On 15 July, the Council held a high-level ministerial briefing on Libya, chaired by the French Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs, Jean-Yves Le Drian. The Special Envoy of the Secretary-General and head of UNSMIL, Ján Kubiš, in his briefing, flagged the slow process of the Libyan Political Dialogue Forum in reaching agreement on a legislative electoral framework and deplored the continued presence of foreign fighters and mercenaries in the country. Libyan Prime Minister Abdul Hamid Mohammed Dbeibah, Chadian Foreign Minister Mahamat Zene Cherif, German Foreign Minister Heiko Maas, and Secretary-General of the League of Arab States Aboul Gheit also participated.
On 30 July, Jelena Aparac, the chair of the UN working group on the use of mercenaries, an independent UN human rights experts commission, stated that the continued recruitment and presence of mercenaries in Libya was impeding “progress in the peace process” and an obstacle to upcoming elections. She appealed to the international community to take concrete steps.
On 3 June, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2578, renewing for 12 months the authorisation for member states to inspect vessels on the high seas off the coast of Libya, suspected of violating the arms embargo. On 18 June, the “A3 plus one” (Kenya, Niger, Tunisia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines) co-hosted an Arria-formula meeting addressing the impact of the departure of foreign fighters and mercenaries from Libya on the Sahel region. Interventions focused on how to ensure the withdrawal of foreign elements in a coordinated manner and in consultation with the regional countries. UN support across the region for disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration efforts was also discussed in the meeting.
On 23 June, Germany hosted the second Berlin Conference. With the new Government of Unity now in place, Libya participated—unlike during the first Berlin Conference on Libya. Participants called for the reunification of all state institutions, the full withdrawal of foreign fighters and mercenaries from the country and on the Libyan Political Dialogue Forum to take steps to facilitate the elections by 24 December. The conclusions were transmitted to the Council as document S/2021/595 and were later endorsed by the Council in a presidential statement (S/PRST/2021/12) adopted on 15 July.
On 17 May, the Security Council heard a briefing by ICC Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda, who welcomed the country’s new interim government and other measures undertaken to bring peace and stability to the country. However, she maintained that no peace is possible without accountability for serious crimes committed in Libya. On 21 May, Special Envoy to Libya and head of UNSMIL Ján Kubiš briefed the Security Council in an open videoconference (VTC), followed by closed VTC consultations. Kubiš’ briefing centred around the latest developments in implementing the political roadmap, preparations for the upcoming 24 December general elections, and steps towards the full implementation of the arms embargo, including the operationalisation of a ceasefire monitoring mechanism. Ambassador T.S. Tirumurti (India), who had taken over the chairpersonship of the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee in January 2021, presented for the first time since September 2020 the periodic report on activities of the committee. The report was presented following an 8-month long stalemate over a reference to the interception by the naval EU mission EUNAVFOR MED IRINI of a vessel suspected of illicitly importing jet fuel for combat purposes.
On 16 April, the Council unanimously adopted two resolutions. Resolution 2520 approved the proposals of the Secretary-General on the composition and operational aspects of the ceasefire monitoring mechanism. Resolution 2571 renewed the measures related to the illicit export from Libya of petroleum until 30 July 2022 and the mandate of the Panel of Experts assisting the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee until 15 August 2022.
On 12 March, the Security Council issued a presidential statement (S/PRST/2021/6) welcoming the vote of confidence by the House of Representatives that had endorsed the cabinet of the newly formed Government of National Unity. The Council called on the interim government to make the necessary preparations for the national presidential and parliamentary elections.
On 9 February, the Security Council issued a presidential statement (S/PRST/2021/4) welcoming the agreement reached by the Libyan Political Dialogue Forum on a new unified interim executive authority charged with leading the country to elections and calling on all parties to implement the 23 October 2020 ceasefire agreement.
On 28 January, Security Council members held an open videoconference (VTC) briefing, followed by closed VTC consultations, on UNSMIL. The Acting Special Representative and head of UNSMIL, Stephanie Williams, briefed, reiterating the Secretary-General’s call to respect the ceasefire agreement, including the departure of all foreign fighters and mercenaries from Libya, and the full and unconditional respect for the arms embargo. Due to lack of consensus on the periodic report of the Chair of the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee over a reference to the interception by the naval EU mission EUNAVFOR MED IRINI of a vessel suspected of illicitly importing jet fuel, the report was omitted during the briefing.
On 14 December, Security Council members convened for closed videoconference (VTC) consultations on Libya. Acting Special Representative and head of UNSMIL Stephanie Williams briefed on the Secretariat’s proposals for effective monitoring of the ceasefire agreement. On 29 December, the Secretary-General issued an interim report (S/2020/1309) as requested in resolutions 2510 and 2542, providing an assessment of the steps required to reach a lasting ceasefire agreement, the possible role of UNSMIL in providing scalable ceasefire support, and proposals for effective ceasefire monitoring under the UN’s auspices.
On 10 November, ICC Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda briefed the Council on the investigations into war crimes committed in Libya. In her briefing, Bensouda expressed concerns over, amongst other points, the failure of Libyan authorities to arrest and surrender several Libyans who have ICC warrants against them, including the former president’s son, Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi, and Mahmoud Mustafa Busayf Al-Werfalli, commander of an elite LNA brigade accused of killing more than 40 civilians.
On 19 November, the Security Council held an open videoconference (VTC), followed by a closed VTC, on UNSMIL. Acting Special Representative and head of UNSMIL Stephanie Williams reported that the ceasefire continued to hold, although no tangible progress was made regarding the withdrawal of foreign fighters and mercenaries. She also added that a day prior, on 9 November, the Libyan Political Dialogue Forum— consisting of 75 participants representing the main Libyan geographical, social and political constituencies entrusted with creating and implementing a political roadmap to chart the way for elections—convened for the first time. The periodic report of the Chair of the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee on activities of the committee was omitted due to a disagreement in the committee over a reference to the interception by the naval EU mission EUNAVFOR MED IRINI of a vessel suspected of illicitly importing jet fuel. Divisions in the committee ensued over the applicability of the arms embargo with regard to jet fuel as a petroleum product that could possibly be used for combat purposes. The required consensus within the committee to adopt the periodic reports of the chair could not be reached.
