On 14 August, the Council concluded the written voting procedure on the US draft resolution (S/2020/797) that would extend the existing arms-related restrictions set to expire in October under resolution 2231 “until the Security Council decides otherwise” (S/2020/805). The draft failed to obtain the required number of votes to be adopted. The US and Dominican Republic voted in favour of the draft, China and Russia voted against it, and the remaining Council members abstained. On 20 August, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo hand–delivered identical letters (S/2020/815) to both UN Secretary-General António Guterres and the president of the Security Council, Ambassador Dian Triansyah Djani (Indonesia), notifying the Council that Iran is non-compliant with the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA). For this reason, the US claimed to have triggered the snapback provision under resolution 2231, which could lead to reinstatement of sanctions measures that were in place before the adoption of resolution 2231. Thirteen Council members (excluding the US and Dominican Republic) sent letters to the president of the Security Council opposing the US move and maintaining that the US does not have the right to invoke the snapback provision under resolution 2231 due to its withdrawal from the JCPOA. During the 25 August meeting (S/2020/837) on “the Situation in the Middle East including the Palestinian Question”, Russia raised the question to the Council’s president (Indonesia) on how the presidency will proceed with the US decision to trigger a snapback provision under resolution 2231. Ambassador Djani (Indonesia) responded that given the lack of consensus among Council members the presidency could not take further action on this issue.
On 30 June, the Council held its semi-annual briefing in an open VTC, on the implementation of resolution 2231, which endorsed the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) on Iran’s nuclear programme. Under-Secretary-General for Political and Peacebuilding Affairs Rosemary DiCarlo presented the latest Secretary-General’s report on the implementation of resolution 2231. The Council’s facilitator for the implementation of resolution 2231, Ambassador Marc Pecsteen de Buytswerve (Belgium), briefed on the work of the Council related to resolution 2231, and the Head of the EU delegation, Olof Skoog, briefed on the work of the JCPOA’s Joint Commission. Secretary-General António Guterres, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, and Iranian Foreign Minister Javad Zarif also participated in the meeting.
On 19 December, the Council held its semi-annual briefing on the implementation of resolution 2231, which endorsed the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action on Iran’s nuclear programme. Under-Secretary-General for Political and Peacebuilding Affairs Rosemary DiCarlo briefed on the latest Secretary-General’s report and recent developments. Olof Skoog, Head of the Delegation of the EU to the UN, briefed on the activities related to the work of the Joint Commission, which the EU chairs. He also presented key findings from the report of the Joint Commission to the Council. Ambassador Marc Pecsteen de Buytswerve (Belgium) briefed in his capacity as the Council’s 2231 facilitator.
On 13 June, the Council held a meeting under “any other business” to discuss attacks on commercial ships in the Gulf of Oman. The US, which initiated the meeting, briefed Council members on some of the findings that the US alleges point to Iran’s responsibility for the attacks. On 24 June, at the request of the US, Council members held consultations to discuss the most recent attacks on commercial ships in the Gulf and the downing of an unmanned aerial vehicle, which the US alleges was shot in international airspace. Iran has denied the allegation, claiming that the incident took place in Iranian airspace. Under-Secretary-General for Political and Peacebuilding Affairs Rosemary DiCarlo briefed. On 26 June, the Council held its semi-annual briefing on the implementation of resolution 2231, which endorsed the JCPOA on Iran’s nuclear programme. Under-Secretary-General for Political and Peacebuilding Affairs Rosemary DiCarlo presented the latest Secretary-General’s report on the implementation of resolution 2231. The Council’s facilitator for the implementation of resolution 2231, Ambassador Marc Pecsteen de Buytswerve (Belgium), briefed on the work of the Council related to resolution 2231, and the Head of the EU delegation, João Pedro Vale de Almeida, briefed on the work of the JCPOA’s Joint Commission. After the meeting, the current five EU members of the Council and one incoming (Estonia) made a joint statement at the media stakeout emphasising the importance of preserving the JCPOA, while expressing regret over the US withdrawal from the agreement. They stressed that the EU’s support for the agreement depends on full implementation of the JCPOA by Iran.
On 12 December, the Council received its semiannual briefing on the implementation of resolution 2231. Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs Rosemary DiCarlo presented the latest Secretary-General’s report on the implementation of resolution 2231. The Council’s facilitator for the implementation of resolution 2231, Ambassador Karel van Oosterom (the Netherlands), reported on the work of the Council related to Iran and the Head of the EU delegation, João Pedro Vale de Almeida, briefed on the work of the JCPOA’s Joint Commission. US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, who participated at the meeting, stressed that Iran violated resolution 2231 after it tested medium-range ballistic missile in early December. Most Council members reiterated their support for the JCPOA, while the Western members of the Council expressed concern over Iran’s missile ballistic activities. In what was its first address to the Council in semiannual briefings, Iran condemned the US for withdrawing from the JCPOA and reiterated that Iran’s missile ballistic activities are exclusively related to defensive and non-nuclear purposes.
