, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed Council members under “any other business” on his latest visit to the CAR. On 15 May, Council members issued a press statement welcoming the holding of the Bangui forum on national reconciliation from 4 to 11 May 2015 (SC/11895). Council members commended the adoption of the Republican Pact for Peace, National Reconciliation and Reconstruction, including commitments for a swift presidential and legislative electoral process.
On 14 April, the Council was briefed by the Special Representative Babacar Gaye on the latest MINUSCA report. On 28 April, the Council adopted resolution 2217, renewing MINUSCA’s mandate at current authorised troop levels until 30 April 2016.
Council members visited the Central African Republic (CAR), Burundi and the AU headquarters in Addis Ababa from 10 to 13 March (S/2015/162). Angola and France co-led the visit to CAR and Addis Ababa. The CAR visit assessed progress and challenges facing MINUSCA and gave Council members an opportunity to meet with the transitional authorities on the political process, including preparations for elections. In addition to their activities in Bangui, Council members went to Bria in eastern CAR to visit local authorities, civil society and ex-Séléka members. On 12 March, the Council held its Ninth Annual Joint Consultative Session Meeting with the AU Peace and Security Council. Following an additional week of negotiations, a communiqué on the joint session was issued (S/2015/212). Angola, France and the US co-led the Burundi visit where Council members met with MENUB, the UN Country Team, government officials, other political actors and civil society. The focus of these discussions was whether President Pierre Nkurunziza would seek a third term, which the opposition contests would violate the constitution and could lead to violence. In the meeting with Nkurunziza, Council members stressed that he take actions that ensure the country’s unity. France and Angola briefed the Council on the visiting mission on 18 March (S/PV.7407).
On 26 February, Council members were briefed by Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous under “any other business” at the request of the Secretary-General for a troop increase for MINUSCA contained in his 29 January letter to the Council.
On 20 January, Council members met with Fatimata M’Baye and Philip Alston (two of the three commissioners) who briefed at an Informal Interactive Dialogue on the final report of the International Commission of Inquiry on the Central African Republic (S/2014/928). The Commission was established in resolution 2127 to investigate violations of international humanitarian law, international human rights law and abuses of human rights in the CAR. On 22 January, the Council adopted resolution 2196 renewing the CAR sanctions regime (arms embargo, assets freeze and travel ban) until 29 January 2016 and the mandate of the Panel of Experts assisting the 2127 CAR Sanctions Committee until 29 February 2016.
The Council was briefed on 9 December 2014, by Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous on the MINUSCA report (S/PV.7329). According to the report, since October 2014, there have been gross human rights violations and a resurgence of violence perpetrated by the anti-balaka, the Séléka and other groups. The chair of the 2127 Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Raimonda Murmokaitė of Lithuania, also briefed. On 10 December, the Council adopted a presidential statement on the activities of the UN Office for Central Africa and LRA-affected areas. The statement expressed concern about the ongoing crisis in CAR and its regional impact and about continued LRA attacks against communities in eastern CAR. The Council adopted a presidential statement on 18 December that urged the transitional authorities to accelerate preparations for the Bangui forum and elections, which are to be held by August 2015. It also urged the Secretariat and MINUSCA to accelerate deployment of civilian, police and military capabilities, intensify the implementation of its mandate and move forward on adopting urgent temporary measures to restore law and order.
In sanctions-related developments, the Panel of Experts presented its final report to the CAR Sanctions Committee on 7 November and put forward a list of individuals to be sanctioned by the Committee. The Committee could not agree on a recommendation to request neighbouring states to supply the Committee (on a confidential basis) with complete statistics on the import and export of natural resources, as two permanent members were against it. In this context, the Committee was able to agree on releasing a press statement on 14 November, drawing attention to a recommendation by the Panel of Experts urging exporters, importers, processors and consumers of gold in the CAR to mitigate the risk of further exacerbating the conflict by following due diligence guidance as implemented through the Regional Certification Mechanism of the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region.
On 10 October, Council members issued a press statement (SC/11596), condemning an attack against a MINUSCA convoy in Bangui, in which one peacekeeper was killed and several others injured. Council members expressed concern about the upsurge of violence and strongly condemned all attacks against civilians and acts of violence between communities. The statement supported the transitional authority’s call for all armed groups to implement the 23 July agreement to cease hostilities and violence. On 21 October, the Council adopted resolution 2181, extending the mandate of the EU operation in the CAR until 15 March 2015. The next day, Council members were briefed under “any other business” on recent events in CAR by Special Representative Babacar Gaye via video-teleconference.