On 2 October, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2546, renewing for 12 months the authorisation for member states, acting nationally or through regional organisations, to inspect vessels on the high seas off the coast of Libya. On 23 October, the Libyan parties signed a ceasefire agreement in Geneva, calling, amongst other points, for the withdrawal of foreign fighters and mercenaries within ninety days of the agreement, the establishment of a ceasefire monitoring mechanism, and the implementation of several confidence building measures, including the opening of a key coastal road and the exchange of prisoners. The agreement was transmitted to the Council on 27 October as document S/2020/1043 and later endorsed by the Council through a presidential statement (S/PRST/2021/4).
On 2 September, the Security Council held an open videoconference (VTC), followed by a closed VTC, on UNSMIL and Libya sanctions. Acting Special Representative and head of UNSMIL Stephanie Williams briefed. Günter Sautter, Deputy Permanent Representative of Germany, briefed in his capacity as Chair of the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee on the activities of the committee between 20 May to 2 September 2020. The meeting focused on steps towards implementing the Berlin conclusions, the national oil blockade and ongoing breaches of the arms embargo. On 15 September, the Council adopted resolution 2542, renewing the mandate of UNSMIL for another year and requesting the Secretary-General to initiate a strategic review, with recommendations for improving UNSMIL’s efficiency and options for effective ceasefire monitoring in Libya.
On 8 July, the Council held a high-level open VTC on Libya (S/2020/686). Secretary-General António Guterres briefed. On 28 July, the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee held an “informal informal” meeting via closed VTC with Libya, regional member states, and regional organisations to discuss the implementation of UN sanctions.
On 22 June, the Human Rights Council established an independent fact-finding mission on Libya to investigate violations and abuses of human rights throughout the country since the beginning of 2016, with a view to prevent further deterioration of the human rights situation, and to ensure accountability. The fact-finding mission was created following the discovery of mass graves in the town of Tarhouna.
On 26 March, Council members convened an informal video teleconference meeting on UNSMIL. Acting Special Representative and head of UNSMIL Stephanie Williams briefed. Council members agreed on press elements afterwards, including expressions of concern “at the significant escalation of hostilities” and “the possible impact of the COVID-19 pandemic”. They further “called on the parties to de-escalate the fighting urgently, to immediately cease hostilities and to ensure unhindered access of humanitarian aid throughout the country”. Originally scheduled for 27 March as the bimonthly briefing and consultations on UNSMIL and Libya sanctions, the meeting was rescheduled and the format was changed in line with adjustments to the Council’s working methods due to the impact of COVID-19.
On 11 February, the Council, with 14 votes in favour and one abstention (Russia), adopted resolution 2509 renewing the mandate of the Panel of Experts assisting the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee until 15 May 2021, as well as the measures related to the illicit export from Libya of petroleum until 30 April 2021. It also adopted resolution 2510, endorsing the conclusions of the Berlin Conference, with 14 votes in favour and one abstention (Russia).
On 19 January, the German government, together with the UN, co-hosted a conference on Libya in Berlin. Its purpose was to enter into dialogue with international actors who have an influence on the parties to the conflict and to create the conditions conducive for an intra-Libyan political process under the auspices of the UN. Participants called for the termination of any support to warring parties, reiterated their support to the Libyan Political Agreement, and called for the full implementation of the arms embargo on Libya. Although present in Berlin at the time, Prime Minister Serraj and Khalifa Haftar did not take part in the conference proceedings. Germany transmitted the conclusions of the “Berlin Conference” to the Security Council as document S/2020/63.
On 6 November, ICC Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda delivered her semi-annual briefing to the Council on recent developments concerning cases in Libya. On 18 November, Council members met for a briefing, followed by consultations, on the work of UNSMIL and Libya sanctions. The briefers were Special Representative and head of UNSMIL Ghassan Salamé (via video teleconference) and the chair of the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee, Jürgen Schulz, the Deputy Permanent Representative of Germany. Rida Al Tubuly, director and co-founder of Together We Build It, briefed Council members as a representative of Libyan civil society.
On 3 July, the Council met in consultations after a 2 July airstrike on the Tajoura migrant detention centre in a Tripoli suburb that killed 53 people and injured over 130 people. On 5 July, Council members issued a press statement condemning the attack and stressing “the need for all parties to urgently de-escalate the situation and to commit to a ceasefire”. It further called upon all UN member states to fully respect the arms embargo. On 29 July, the Council held its bimonthly meeting on UNSMIL and Libya sanctions. Special Representative and head of UNSMIL Ghassan Salamé, briefed via video teleconference. The Deputy Permanent Representative of Germany, Ambassador Jürgen Schulz, briefed the Council on Libya sanctions in his capacity as chair of the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committees. The briefings were followed by consultations.
On 20 March, the Council was briefed by the Special Representative and head of UNSMIL, Ghassan Salamé, and the Deputy Permanent Representative of Germany, Ambassador Jürgen Schulz, who chairs the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee. Salamé announced that the National Conference on the future of Libya will be held in April. On 26 March Council members issued a press statement welcoming Salamé’s announcement that the National Conference will take place from 14-16 April 2019 in Ghadames, Libya.
On 18 January, the Council was briefed by the Special Representative and head of UNSMIL, Ghassan Salamé, on the situation in Libya. Jürgen Schulz, Deputy Permanent Representative of Germany, briefed in his capacity as chair of the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee on the activities of the committee.
On 2 November, ICC Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda delivered the semi-annual briefing on recent developments concerning cases in Libya (S/PV.8388). On 5 November, the Council adopted resolution 2441, extending the mandate of the Panel of Experts assisting the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee and renewing measures related to the illicit export of petroleum products from Libya, with 13 votes in favour and China and Russia abstaining (S/PV.8389). On 8 November, the Council was briefed by Ghassan Salamé, Special Representative and head of UNSMIL (S/PV.8394). In his remarks, Salamé focused on a new comprehensive security plan for Tripoli, the conditions in prisons around the country, the parallel existence of two “central banks”, the upcoming elections, and the situation in the south of Libya.
On 16 July, the Council was briefed by Special Representative and head of UNSMIL Ghassan Salamé via video teleconference and by the chair of the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Olof Skoog (Sweden), followed by consultations. On 19 July, Council members issued a press statement which addressed issues including the attacks led by Ibrahim Jadhran against the oil infrastructure in June 2018, the resumption of work by Libya’s National Oil Corporation, and the unification of Libya’s economic and financial institutions.
On 21 March, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of UNSMIL Ghassan Salamé, briefed the Council via video teleconference from Tripoli. He presented the 12 February report of the Secretary-General. Ambassador Carl Skau, Chargé d’affaires ad interim of Sweden, briefed the Council on behalf of the Chair of the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee.