On 15 September, Council members issued a press statement (SC/11562) welcoming the transition of authority from the African-led International Support Mission in the Central African Republic (MISCA) to the UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA). They stressed the importance for MINUSCA to accelerate the deployments of its civilian, police and military capabilities, including the necessary logistical support and command and control structure, in order to reach its full operational capacity as soon as possible.
The Council was briefed by the Special Representative and head of MINUSCA, Babacar Gaye (Senegal), and the chair of the Peacebuilding Commission’s CAR configuration, Omar Hilale (Morocco), on 19 August (S/PV.7246). Hilale informed Council members that the configuration could only form its long-term framework once peace is achieved, but it could support the political process, reconciliation and reforms. Gaye welcomed the ceasefire agreement and concentrated mostly on the political process and said that the new government must be an inclusive one. He told Council members that MINUSCA troop capacity will be at 65 percent by 15 September but apparently did not provide specific information on preparations for deployment.
Under-Secretary General for Peacekeeping Hervé Ladsous briefed Council members on 16 July on the preparations ahead of MINUSCA’s official deployment. He told them that MINUSCA would not reach its authorised strength by 15 September, despite contributions from states outside of MISCA. He added that except for one contingent, all of MISCA’s troops would be re-hatted into MINUSCA. Ladsous further informed Council members that MINUSCA’s civilian component was in the process of recruiting the remaining necessary individuals to fulfil its tasks. Finally, he said his office had completed the concept of operations for MINUSCA. In sanctions-related developments, the Council was briefed (S/PV.7215) on 11 July by Ambassador Raimonda Murmokaitė (Lithuania) on the interim report of the Panel of Experts (PoE) assisting the 2127 CAR Sanctions Committee and on the activities of the Committee (S/2014/452). Council members issued a press statement on 24 July welcoming the ceasefire as a first step in a wider political process that is meant to ensure durable peace, respect for human rights, protection of civilians and the rule of law (SC/11491).
The Council was briefed on 24 June via video-teleconference by the Secretary-General’s Special Representative and head of MINUSCA Babacar Gaye, who stated that civilians are regularly targeted while the government lacks its own security forces or necessary finances (S/PV.7206). He added that the current number of CAR refugees in neighbouring countries is at 360,000 and expressed scepticism about holding the planned elections in February 2015 due to the deteriorating situation. Also briefing was Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, Executive Director of UN-Women, who recently visited the country. She mentioned reports of rape, sexual slavery and early and forced marriages perpetrated by armed actors. Marguerite Marie Maliavo-Samba, CAR Minister for Public Health and Social Affairs, who addressed the Council, stated that the rule of law was “practically confined” to the capital and that there was no national army, the judiciary was “sick”, the national police needed rehabilitation and judges could not return to their posts. In the consultations that followed, Gaye expressed concern that MINUSCA may not be able to fill its allotted troop level by 15 September, that the transitional political process is stagnant and that the country remains de-facto divided between Christians and Muslims.
Following the killing of French journalist Camille Lepage in western CAR, Council members issued a press statement on 13 May (SC/11394), recalling their demand that all parties comply with applicable international humanitarian law, including as related to the protection of civilians in armed conflict. They also called on the transitional government to bring the perpetrators to justice. The 2127 CAR Sanctions Committee made its first sanctions designations on 9 May (SC/11389). Séléka leader Nourredine Adam, anti-balaka leader Levy Yakete, and former President Bozizé were listed for undermining the peace, stability or security in the CAR. Adam was also listed for suspected international human rights law and international humanitarian law violations.
On 8 April, High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay briefed Council members in consultations on several situations, including the CAR. On 10 April, the Council adopted resolution 2149 that established the UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) with an initial deployment of up to 10,000 military and 1,800 police personnel (S/PV.7153). MINUSCA is to take over from the AU troops currently deployed in the country by 15 September. Its tasks include protecting civilians; facilitating the delivery of humanitarian assistance; protecting human rights; supporting the rule of law; and ensuring the disarmament, demobilisation, reintegration and repatriation of former combatants.
The Council was briefed (S/PV.7128) on the situation in the CAR on 6 March. Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous summarised the Secretary-General’s recent report (S/2014/142) on the transformation of MISCA into a UN peacekeeping operation, as requested by resolution 2127. Also briefing on their recent visits were Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs Valerie Amos and UN High Commissioner for Refugees António Guterres. The briefing was followed by consultations. On 14 March, Council members held an “Arria-formula” meeting chaired by France and Nigeria that focused on communal and religious tensions and violence in the CAR. The speakers were the leaders of the main religious communities in the CAR: Dieudonné Nzapalainga, the Archbishop of Bangui; Imam Oumar Kobine Layama, President of the CAR Islamic Community; and Nicolas Guérékoyame Gbangou, President of the Alliance of Evangelicals of the CAR. In sanctions-related developments, the 2127 CAR Sanctions Committee met with its PoE on 5 March before the experts deployed to the CAR. The PoE presented its initial plan to provide information on the arms embargo, designations and visits to countries in the region.