On 17 January, the Council was briefed by Ghassan Salamé, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of the UNSMIL, and Hajer Sharief, co-founder of the civil society organisation Together We Build It. Irina Schoulgin Nyoni, Deputy Permanent Representative of Sweden, briefed the Council on the work of the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee.
On 8 November, ICC Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda briefed the Council, expressing concerns at the discovery in the town of Al-Abyar, near Benghazi, of the bodies of 36 people who appear to have been tortured and executed (S/PV.8091). On 16 November, the Council received briefings from the Special Representative and head of UNSMIL, Ghassan Salamé, and from the chair of the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Olof Skoog (Sweden) (S/PV.8104). Salamé updated the Council on the implementation of the UN Action Plan for the resumption of an inclusive Libya-owned political process. Before moving to consultations, all 15 Council members made public statements. Council members subsequently issued elements to the press and reiterated their full support to the action plan and for Salamé’s leadership in the process. On 17 November, the Council held a briefing to explore the challenges to peace and security in the Mediterranean region (S/PV.8106). The meeting focused on the root causes of the security problems in the Mediterranean and to consider initiatives to promote regional stability, with many references to the impact of the situation in Libya. On 28 November, the Council held a meeting on slavery and trafficking of sub-Saharan African migrants in Libya, requested by France. High Commissioner for Refugees Filippo Grandi and Director of the International Organization for Migration William Lacy Swing briefed the Council (S/PV.8114).
On 7 June, the Council received a briefing from Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of UNSMIL Martin Kobler. The Council was also briefed by the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee chair, Ambassador Olof Skoog (Sweden). On 12 June, the Council adopted resolution 2357 renewing for an additional year resolution 2292 of 14 June 2016, which was aimed at ensuring implementation of the arms embargo on Libya. In particular, the resolution renews the authorisation for member states, acting nationally or through regional organisations, to inspect, on the high seas off the coast of Libya, vessels bound to or from Libya when reasonable grounds exist to believe that they are violating the arms embargo. It further renews the authorisation for member states to seize and dispose arms and ammunition found during the inspection of these vessels. On 29 June, the Council adopted resolution renewing the mandate of the Panel of Experts assisting the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee and the measures regarding attempts to illicitly export oil from Libya.
On 8 May, ICC prosecutor Fatou Bensouda briefed Council members on the progress of her Office’s investigations on Libya. On 18 May, the Third Force, which supports the Presidency Council, attacked the Brak al-Shati air base held by the LNA, killing some 140 people. As a result of the attack, the head of the Presidency Council Serraj suspended its Defence Minister-designate Mahdi al-Barghathi and Third Force commander Jamal Traiki while an investigation is conducted. At the request of the UK, Council members met in consultations on 24 May and were briefed by Kobler in consultations on the risks of further military escalation, not only in the south but also in Tripoli. A press statement adopted after the meeting called on all parties in Libya to exercise restraint, reiterated that there can be no military solution and urged all parties to express their support for national reconciliation. The 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee met on 19 May to discuss the recommendations in the final report of the Panel of Experts.
On 8 February, Council members received a briefing from the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of UNSMIL, Martin Kobler, followed by consultations. The meeting focused on efforts under way to reach an inclusive and sustainable political settlement in Libya.
On 6 December, Special Representative Martin Kobler briefed the Council on the latest Libya report . The chair of the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Ramlan Ibrahim (Malaysia), briefed the Council as well. After the meeting, Council members issued a press statement expressing deep concern over the challenging political and security context in Libya and reaffirming their full support for the Libyan Political Agreement and calling on all parties to accelerate its implementation. On 13 December, the Council adopted resolution 2323 renewing UNSMIL’s mandate until 15 September 2017.
On 13 September, the head of UNSMIL, Special Representative Martin Kobler, briefed the Council. The Council was also briefed by the chair of the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Ramlan Ibrahim (Malaysia).
On 22 July, the Council adopted resolution 2298 providing for Libya’s category 2 chemical weapons to be transferred and destroyed outside of the country (S/PV.7743). Also on 22 July, head of UNSMIL, Martin Kobler, briefed Council members in consultations on developments in the political process and the challenges to the effectiveness of the Presidency Council. The Secretary-General’s report on the threat posed to Libya and neighbouring countries by foreign terrorist fighters recruited by or joining ISIL and Al-Qaida was also discussed. After the meeting, Council members issued a press statement welcoming the 16‑17 July meeting of the Libyan Political Dialogue and the Presidency Council on how to progress the implementation of the Libyan Political Agreement and sought to address the provision of basic services, resumption of oil production and implementation of the security arrangements.
On 16 May, the Secretary-General released a report recommending the extension of UNSMIL’s mandate for six months. On 26 May, the Council was briefed by ICC Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda on the progress of her Office’s investigations on Libya despite the lack of sufficient resources and the prevailing precarious security situation in the country.
On 2 March, the head of UNSMIL Martin Kobler briefed the Council on the Secretary-General’s latest report and recent political developments. The chair of the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Ramlan Ibrahim (Malaysia), briefed as well. On 3 March, the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee met to discuss the final report of its Panel of Experts. On 14 March, Council members issued a press statement calling for the Presidency Council to take steps to rapidly start working from the capital, Tripoli (SC/12280). On 15 March, the Council adoptedresolution 2273, renewing UNSMIL until 15 June. On 31 March, the Council adopted resolution 2278 renewing the sanctions regime for a year.
On 8 January, Council members issued a press statement condemning the terrorist attacks claimed by a group with an allegiance to ISIS. On 15 January, Special Representative and head of UNSMIL Martin Kobler, briefed Council members by video teleconference under “any other business” on challenges to the implementation of the peace agreement in Libya. On 20 January, Council members issued a press statement welcoming the announcement by the Presidency Council of the formation of the Government of National Accord and looking forward to the House of Representatives endorsing the Government of National Accord.
On 11 December, the Council was briefed by the head of UNSMIL Martin Kobler and Ambassador Ramlan Ibrahim (Malaysia) as chair of the 1970 Sanctions Committee. On 23 December, the Council adopted resolution 2259 welcoming the signing of the Libyan Political Agreement and the formation of the Presidency Council calling on it to work expeditiously within 30 days to form a government and to finalise interim security arrangements necessary for stabilising Libya. On 23 Decembers, the speakers of the House of Representatives and the General National Congress sent a letter to the Council President criticising the UN-led political process.