The Secretary-General briefed the Council on UN-EU cooperation on 14 February. He stated that there is a crucial opportunity to fortify the collective efforts of the UN, AU and EU in the CAR (S/PV.7112). He added that he would return to the Council with recommendations for containing and then ending this crisis. The Council was briefed again on 20 February on the situation in the CAR by the Secretary-General and Smail Chergui, the AU Commissioner for Peace and Security (S/PV.7114). This was followed by an interactive dialogue session between Council members and Chergui and the head of MISCA, Major General Jean-Marie Mokoko. On 21 February, while briefing Council members in consultations, Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs Jeffrey Feltman reiterated the urgency of the situation. In sanctions-related developments, on 6 February, the 2127 CAR Sanctions Committee held an exchange of views on the implementation of the arms embargo with countries from the region. On 13 February, the Secretary-General, after consulting with the members of the Committee, appointed the Panel of Experts. The chair, Ambassador Raimonda Murmokaitė (Lithuania) briefed the Council on the work of the Committee on 21 February.
Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs Jeffrey Feltman briefed (S/PV.7092) the Council on the BINUCA report (S/2013/787) on 6 January. Feltman elaborated on the dire situation in the CAR and called for action without specifying what action should be taken. During consultations, he addressed allegations that Opération Sangaris and components of MISCA are favouring one religious group over the other and suggested that international forces on the ground take a more integrated and coordinated approach to address this issue. In comments to the press after consultations, Prince Zeid Ra’ad Zeid Al-Hussein (Jordan), the president of the Council in January, said that Council members still disagreed about the transformation of MISCA into a UN peacekeeping mission. At the initiative of Luxembourg, the Council was briefed on 22 January on the human rights and humanitarian situation in the CAR by Special Representative of for Children and Armed Conflict Leila Zerrougui, Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict Zainab Hawa Bangura, Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide Adama Dieng and Deputy Emergency Relief Coordinator at the OCHA Kyung-wha Kang. On 28 January, the Council adopted resolution 2134 renewing BINUCA’s mandate for a year. The resolution enhances the role of the mission in assisting the transitional process, reforms and human rights monitoring. It also authorises the deployment of the EU force for six months and expands the sanctions regime to include targeted sanctions (travel ban and assets freeze) on individuals that hinder the political process, violate international humanitarian law and human rights law or violate the arms embargo. The 2127 CAR Sanctions Committee held its first formal meeting on 16 January to discuss preliminary procedural issues after an informal meeting the day before. Committee members agreed on the Committee guidelines and the text of the letter to be sent to UN member states, inviting them to report to the Committee on the implementation of sanctions.
On 5 December, the Council adopted resolution 2127, authorising the deployment of an AU International Support Mission to the CAR (MISCA), with a mandate to protect civilians, support reform efforts and create conditions for humanitarian assistance. The resolution further authorised the French forces in the CAR to take all necessary measures to assist MISCA. The resolution also requested the Secretary-General to establish an international commission of inquiry, and it established an arms embargo, sanctions committee and panel of experts. France briefed the Council on its deployment in the CAR under “any other business” on 9 December.
France and Rwanda organised an Arria formula meeting on 1 November on the human rights and humanitarian situation in the CAR. Participants heard from the Secretary-General’s Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide; OCHA; the Assistant Secretary-General for Human Rights; and a legal expert from the CAR. During the meeting, several Council members took the view that a peacekeeping mission to the CAR may eventually need to be authorised to try to resolve the situation. On 14 November, the Secretariat informally briefed Council members on the options for MISCA laid out in the Secretary-General’s report. The Council heard a briefing on the report on 25 November from Deputy Secretary-General Jan Eliasson. The briefing was followed by consultations in which Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Edmond Mulet and Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs Tayé-Brook Zerihoun also participated. After consultations, France circulated a draft resolution authorising MISCA to protect civilians for adoption in early December.
Following a set of recommendations from the Secretary-General, on 10 October the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2121 updating the BINUCA mandate in five areas: implementation of the transition process; conflict prevention and humanitarian assistance; stabilisation of the security situation; human rights; and coordination of international actors. The resolution also encourages member states to support the African-led International Support Mission in the CAR and requests a report from the Secretary-General within 30 days outlining specific options in this regard.