On 5 November, ICC Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda briefed the Council and said that large-scale crimes, including those under ICC jurisdiction, are being committed by all parties to the conflict (S/PV.7549). Later that day, the head of UNSMIL, Special Representative Bernardino León, briefed on political developments in Libya (S/PV.7550). He blamed the leaderships of the House of Representatives and the General National Congress for delaying a vote on the outcome of the dialogue process. On 7 November, Council members issued a press statement expressing concern about activities which could damage the integrity and unity of the Libyan state financial institutions and the National Oil Company and highlighted the importance of these institutions continuing to function for the benefit of all Libyans (SC/12108).
On 10 September, the Council adopted resolution 2238 renewing the mandate of the UNSMIL until 15 March 2016. On 16 September, the UK presented under “any other business” a draft resolution authorising member states to interdict vessels involved in human trafficking and migrant smuggling in the high seas off the coast of Libya. Given the failure to ensure the support of some Council members, at press time the draft resolution had not been put to a vote. On 21 September, the 1970 Sanctions Committee discussed the interim report which was presented by the coordinator of the Panel of Experts.
A round of the political dialogue took place on 11-12 August in Geneva but agreement on the annexes (including the formation of a government of national accord and the mandate of the newly-formed State Council) remains elusive, and the military actors have yet to express whether and, if so, how they will support the security arrangements laid out in the agreement. A 13 August Secretary-General’s report highlights how various local ceasefire initiatives led to a marked reduction of military tensions in western Libya and the greater Tripoli area. The situation in the east continues to be critical, including in Benghazi, where UNSMIL has repeatedly condemned the indiscriminate shelling of residential areas by all parties and the report pointed out that “the ongoing conflict [has] shifted into an urban war of attrition in which neither side has been able to make additional significant territorial gains”. In the south, despite several attempts to broker local ceasefires, intermittent clashes between Tabu and Tuareg militias have continued. In Sirte, under ISIS control since June, ISIS killed more than 70 people in mid-August in response to an attempted rebellion. A 13 August letter sent by the permanent representative of Libya, Ambassador Ibrahim Dabbashi, to the Council president drew the Council’s attention to the situation in Sirte while blaming the Council for not authorising exemptions to the arms embargo in order to fight ISIS. A 19 August press statement condemned the terrorist attacks in Sirte. León briefed the Council on 26 August and stated the need to expedite the dialogue process and reach an agreement signed by all parties before the end of the mandate of the House in October.
On 15 July, the Council received a briefing from Bernardino León, the Special Representative and head of UNSMIL, and from Ambassador Ramlan Ibrahim (Malaysia), the chair of the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee.on León focused on the 11 July initialing of the peace agreement by some parties to the conflict in the Moroccan city of Skhirat. On 16 July, Council members welcomed the initialing of the agreement and called on all parties to engage with the Libyan Political Dialogue and unite in support of the agreement (SC/11973). Earlier in the month, on 1 July, Council members had welcomed the meeting of the participants in the Libyan political dialogue in Morocco in late June (SC/11957).
On 17 June, Council members issued a press statement emphasising the urgency for the Libyan parties to agree on a Government of National Accord (SC/11931). Council members strongly encouraged all participants of the political dialogue to positively consider the proposals contained in the fourth draft and commit to the swift conclusion of an agreement.
Regarding the smuggling of migrants on the Mediterranean Sea, coming mostly through Libya, the Council was briefed about the EU response on 11 May by Federica Mogherini, the EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. The Council was also briefed by the permanent observer of the AU to the UN, Ambassador Téte António, and Peter Sutherland, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for international migration. In an informal interactive dialogue held afterwards, Mogherini discussed the need for a resolution that would authorise an EU operation to use all necessary measures to inspect, seize and dispose of vessels when there are grounds to believe that they are participating in the smuggling of migrants. Also on 11 May, Council members, at the request of Chile, held an informal interactive dialogue with ICC Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda on the situation in Libya. Briefing the Council on 12 May Bensouda referred to the 10 December 2014 ICC decision on the non-compliance of Libya with the Court regarding the case against Saif al-Islam Gaddafi. Bensouda encouraged the Council not only to press Libyan authorities to comply but also to consult with the Court to resolve any problems that may impede or prevent the execution of this decision.
On 14 April Council members condemned the 12 and 13 April terrorist attacks against the embassies of the Republic of Korea and Morocco in Tripoli, and on 20 April they condemned the apparent murder of more than 30 Ethiopian Christians in Libya by an ISIS affiliate. In a 21 April press statement, Council members expressed grave concern at the recent proliferation of the smuggling of migrants off the coast of Libya. On 29 April, Special Representative Bernardino León briefed Council members in consultations on the latest developments in the political process and expressed his intention to facilitate a meeting with leaders of armed groups.
On 4 March, Special Representative Bernardino León briefed the Council on the UNSMIL report (S/2015/144). The chair of the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Hussein Haniff (Malaysia), presented the report of the Panel of Experts. On 5 March, the Council adopted resolution 2208, a technical rollover of UNSMIL as well as on the measures on vessels transporting crude oil illicitly exported from Libya until 31 March (S/PV.7399). On 27 March, the Council adopted resolution 2213 renewing UNSMIL, the 1970 Libya Panel of Experts and the above mentioned measures, and resolution 2214 focused on counter-terrorism efforts (S/PV.7420).
On 13 February, the UN Secretariat transmitted to the Security Council a strategic assessment of the UN presence in Libya, with recommendations to focus on mediation, support to key institutions, provision of essential services, human rights reporting and advocacy as well as coordination of international engagement on Libya. Following the 15 February beheading of 21 Coptic Christians, including 20 Egyptians, in Sirte by a Libyan branch of ISIS, Special Representative Bernardino León briefed the Council on 18 February along with representatives from Libya, Egypt, Tunisia, Italy and Algeria. The attack had been condemned by Council members on 15 February in a press statement. On 20 February, Council members also condemned a bomb attack in al-Qubbah claimed by ISIS. The 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee met on the final report of the Panel of Experts on 20 February. The report highlights how arm transfers to Libya, exempted by the Committee or not, have contributed to the consolidation of militias on the ground and provides recommendations to make the sanctions regime more effective.
On 17 January, Council members issued a press statement welcoming the 14‑15 January round of talks in the Libyan dialogue hosted by UNSMIL in Geneva and strongly urged all relevant Libyan stakeholders to attend the next round of talks. Council members emphasised that the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee is prepared to sanction those who threaten Libya’s peace, stability or security or that obstruct or undermine the successful completion of its political transition (SC/11738). On 27 January, Council members condemned the terrorist attack against the Corinthia Hotel in Tripoli which resulted in several deaths and injuries (SC/11754).