On 14 August, the Council was briefed on the Secretary-General’s BINUCA report by Lieutenant General Babacar Gaye, who was recently appointed as Special Representative and head of BINUCA. Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs Valerie Amos and Assistant Secretary-General for Human Rights Ivan Šimonović also briefed. Following the briefing, the Council issued a press statement expressing grave concern about the security situation in the CAR, violations of international humanitarian law and widespread human rights violations, and it emphasised that those responsible must be held accountable. Separately, the Council received the AU’s concept of operations for the African-led International Support Mission in the CAR (AFISM-CAR) on 9 August. AFISM-CAR was authorized by the AU in July for an initial period of six months, to take over from the Economic Community of Central African States’ Mission for the Consolidation of Peace in the CAR.
The Secretary-General appointed Babacar Gaye as his new Special Representative and head of BINUCA.
On 15 May, the Council was briefed by the Secretary-General’s Special Representative and head of BINUCA, Margaret Vogt, on the latest BINUCA report. Prime Minister Nicolas Tiangaye of the Central African Republic also addressed the Council. The meeting was followed by consultations. In a 29 May presidential statement, the Council expressed concern at the recent pause in operations to counter the LRA in the CAR due to the 24 March Séléka seizure of power.
The head of BINUCA, Margaret Vogt briefed Council members in consultations via video-teleconference on 9 April. She reported that the political and security situations remained highly volatile and the humanitarian situation was dire and emphasised that the Libreville agreements were key to restoring order in the country. On 25 April, the Secretary-General’s Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict, Leila Zerrougui, issued a statement expressing alarm about the use of child soldiers by the Séléka. Council members were briefed in consultations again on 29 April by Under-Secretary General for Political Affairs Jeffrey Feltman after his recent visit to Cameroon and CAR, where he met with CAR Prime Minister NicolasTiangaye, representatives of political parties and civil society and Vogt. After consultations, Council members issued a press statement calling for the quick implementation of the ECCAS framework and expressing its concern of human rights violations in CAR.
On 20 March, Margaret Vogt (Nigeria), the Secretary-General’s Special Representative and head of BINUCA, briefed Council members in consultations after renewed fighting broke out when Seleka rebels claimed the government had not fulfilled its promises under the 11 January Libreville agreements. The same day, the Council condemned these attacks in a press statement. Urgent consultations were convened again on 22 March and Council members were briefed by Tayé-Brook Zerihoun, Assistant-Secretary-General for Political Affairs, after which the Council issued a press statement calling for the cessation of hostilities. Seleka rebels took over the capital Bangui on 24 March causing President François Bozizé to flee to Cameroon. On 25 March, the AU Peace and Security Council suspended the CAR from participation in AU activities and imposed sanctions on seven Seleka leaders. Council members were briefed by Zerihoun and Ambassador Michel Tommo Monthe (Cameroon) the same day in consultations and released a press statement condemning the Seleka advancements, noting the AU actions and calling for the implementation of the Libreville agreements. At the insistence of Rwanda, the statement added that the Council will consider further steps if required.
On 3 January, Council members were briefed in informal consultations by Jeffrey Feltman, Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs, on recent developments related to the uprising by the Seleka rebel alliance in CAR. The following day, Council members issued a press statement calling for a cessation of hostilities and for parties to engage in political dialogue. On 11 January, the Council was briefed by Margaret Vogt (Nigeria), the Secretary-General’s Special Representative and head of BINUCA via videoconference from Libreville, Gabon where she had been participating in peace talks. The Council also heard from Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict Zainab Hawa Bangura (Sierra Leone) during the same briefing on her recent visit to the country. The same day, Council members issued another press statement—the fourth over a period of four weeks—welcoming the signing of the Libreville agreements and calling for their implementation. On 24 January, the Security Council adopted resolution 2088 extending BINUCA for twelve months and requesting the Secretary-General to provide a report on the situation on the ground, as well as an assessment of the implementation of the mission’s priorities by 31 March, possibly allowing for an adjustment to the mandate.
On 19 and 27 December, the Security Council issued press statements (SC/10867 and SC/10874) condemning continuing attacks on several towns perpetrated by the Seleka rebel alliance, undermining the stability of the Central African Republic. During a Council briefing on 18 December, the head of UNOCA announced plans to organise a resource mobilisation forum early next year with the aim of raising funds for the most critical areas of the UN regional strategy to address the threat and impact of the LRA on several areas, including the CAR.
On 6 June the Secretary-General’s Special Representative and head of BINUCA briefed the Council on the Secretary-General’s latest report on the situation in the country. The Council adopted a presidential statement on 29 June, welcoming a UN regional strategy to address the threat and impact of the LRA on the Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, Uganda and the CAR.
On 21 December the Council extended the mandate of BINUCA until 31 January 2013 in resolution 2031. The Secretary-General’s Special Representative and head of BINUCA briefed the Council on 14 December, raising alarm at the lack of funding to complete the DDR process and to launch phase two of the SSR process, saying that the situation could put the country back on the “brink of disaster.”
The head of UNOCA presented the Secretary-General’s report on the LRA to the Council on 14 November. Subsequently, the Council issued a presidential statement strongly condemning the LRA whilst commending the efforts undertaken by the CAR military in addressing this issue. Moreover, the Council welcomed BINUCA’s added focus on LRA-related issues in CAR.
The Secretary-General’s Special Representative and head of UNOCA briefed the Council on 18 August. The Special Representative described rebel groups, such as the LRA and the militia led by Baba Ladde that moves between Chad and CAR, as primary cross-border threats.
On 21 July, the Council issued a press statement condemning the ongoing attacks by the LRA and commending the efforts being undertaken by the CAR military as well as other regional militaries. The Secretary-General’s Special Representative and head of the UN briefed the Council on 7 July, noting that CAR faced serious challenges despite the progress made since the establishment of BINUCA.
On 21 June the head of the UN Office to the AU (UNOAU), briefed the Council saying he had intensified strategic-level consultations with the AU on responding to the challenges to longstanding peace efforts in CAR and elsewhere. The Council’s Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict issued a statement to all parties to the conflict on 22 June. This statement was in connection with the consideration of the Secretary-General’s second report on Children and Armed Conflict in CAR. It noted with serious concern the recruitment and use of children by local militias and called on the government to reiterate its prohibition on the recruitment and use of children.
On 19 May, the Secretary-General announced the appointment of Margaret Vogt of Nigeria as his special representative and head of BINUCA, replacing the outgoing Sahle-Work Zewde.
On 31 December MINURCAT completed its withdrawal and the handover of its programmes to the governments of Chad and CAR and UN agencies. On 14 December, the Council extended the mandate of BINUCA for 12 months. On 8 December the Special Representative of the Secretary-General briefed the Council, as did the chair of the CAR configuration of the PBC.
On 20 October, the Head of MINURCAT told the Council that the security situation in northeastern CAR was volatile and worrisome.
On 28 June, the Secretary-General’s Special Representative told the Council that the peace process in CAR depended on the DDR process, reintegrating former combatants and successful elections. Subsequently, the Council adopted a press statement calling on all national stakeholders to “move forward expeditiously” to prepare and conduct free, fair, transparent and credible elections. The Council also expressed concern at the slow pace of the implementation of the DDR process and strongly condemned the attacks by the LRA.
The UN Integrated Peacebuilding Offics in CAR (BINUCA) opened on 1 January, replacing the UN Peacebuilding Support Office in CAR.
The Council adopted a presidential statement on 21 December welcoming the establishment of the UN Integrated Peacebuilding Office in CAR (BINUCA) on 1 January 2010. This followed a debate on the situation in CAR on 15 December.
17 November 2009
Ugandan special military forces were reported to have killed a senior commander of the rebel Lord’s Resistance Army, Okello Okutti, in CAR.
11 November 2009
The International Criminal Court set the date for the trial of former Congolese Vice-President Jean-Pierre Bemba, who faces charges relating to the actions of his former rebel Movement for the Liberation of Congo (Mouvement pour la Libération du Congo, or MLC) troops in CAR in 2002 and 2003, for 27 April 2010.
9 November 2009
Former CAR president Ange-Felix Patassé met with (current) President Francois Bozizé (who had deposed him in 2003) and reaffirmed his intention to run in the 2010 presidential election.
30 October 2009
Former CAR president Ange-Felix Patassé (1993-2003) returned from seven years of exile in Togo.
14 October 2009
The Secretary-General submitted a report to the Council updating it on operations of MINURCAT.
27 August 2009
The president of the Security Council forwarded a letter from the chairman of the Council’s Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict to the Secretary-General, asking the Secretary-General to designate a child protection adviser and consider strengthening the child protection capacity for BINUCA.
13 August 2009
CAR President François Bozizé, launched a DDR sensitisation programme across the country.
The LRA launched several attacks in Guli, Nguili Nguli and Maboussou. LRA raids in CAR displaced thousands of civilians.
23 June 2009
The head of MINURCAT, Victor da Silva Angelo, visited the CAR capital Bangui.
22 June 2009
The Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs, B. Lynn Pascoe, last briefed the Council on the situation in CAR and the activities of BONUCA.
6 and 21 June 2009
Attacks in the Vakaga region, drove out most inhabitants of the area, which was already hosting some 300 refugees from Darfur and 3,000 IDPs.
21 to 22 May 2009
The chair of the CAR country configuration, Ambassador Jan Grauls of Belgium, visited the country to interact with the government and other key national players on the newly adopted peacebuilding framework.