On 17 December 2014, Olivier Nduhungirehe (Rwanda) briefed the Council on the steps taken by the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee to ensure compliance by member states with the sanctions regime (S/PV.7345), followed by consultations. At press time, Special Representative Bernardino Leon was expected to brief Council members in consultations on 23 December on challenges to his efforts to convene a political dialogue in Libya.
Bernardino León, the Special Representative and head of the UN Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) briefed the Council on 4 November and gave a bleak assessment of the situation in Libya. He echoed his previous statement from a 28 October press conference in Tripoli, where he said that Libya was “getting very close to the point of no return”. Briefing the Council on 11 November, ICC Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda highlighted how political instability and the worsening of the security situation “clearly cannot be conducive to closing the impunity gap in Libya” (S/PV.7306). On 13 November, the Council issued a press statement that condemned the terrorist bomb attacks against the embassies of Egypt and the UAE in Tripoli. On 14 November the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee met and discussed challenges faced by the Panel of Experts in conducting its investigations. The meeting was attended by Libya and other regional states.
On 2 October, the Council issued a press statement welcoming the UN-facilitated meeting between members of the House of Representatives in Ghadames.
On 15 September, the Council was briefed (S/PV.7264) by Bernardino León, the new Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of the UN Support Mission in Libya on the latest Secretary-General’s report (S/2014/653) and by Rwanda as the chair of the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee. The briefings were followed by consultations.
On 27 August, Tarek Mitri, the outgoing Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of the UN Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL), briefed the Council. Resolution 2174 adopted on 27 August imposed sanctions on individuals and entities obstructing or undermining the successful completion of the political transition and tightened the arms embargo.
On 17 July, Tarek Mitri, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of the UN Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL), briefed the Council (S/PV.7218). Mitri referred to “a mounting sense of a probable imminent and significant escalation in the conflict” in Libya. Libyan Foreign Minister Mohamed Abdulaziz also addressed the Council, calling for the establishment, under Chapter VII, of a UN stabilisation and institution-building mission for Libya. A press statement issued by the Council following the 17 July meeting condemned the violence in Libya and expressed concern over the “prolonged pattern of politically motivated and inter-militia violence” (SC/11479). In a 23 July press statement, the Council welcomed the announcement of the final results of the elections and urged “the expeditious seating of the Council of Representatives to begin the important work of building political consensus among the Libyan people, agreeing upon a government and urgently seeking to progress Libya’s democratic transition” (SC/11489).
On 9 June, Tarek Mitri, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of the UN Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL), briefed the Council for the first time since rogue General Khalifa Haftar began his operations (S/PV.7194). He said that Haftar had launched “Operation Libya Dignity”, a military offensive against groups Haftar had labelled as terrorists and blamed for the recent wave of violence and targeted assassinations in Benghazi and in eastern Libya. Avoiding any personal assessment, Mitri added that others viewed the offensive as an attempted coup. As requested by Mitri, Council members issued a press statement on 23 June welcoming the elections as an important step towards stable democratic governance. They called on all parties to ensure that the elections are peaceful and conveyed their intention to monitor the situation closely (SC/11447).
In a 13 May briefing to the Council, International Criminal Court (ICC) Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda insisted that Libya should immediately surrender Saif Al-Islam Qaddafi, son of deposed leader Muammar Qaddafi, to the Court (S/PV.7173). She also deplored the slow progress in former intelligence chief Abdullah Al-Senussi’s trial after the Court ruled in October 2013 that his case was being investigated by Libya, thus making it inadmissible before the ICC.
On 15 April, the Council issues a press statement condemning the abduction of the Jordanian ambassador to Libya (SC/11354).
On 10 March, the Council was briefed by Special Representative Tarek Mitri on the latest report of the Secretary-General and by Ambassador Eugène-Richard Gasana (Rwanda), chair of the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee, on the final report of the Panel of Experts. On 14 March, the Security Council adopted resolution 2144 extending the mandate of UNSMIL until 13 March 2015 and the mandate of the Panel assisting the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee until 13 April 2015. On 19 March the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2146 imposing measures on vessels designated by the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee to be transporting crude oil illicitly exported from Libya.
The final report of the PoE was circulated to Council members on 15 February (S/2014/106). The report identifies the proliferation of weapons to and from Libya as a major challenge for the stability of the country and the region given that “most weapons are still under the control of non-state armed actors and border control systems remain ineffective”.
On 9 December, the Council was briefed by Special Representative Tarek Mitri on UNSMIL and by the chair of the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Eugéne-Richard Gasana (Rwanda). Mitri defined the security situation in Libya as precarious and clarified issues related to the guard unit authorised by the Council to be deployed in Libya. On 16 December, the Council adopted a presidential statement expressing its grave concern over the worsening security situation and political divisions.
On 4 November, Council members were briefed in consultations under “any other business” on the implementation of resolution 2017 on the proliferation of weapons in Libya. Mitri briefed Council members on UNSMIL’s efforts to address this issue by improving ammunition management, arms control, mine action and disposal of chemical weapons and explosive ordnance. On 14 November, ICC Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda presented her sixth report on the situation in Libya pursuant to resolution 1970.
On 4 October, the Council issued a press statement condemning an armed mob attack against the Russian embassy in Tripoli that resulted in intrusions into the diplomatic premises and caused serious damage.
On 16 September, the Council was briefed by Special Representative Tarek Mitri and by the chair of the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Eugéne-Richard Gasana (Rwanda), followed by consultations. Mitri presented the latest UNSMIL report highlighting the internal and regional dynamics that continue to place a huge strain on the political processes in Libya, as well as the deteriorating security situation. Gasana briefed on the interim report of the Panel of Experts, including the establishment of the first end-user certificates for security assistance by the Libyan government. He also transmitted the Panel’s concern over arms proliferation within Libya and the increasing reports of arms trafficking to Syria by sea and air.
On 18 June, the Council received a briefing in consultations by Tarek Mitri, the Special Representative and head of UNSMIL, and by the chair of the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Eugène-Richard Gasana (Rwanda). In light of recent developments, Mitri touched upon the security situation in Libya, the impact of the recently approved political isolation law and the regional challenges the country is currently facing. Gasana informed the Council that Libya had decided to designate a focal point structure for military procurement as recommended in the latest report of the Panel of Experts assisting the Committee. On 20 June, the Council issued a press statement expressing its concern about the recent acts of violence in Benghazi, as well as the continued arbitrary detentions without access to due process of thousands of persons held in illegal detention centres.