6 May 2009
The Central African Republic country configuration of the PBC formally adopted a Strategic Framework for CAR.
24 April 2009
Edmond Mulet, the UN Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations briefed the Council (S/PV.6111) on the Secretary-General’s first report on MINURCAT since the transfer of authority from EUFOR to the UN on 15 March (S/2009/199).
7 April 2009
The Council adopted a presidential statement (S/PRST/2009/5) welcoming the Secretary-General’s recommendation, in his letter dated 3 March (S/2009/128), to establish a UN Integrated Peacebuilding Office in the Central African Republic (BINUCA) to succeed the Peacebuilding Office.
17 March 2009
Edmund Mullet, the UN Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, briefed the Council in closed consultations on the transfer of authority on 15 March from the EU Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (EUFOR) to a UN military component for MINURCAT.
15 March 2009
The mandate for the EU mission in eastern Chad and northeastern CAR ended and there was a transfer of authority to MINURCAT.
11 March 2009
Special Representative of the Secretary-General Fall briefed the PBC on developments in CAR.
10 March 2009
The outgoing Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of BONUCA, François Lonsény Fall, briefed the Council on the situation in CAR.
3 March 2009
The Secretary-General wrote to the Council recommending that an integrated UN presence should be set up in CAR, against the backdrop of the outcome of the December inclusive political dialogue.
14 January 2009
The Council adopted resolution 1861 extending the mandate of MINURCAT until 15 March 2010. The resolution also authorised the deployment of a 5,200 strong military component of MINURCAT to follow up EUFOR in both Chad and the CAR after its mandate expires on 15 March 2009.
2 December 2008
The Council considered the report of the Secretary-General on the situation in CAR and the activities of the UN Peacebuilding Support Office (S/2008/733). The Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of the UN Peacebuilding Support Office in the CAR, Francois Lonseny Fall, and the Chair of the CAR configuration of the Peacebuilding Commission and Permanent Representative of Belgium, Jan Grauls, briefed the Council (S/PV.6027).
24 September 2008
The EU’s High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy, Javier Solana, presented its mid-term review of the EUFOR operation in Chad and the Central African Republic. The Council unanimously adopted resolution 1834 renewing the mandate of MINURCAT until 15 March 2009.
15 July 2008
The Council heard a Secretariat briefing in consultations on the Secretary-General’s latest progress report on the UN Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) (S/2008/444).
24 June 2008
A follow-up military experts’ meeting was held in Senegal, when it was decided that Sudanese and Chadian troops would monitor the border together with regional military observers.
21 June 2008
The CAR government and two major rebel groups signed a comprehensive peace agreement in Libreville, a move seen as essential for a planned national political reconciliation conference. However, the rebel Front démocratique pour le peuple centrafricain (FDPC) did not sign as reportedly its leadership in Libya feared arrest in connection with proceedings at the International Criminal Court.
16 June 2008
The Council adopted a presidential statement, calling upon states in the region to implement the Dakar Agreement and expressing readiness to act against those who “constitute a threat to stability in the region or violate international humanitarian law.”
23 June 2008
The Secretary-General submittted a report on BONUCA to the Council.
12 June 2008
The Peacebuilding Commission placed the CAR on its agenda, and Belgium was elected to chair the CAR country-specific configuration. Likely next steps in the short-term include agreement on the membership of the PBC’s CAR configuration and discussions with the government on peacebuilding priorities.
9 June 2008
The Dakar Agreement Contact Group held a ministerial-level meeting in Brazzaville to discuss plans to deploy a regional border monitoring force as provided for in the Agreement.
31 May – 10 June 2008
The Council undertook a mission to a number of African countries, including Chad, where it focused on the delivery of humanitarian assistance in eastern Chad and the north-eastern CAR and stressed its continued support for MINURCAT.
30 May 2008
In a letter from the Council’s President to the PBC Chairman, the Council referred the CAR for consideration by the PBC in response to a request from Bangui.
13 May 2008
The Council adopted a statement condemning the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) attack on Khartoum and warning that no retaliatory action should be taken against civilian populations, or that had an impact on stability in the region.
10 May 2008
Darfur rebel group Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) carried out an unprecedented attack near the Sudanese capital, Khartoum. The Sudanese government subsequently cut off diplomatic ties with Chad, saying it was complicit in the attack. This prompted Chad to close its border with Sudan.
9 May 2008
The CAR government and the north-western CAR rebel group Armée populaire pour la restauration de la démocratie (APRD) signed a ceasefire.
1 May 2008
The Council held consultations on Chad and the CAR. Discussions included a briefing by Assistant Secretary-General Edmond Mulet on progress with the deployment of the UN Mission in the CAR and Chad and the EU Force. In a press statement, members expressed concern with the situation in eastern Chad and north-eastern CAR, encouraged the governments of both countries to promote national dialogue and also encouraged implementation of the Sudan-Chad Dakar Agreement (SC/9295).
17 March 2008
EU Force (EUFOR) was officially declared operationally.
The security situation in the CAR further deteriorated after a group of Ugandan rebels belonging to the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) crossed the border from the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The rebel Armée populaire pour la restauration de la démocratie (APRD) was still active in the northwest, a region outside the area of operations of MINURCAT and EUFOR. There are reports that the APRD and the Chadian army have become embroiled in inter-communal tensions in the area, with a number of Chadian army incursions noted particularly in January through March. Displacement and abuse of civilians continues.
28 January 2008
The Secretary-General informed the Security Council of his intention to appoint Victor Da Silva Angelo of Portugal as his Special Representative for Chad and CAR and head of MINURCAT.
12 December 2007
The council expressed its concern over the situation in CAR and urged the government to engage in all-inclusive dialogue.
3 December 2007
The Council extended the mandate of BONUCA until 31 December 2007 (S/2007/703).
An initial MINURCAT civilian nucleus was deployed.
The northwestern rebel group Armée populaire pour la restauration de la démocratie (APRD) was apparently willing to negotiate a ceasefire in early October, but no progress seemed forthcoming especially after an attack on 26 November. (Two other groups signed agreements with the government earlier this year.)
26 October 2007
A CAR donors’ roundtable facilitated by the EU further underlined the country’s dire need for development aid. There appear to have been pledges of increased EU assistance, including for security sector reform.
25 September 2007
The Council unanimously passed resolution 1778, which established the UN Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT).
19 September 2007
Under Secretary-General Jean-Marie Guéhenno briefed the Council on major aspects of proposed deployments in the CAR and Chad.
18 September 2007
CAR confirmed its consent to proposed deployments by the EU and the UN.
late August 2007
Media reports suggested that the CAR was willing to follow up on plans to hold an all-inclusive national dialogue conference with UN support.
27 August 2007
The Council adopted a presidential statement expressing readiness to authorise deployments in Chad and the CAR.
10 August 2007
The Secretary-General unveiled new recommendations for peacekeeping in Chad and the CAR, including an EU military component.
23 July 2007
EU foreign ministers said that military staff had been asked to plan a possible operation “in support of the multidimensional UN presence in eastern Chad and northeastern Central African Republic with a view to improving security in those areas.”
13 July 2007
The Security Council heard a briefing by Under-Secretary-General Jean-Marie Guéhenno on prospects for peacekeeping in eastern Chad and Central African Republic.
3 July 2007
The Security Council held consultations on the CAR with a briefing by the Secretary-General’s Special Representative, Lamine Cissé. The Council issued a press statement encouraging CAR authorities to organise a dialogue with all political forces and civil society and expressed serious concern at reports of the use of disproportionate force by CAR government forces.
26 June 2007
The Secretariat mission concluded its trip to Chad and the Central African Republic.
The humanitarian crisis in Chad and the CAR continued to be acute, with a continuing flood of refugees and internally displaced persons. In the Central African Republic, there are 300,000 displaced. In the northwest, the situation continued to deteriorate with army raids and increasing rebel activity along the Cameroon border. In the north-eastern area adjacent to Sudan, the situation seemed to have improved after peace agreements earlier this year.
13 April 2007
The Central African Republic government and the rebel faction Union des forces démocratiques pour le rassemblement (UFDR) signed a peace deal including a ceasefire and amnesty for the UFDR faction. However, conflict continued with other factions.
4 April 2007
Under Secretary-General John Holmes briefed the Council on the humanitarian situation in the region. Holmes suggested that, given Chad’s reluctance, alternative options would be deploying a UN mission solely in the Central African Republic for the time being, or strengthening of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community’s (CEMAC) military operation deployed in the Central African Republic (FOMUC).
Hit-and-run rebel attacks continued. Central African Republic forces with French support managed to regain control over the northeastern town of Birao from the rebel group Union des forces démocratiques pour le rassemblement (UFDR).
The Secretary-General presented finalised options on a UN operation in Chad and the Central African Republic. In Libya, Chad and Sudan agreed to re-energise the Tripoli Agreement and the Central African republic government and the Union des forces démocratiques pour le rassemblement (UFDR) signed a peace deal. Chad opposed the deployment of the UN advance mission and of an operation with a robust military contingent.
The Council requested finalised options on a UN operation in Chad and the Central African Republic. Attacks against civilians, military conflict and humanitarian chaos continued unabated in Chad and the Central African Republic.