On 7 May, the Council held an interactive dialogue with the Prosecutor of the ICC, Fatou Bensouda. The dialogue tackled the situation in Libya as well as more general issues regarding the cooperation between the ICC and the Council. The following day Bensouda briefed the Council. She asserted that “by conducting fair, just and transparent judicial proceedings for all alleged perpetrators, while also continuing to respect the ICC judicial process, Libya can set a lasting example for other states”. However, she also noted how, “given the extensive crimes committed in Libya and the challenges facing the new Libyan government, the ICC’s mandate is still essential to ending impunity in Libya”. On 31 May, the ICC rejected Libya’s challenge to the admissibility of the case against Saif al-Islam Qaddafi. On 13 May, the Security Council issued a press statement condemning in the strongest terms the deadly attack near Al-Jala’a Hospital in Benghazi that killed at least 12 people.
On 23 April, the Council adopted a press statement condemning the terrorist attack against the Embassy of France in Libya.
On 14 March, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2095, extending UNSMIL’s mandate by 12 months and the mandate of the Panel of Experts assisting the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee for 13 months (S/PV.6934). The resolution lifts the requirement that the Sanctions Committee approve the use of non-lethal military equipment and assistance for humanitarian or protective use. It also removes the need for notification to the Committee of non-lethal military equipment being supplied to the government for security or disarmament assistance. The resolution also urges the government to improve the monitoring of arms supplied to Libya including through the issuance of end-user certificates. The meeting included briefings by the Special Representative and head of UNSMIL, Tarek Mitri, Ambassador Eugène Richard Gasana (Rwanda), the chair of the Libya Sanctions Committee and Libyan Prime Minister Ali Zeidan.
On 7 February, the ICC ordered Libya to surrender former intelligence chief and ICC indictee Abdullah al-Senussi.
On 29 January, the Council was briefed on the situation in Libya by Tarek Mitri (Lebanon), Special Representative and head of UNSMIL, followed by informal consultations. On 17 January, Saïf Al-Islam Qaddafi—an ICC indictee—made his first appearance in a Libyan court since his capture more than a year ago.
On 7 December, the ICC requested information from Libya by 23 January 2013 regarding the status of investigations in the case of Saïf al-Islam Qaddafi—an ICC indictee, currently being held in Zintan.
On 8 November, the Council was briefed by Tarek Mitri via video from Tripoli, in his first briefing to the Council as the new Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Libya and head of UNSMIL. Mitri updated the Council on recent developments, including the October violence in Bani Walid. He also briefed on the formation of the new government, completed on 31 October after the election of Ali Zeidan as prime minister. During the 8 November meeting the Council was also briefed by Ambassador José Filipe Moraes Cabral (Portugal), chair of the Libya Sanctions Committee, who presented the Chairman’s seventh report of the Libya Sanctions Committee. On 7 November, Fatou Bensouda, Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, briefed the Council on matters pertaining to Libya and the ICC. Bensouda encouraged Libya to ensure that there is no amnesty for international crimes and no impunity. She also provided an update on the cases against Saif Al-Islam Qaddafi, son of the former leader, and Abdullah Al-Senussi, a former senior intelligence official, as well as her office’s ongoing investigations in Libya.
The 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee issued an implementation assistance notice on 15 October. On 22 October, Russia circulated a draft press statement on the escalation of violence around Bani Walid and the civilian casualties. Council members met the next day in consultations to receive a briefing on the situation from Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs Taye-Brook Zerihoun. No statement was adopted following the meeting. In other developments, on 9-10 October, Libya appeared at a hearing in The Hague on its challenge to the jurisdiction of the ICC over Qaddafi and al-Senussi.
On 12 September, Jeffrey Feltman, Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs, briefed the Council on the latest UNSMIL report. Feltman also drew the attention to the death of four Americans killed in Benghazi on 11 September, including the US Ambassador to Libya, John Christopher Stevens. Council members reaffirmed that “such acts are unjustifiable regardless of their motivations, whenever and by whomsoever committed”, in a press statement. Also on 12 September, Tarek Mitri (Lebanon) was appointed to succeed Ian Martin (UK) as the Secretary-General’s Special Representative and head of UNSMIL as of 18 October.
On 18 July, the Special Representative briefed the Council saying the elections were an “extraordinary accomplishment” marred by some violent incidents, mostly in the east. On 10 July the Council issued a press statement welcoming Libya’s 7 July elections . On 2 July the High Commissioner for Human Rights briefed Council members in consultations focusing on the issue of civilian casualties resulting from NATO’s air campaign in 2011, as well as on the detainees currently being held by different revolutionary brigades.
The Council issued a press statement on 15 June, expressing serious concern over the detention of ICC staff members and emphasising Libya’s legal obligation under resolution 1970 “to cooperate fully with and provide any necessary assistance to the ICC.”
On 16 May the Council received its third briefing on Libya from the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court who updated the Council on the Court’s recent activities regarding Libya, particularly regarding Saif al-Islam Qaddafi. On 10 May the Council received a briefing from the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of UNSMIL. Following the briefing, the Chair of the Libya Sanctions Committee provided a regular update on the Committee’s work.
On 12 March the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2040, modifying and extending UNSMIL’s mandate by 12 months, with a clause to review and adjust the mandate within six months. The mandate of the Panel of Experts was also adjusted and extended for another year. On 7 March the Special Representative of the Secretary-General presented the Secretary-General’s latest report to the Council . Meanwhile, the report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Libya stated that both pro and anti-Qaddafi forces had committed war crimes in Libya, and during its March session, the HRC adopted a resolution on assistance for Libya in the human rights field.
On 29 February the Special Representative of the Secretary-General briefed the Council via video-conference from Tripoli. During the same briefing, the chair of the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee presented the final report of the Panel of Experts . Earlier that month, members of the Higher National Electoral Commission, charged with making preparations to hold the elections, were sworn in.
On 25 January Special Representative Ian Martin and High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay briefed the Council. Three days later, the National Transitional Council adopted a new electoral law to form Libya’s first constituent assembly. Earlier that month, on 10 January, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Libyan Foreign Minister Ashur Bin Khayyal had signed a Status-of-Mission agreement between UNSMIL and Libya’s interim government in Tripoli. Meanwhile, Libya was referenced several times in a 12 January high-level Council debate on the relationship between the UN and the AU, and the report of the assessment mission on the impact of the Libyan crisis on the Sahel region was released on 18 January.
The Special Representative of the Secretary-Genera briefed the Council on 22 December via videoconference and highlighted the NTC’s ability to meet the immediate needs and high expectations of the Libyan people as one of two key challenges. The Deputy Permanent Representative briefed the Council on the de-listing of the Central Bank of Libya and the Libyan Foreign Bank on 16 December. That same day, the head of the Department of Political Affairs briefed the Council on the UN inter-agency assessment mission despatched in early December to assess the impact of the Libyan crisis on Mali, Niger, Chad and Mauritania. Earlier that month, on 2 December, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2022, extending the mandate of UNSMIL until 16 March and tasked the mission to assist the Libyan authorities in addressing the threats of proliferation of all arms and related material.
On 28 November the Special Representative of the Secretary-General, in a briefing to the Council, noted that security was an immediate challenge. On 11 November the Secretary-General briefed the Council on his visit to Tripoli while on 2 November the Council received its second briefing on Libya from the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court. During that month, the NTC announced a new cabinet for the provisional government, and Saif Al-Islam Qaddafi, Qaddafi’s son, was captured in southern Libya.
On 31 October the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2017 on the non-proliferation of arms, in particular Surface-to-Air Missiles stolen from the arsenal of the former regime. A few days before, the Council adopted resolution 2016 terminating the provisions of resolution 1973 allowing the use of force to protect civilians and ensuring the no-fly zone, effectively ending the authorisation for the NATO military operation in Libya on 31 October 2011. The Special Representative of the Secretary-General briefed the Council on 26 October. Qaddafi was captured on 20 October and killed later that day.
The Council was briefed by the Chair of the 1970 Libya Sanctions Committee on 26 September, on the changes to the sanctions regime under resolution 2009. The Council was also briefed by the USG for Political Affairs who gave an update on the humanitarian country team. Meanwhile, NATO’s mandate was extended by 90 days on 21 September and the the Council adopted resolution 2009 on 16 September which established the UNSMIL mandate for a three-month period and modified the regime of sanctions. Earlier that month the Council was briefed on 9 September by the Secretary-General’s Special Adviser for Post-Conflict Planning on the nature of support being sought by the NTC, and the Secretary-General proposed in a letter to the Council dated 7 September to establish an integrated support mission.
The Secretary-General briefed the Council on the situation in Libya on 30 August. The Council then met in consultations with the Secretary-General’s Special Adviser for Post-Conflict Planning. The Contact Group met at the level of political directors in Istanbul on 25 August and in Doha on 24 August.
The USG for Political Affairs briefed the Security Council on 28 July on recent developments in Libya, including mediation efforts. On 18 July OCHA briefed the Sanctions Committee on the humanitarian situation in Libya. On 11 July the Special Envoy briefed Council members in informal consultations and suggested an interim “institutional mechanism.” The Libya Contact Group met in Istanbul on 15 July.
30 June 2011
The Malabo Summit called AU member states to not cooperate with the execution of the arrest warrants issued by the ICC on 27 June, and requested the Security Council to defer the ICC process under article 16 of the Rome Statute.
France informed the Secretary-General of its additional measure taken in accordance with paragraph 4 of resolution 1973, airdrops of self-defence weapons.
27 June 2011
Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs, Mr. Lynn Pascoe briefed the Security Council (S/PV.6566). The ICC issued arrest warrants for Muammar Qaddafi, his son and his intelligence chief for alleged war crimes and crimes against humanity.
24 June 2011
The Sanctions Committee announced that it had added two more individuals subject to a travel ban and assets freeze and one entity subject to the assets freeze.
18 June 2011
The UN, AU, Arab League, EU and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference met in Cairo to underscore the UN’s leading role in cooperation with these organisations for a Libyan transition.
15 June 2011
The Council was briefed on its mediation efforts by the foreign minister of Mauritania in his capacity as chair of the AU High Level Ad-Hoc Committee on Libya.
13 June 2011
Germany recognised the TNC.
9 June 2011
Khatib informally briefed Council members, reporting that for the first time both sides signaled willingness to discuss political transition.
The Libya Contact Group met in Abu Dhabi.
The Commission of Inquiry presented its first report in which it concluded that crimes against humanity and war crimes had been committed by Tripoli.
30 May 2011
South African President Jacob Zuma visited Tripoli to discuss an exit strategy with Muammar Qaddafi.
25 May 2011
South African President Jacob Zuma announced a bilateral visit to Tripoli on 30 May to discuss an exit strategy with Muammar Qaddafi.
25 and 26 May 2011
The AU held an extraordinary summit on Libya attended by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and reemphasised the importance of the AU’s High Level Committee and the AU Roadmap.
24 May 2011
Media reports indicated there may have been systematic use of rape by Qaddafi forces during the siege of Misrata. A high-level delegation visited Benghazi and invited the Transitional National Council (TNC) to open an office in Washington, D.C.
23 May 2011
TNC head Mustafa Jalil met with the Turkish prime minister, president and foreign minister.
22 May 2011
The EU opened an office in Benghazi pledging long-term support to the TNC.
21 May 2011
The AU Peace and Security Council met in Addis Ababa with UN Security Council members. A subsequent communiqué expressed concern over the deteriorating humanitarian situation, stressed the need for an immediate and verifiable ceasefire and the need for a political solution to the conflict.
19 May 2011
US President Barack Obama in his Middle East speech characterised the TNC as credible and legitimate.
16 May 2011
ICC Prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo asked the Court’s pre-trial chamber to issue arrest warrants for Qaddafi, his son Saif al-Islam Qaddafi and intelligence chief Abdullah al-Sanousi.
15 May 2011
Special Envoy for Libya, Abdel-Elah Al-Khatib visited Tripoli where he met with several high-level officials, but not with Qaddafi as had been previously expected.
10 May 2011
3 May 2011
Khatib briefed the Council and said that both Benghazi and Tripoli wanted a ceasefire but there remained fundamental differences regarding any political process which the TNC has linked to Qaddafi’s departure.
5 May 2011
The Libya Contact Group met in Rome.
28 April 2011
Council members were briefed by Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs B. Lynn Pascoe on measures taken by member states under resolution 1973 in informal consultations.
27 – 29 April 2011
The Human Rights Council’s Commission of Inquiry visited Libya. It is expected to report back to the Human Rights Council in June.
26 April 2011
NATO announced it was targeting Colonel Muammar Qaddafi’s command and control structures in order to weaken the regime’s ability to attack civilians.
20 April 2011
Italy said it was sending military advisors to Benghazi.