Cautioning against deployment without a political process, the Secretary-General unveiled preliminary options on a UN operation in Chad and the Central African Republic. The situation in Darfur, Chad and Central African Republic continued to deteriorate. In Chad and the Central African Republic, government forces with French military support succeeded in containing recent rebel advances. But the lethality and coordination of rebel attacks seem to have stepped up in tandem with mounting desertions from government forces in Chad. The Council issued a presidential statement expressing concern on 15 December.
Late November 2006
A UN assessment mission visited Chad and the Central African Republic. However, in the absence of security, it was unable to visit the affected areas to assess requirements on the ground.
Late Fall 2006
The Central African republic requested increased military assistance from France and the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC). CEMAC, Chad (a CEMAC member) and France responded positively.
Reports of rebel activity in the north continued. Concerns that the crisis in Darfur could spread into the Central African Republic, largely as a result of an increase in the regional flow of arms and the cooperation among CAR rebel groups, Chadian anti-government forces and pro-Khartoum Sudanese militias known as the Janjaweed. Those foreign militias regularly operate from northern Central African Republic into Chad and Darfur.
The Council adopted resolution 1706 mandating a multidimensional UN presence in Chad and the Central African Republic and requested recommendations.
An international donor’s conference drew no new financial commitments.
Skirmishes between the army and anti-government forces intensified. Rebels included former supporters of Boizize who claim he has not paid them promised bonuses. Bozize responded by sending elite presidential guard units into the northwest, which further provoked civilian fears as these soldiers are accused of burning villages. Throughout the region, armed bandits interfered with agriculture and commerce, often extorting money at roadside checkpoints.
The country held an election, in which Francois Bozize competed with ten other candidates and won. The election was observed by a mix of national and international observers and was declared by them to be free and fair.
The country experienced a coup by Francois Bozize.
With pro-Bozize forces controlling one-third of the country, the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC) decided to deploy a force to the central African Republic in November to replace Libyan troops. The 300-strong force is known as the Multinational Force of the CEMAC (FOMUC).
A request by the Organisation for African Unity that the Council consider deploying UN peacekeepers to Central African Republic was not heeded.
The Chad-Central African Republic border was the scene of several skirmishes
Following the failed coup, then-Army Chief of Staff General Bozize was sacked and subsequently refused to answer the questions of a special inquiry committee. The refusal sparked a political crisis that resulted in a government attempt to arrest Bozize in November, whereupon Bozize fled to Chad—which refused to extradite him—and began an insurgency.
Former-President Kolingba launched a coup. The putsch was defeated with the assistance of Libyan and Chadian troops and Congolese rebels. In intervening to defend Patassé, Chad hoped to prevent destabilisation from affecting its oil reserves, which lie near the CAR border. Patassé’s government was accused of atrocities against members of Kolingba’s Yokomba tribe in its response, while the capital was racked by looting.
MINURCA was followed by the UN Peacebuilding Support Office in the Central African Republic (BONUCA).
MINURCA was extended a final time until 15 February 2000. Patassé implored the Council to extend the mission through the end of 2000 to no avail.
19 September 1999
In presidential elections Ange-Félix Patassé was re-elected with 51.6 percent of the vote, and brought several members of the opposition into his cabinet. Nevertheless, political tensions remained high after the 1998 election produced near equal representation in the national assembly between government and opposition supporters. Hostility between the army, dominated by the southern Yakoma tribe of former-President General Andre Kolingba—who ran against Patassé—and the Presidential Guard, dominated by Patassé’s northern Sara group, threatened to reignite conflict. The UN had difficulty raising the necessary donor funds to restructure the forces, strengthen civilian police capacity and demobilise and reintegrate soldiers in accordance with the Bangui Agreements.
MINURCA supported legislative elections in November and December of 1998, and began preparations for a presidential vote in September of 1999.
When French support was due to be phased out by mid-April 1998, the Secretary-General recommended a subsequent UN peacekeeping operation—the UN Mission in the Central African Republic (MINURCA)—which the Council authorised in resolution 1159 of 27 March 1998.
6 August 1997
An 800-strong force under Gabonese command, with the logistical support of France – the Inter-African Mission to Monitor the Implementation of the Bangui Agreements (MISAB) – was deployed with the Council’s endorsement in resolution 1125.
27 January 1997
The Presidents of Gabon, Burkina Faso, Chad and Mali helped mediate a peace agreement between the rebels and then-Central African Republic President Ange-Félix Patassé, which resulted in the ‘Bangui Agreements’.
Provoked by a crisis over salary arrears alongside pervasive social and economic difficulties, there were three mutinies by members of the armed forces of the Central African Republic.
The Central African Republic became independent from France in 1960.