Qaddafi’s foreign minister criticised the deployment of military advisors to Benghazi and called for a ceasefire followed by elections within six months.
OCHA head Valerie Amos announced the establishment of a UN humanitarian presence in Tripoli following her visit there with a high-level UN delegation that included the Special Envoy for Libya, Abdel-Elah Al-Khatib.
The High Commissioner for Human Rights, Navi Pillay, condemned the reported use of cluster bombs and heavy weaponry and the targeting of medical facilities by the Tripoli regime in Misrata.
19 April 2011
France and the UK announced they would send military advisors to Benghazi.
18 April 2011
Pascoe briefed the Council on two recent international meetings on the issue of Libya held in Doha and Cairo.
15 April 2011
American, British and French heads of state said that a Libyan future that included Qaddafi was unthinkable.
14 April 2011
The UN Secretary-General convened a meeting in Cairo of the UN, the Arab League, the AU, the EU and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference to coordinate the international response to the crisis in Libya. At a summit in Beijing, BRICS leaders said that resolution 1973 was being interpreted arbitrarily. (BRICS nations are Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa—all Security Council members as well.)
13 April 2011
The Libya Contact Group met in Doha concluding, inter alia, that as long as the Tripoli regime continued to attack civilians the robust implementation of resolution 1973 would continue.
5 April 2011
ICC Prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo said he would like to interview Moussa Koussa, the former Libyan foreign minister who defected to the UK on 30 March.
4 April 2011
UN Special Envoy Abdel-Elah Al-Khatib, briefed the Security Council on the situation in Libya.
1 April 2011
The EU authorised “EUFOR-Libya”—a military operation to support delivery of humanitarian assistance if requested by the UN.
29 March 2011
A conference in London agreed to form a contact group to support a Libyan transition to democracy and increase international pressure on Qaddafi to step down.
28 March 2011
Qatar recognised the Benghazi Interim National Council. Ambassador José Cabral of Portugal, the chair of the 1970 Sanctions Committee on Libya, briefed Council members.
27 March 2011
NATO agreed to take over from the US the command and control of all military operations over Libya to enforce resolution 1973.
25 March 2011
Consultations of the AU Ad-Hoc High Level Committee on Libya at AU headquarters in Addis Ababa.
24 March 2011
The Secretary-General briefed Council members on measures taken by member states under resolution 1973 on Libya.
21 March 2011
Council members met in informal consultations on Libya, no Libyan representative was invited to participate.
19 March 2011
France hosted a meeting in Paris on Libya. France, the UK and the US began to carry out strikes.
18 March 2011
The Libyan regime in Tripoli said it would comply with the ceasefire called for in resolution 1973. The next day the Secretary-General said a Libyan ceasefire could not be verified.
17 March 2011
The Council adopted resolution 1973, which authorised all necessary measures—excluding an occupation force—to protect civilians in Libya and enforce the arms embargo. It also imposed a no-fly zone, strengthened the sanctions regime and established a panel of experts to support the 1970 Sanctions Committee on Libya.
14 March 2011
In a statement the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights noted receipt of numerous reports of summary executions, rape, torture and disappearance.
12 March 2011
The Arab League issued a statement noting the Libyan authorities’ use of military aircraft, mortars and heavy weaponry against civilians and calling on the Security Council to impose a no-fly zone.
11 March 2011
The EU issued a declaration calling the use of force against civilians unacceptable and asserting that member states would explore all necessary options to protect civilians. Cherif Bassiouni (Egypt), Asma Khader (Jordanian/Palestinian), and Philippe Kirsch (Canada) were appointed to the commission of inquiry established on 25 February by the Human Rights Council.
10 March 2011
The AU Peace and Security Council met at the heads of state level and condemned the indiscriminate use of force by Libya but rejected foreign military intervention.
8 March 2011
Council members discussed possible further measures against Libya, including the option of a no-fly zone, in informal consultations following a briefing by B. Lynn Pascoe. No action was taken. The Organisation of the Islamic Conference released a statement supporting a no-fly zone over Libya but excluded foreign military operations on the ground.
7 March 2011
The Gulf Cooperation Council issued a statement supporting a no-fly zone.
5 March 2011
The Interim Transitional National Council issued a statement declaring itself Libya’s sole representative. The letter called for the international community to fulfil its obligation to protect the Libyan people “without any direct military intervention on Libyan soil.”
3 March 2011
ICC Prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo said that he was investigating alleged crimes against humanity committed by Libya, including by Colonel Muammar Qaddafi and his inner circle.
1 March 2011
The UN General Assembly suspended Libya from the Human Rights Council with a unanimous vote.
27 February 2011
The political leadership of the anti-Qaddafi movement organised itself as the Interim Transitional National Council in Benghazi.
26 February 2011
The Council unanimously adopted resolution 1970 demanding an immediate end to the violence in Libya and referring the situation in Libya to the ICC. The resolution also implemented an arms embargo, a travel ban, and an asset freeze. A sanctions committee was also established.
25 February 2011
The Human Rights Council passed a resolution on Libya which condemned the recent systematic human rights violations. The resolution called for a commission of inquiry to investigate.
24 February 2011
During informal consultations, Council members discussed taking action under Chapter VII of the UN Charter to impose deterrent measures against the Libyan regime.
23 February 2011
The AU issued a statement condemning the use of force against civilians and decided to send a mission to Libya to assess the situation.
22 February 2011
Under-Secretary-General B. Lynn Pascoe briefed the Council in closed consultations on the situation in Libya. A subsequent press release condemned the use of force against civilians The Arab League condemned the use of force against civilians and suspended Libya’s participation in the League until Libya meets its demands to immediately stop all violence.
21 February 2011
Ibrahim Dabbashi, the deputy permanent representative at the Libyan mission to the UN, publically broke from Qaddafi’s regime, reporting the regime’s use of mercenaries to quell demonstrations.
16 – 21 February 2011
Protests continued throughout the country. Estimates put the number of demonstrators in the tens of thousands.
15 February 2011
Demonstrations begin in Benghazi.
15 May 2006
The United States restored diplomatic ties with Libya and removed Libya from its list of state-sponsors of terrorism.
19 December 2003
Libya announced its intention to end its nuclear weapons programs.
12 September 2003
The Security Council lifted sanctions imposed on Libya.
15 August 2003
In a letter to the Security Council, Libya accepted responsibility for the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103.
31 March 1992
The Security Council imposed sanctions on Libya following the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103.
Muammar al-Qaddafi takes power in Libya following a military coup.