On 24 September, Council members issued a press statement condemning the terrorist attack that took place in southwest Iran on 22 September during a military parade, which resulted in the death of 24 people, including children, and the injury of 60 others.
On 27 June, the Council held a semi-annual briefing on the implementation of resolution 2231 which endorsed the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) on Iran’s nuclear programme. Briefers included Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs Rosemary DiCarlo; Council’s 2231 facilitator, Ambassador Karel van Oosterom (the Netherlands); and the head of the EU delegation, Ambassador Joâo Pedro Vale de Almeida. DiCarlo presented the latest Secretary-General’s report on implementation of resolution 2231. The report indicated that Iran has continued to comply with the JCPOA, but also that the US’s withdrawal from the agreement represents a setback. With an exception of the US, other signatories to the agreement have reiterated that they would continue to comply with it. Almeida in his briefing noted that preserving the JCPA is a key priority for the EU and the international community as a whole. He also briefed on the recent report of the Procurement Working Group. Van Oosterom briefed on the fifth six-month report of the Facilitator on the implementation of Security Council resolution 2231. At the meeting, the US restated its claims that Iran has violated the spirit of the agreement because of its involvement in the conflicts in the Middle East.
On 5 January, the Security Council held a public meeting, requested by the US, on the recent protests in Iran. Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs Tayé-Brook Zerihoun briefed and Council members gave statements. A number of members expressed the view that the situation did not meet the criterion for Council consideration as a threat to international peace and security. While referring to the recent demonstrations, several members stressed the importance of upholding the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action on the Iran nuclear deal. Iran’s Permanent Representative Gholamali Khoshroo also addressed the Council.
On 19 December, the Council held a briefing on the implementation of resolution 2231, adopted on 20 July 2015, which endorsed the JCPOA on Iran’s nuclear programme. Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs Jeffrey Feltman briefed on the Secretary-General’s 8 December 2017 report on the implementation of the resolution. In addition, Ambassador Sebastiano Cardi (Italy), the Council’s 2231 facilitator, reported on the work of the Council related to Iran; and Joanne Adamson of the EU briefed on the work of the JCPOA’s Joint Commission. (The EU is the coordinator of the Commission, which is made up of the eight parties to the JCPOA and is responsible for overseeing the agreement’s implementation.)
On 2 June, the Council received the quarterly report from the IAEA on Iran’s implementation of resolution 2231, which endorsed the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) on Iran’s nuclear programme. The report found that Iran had continued to comply with its nuclear-related commitments under the agreement. On 29 June, the Council held its semi-annual meeting on resolution 2231 (S/PV.7990). Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs Jeffrey Feltman presented the Secretary-General’s latest report on implementation of the resolution (S/2017/515). Ambassador Sebastiano Cardi (Italy) briefed the Council in his capacity as the facilitator of resolution 2231 implementation arrangement, while the head of the EU delegation in New York, Ambassador Joâo Pedro Vale de Almeida, spoke on behalf of the Joint Commission, the mechanism established by the parties to the JCPOA to oversee its implementation coordinated by the EU. The Council also received written reports from the Joint Commission (S/2017/495) and the facilitator (S/2017/537) ahead of the meeting, and held an expert level meeting on 23 June in the so-called 2231 format to discuss the Secretary-General’s report. In a separate development, Council members issued a press statement on 7 June, condemning the terrorist attack perpetrated by ISIL in Tehran that same day in which more than 50 people were killed or injured.
On 25 April, Ambassador Sebastiano Cardi (Italy), in his capacity as facilitator for the implementation of resolution 2231 regarding Iran, briefed Council members under “any other business” during consultations. Cardi reported on the outcome of a so-called 2231 format meeting among Council experts held in March on the 29 January ballistic missile test conducted by Iran. The meeting in March was a follow-up to the discussion held during consultations on 31 January at the request of the US, when Council members were briefed by Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs Miroslav Jenča on the missile launch. It appears that Council members remain divided on the question of whether such missile launches are inconsistent with resolution 2231.
On 18 January, the Council met to discuss implementation of resolution 2231, which endorsed the JCPOA on Iran’s nuclear programme. Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs Jeffrey Feltman briefed on the Secretary-General’s 30 December 2016 report on implementation which covered the six-month period since the Council’s last meeting on Iran on 18 July 2016. In addition, there were briefings by the head of the EU delegation, Ambassador Joâo Pedro Vale de Almeida, on behalf of the EU’s High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Federica Mogherini in her capacity as coordinator of the JCPOA’s Joint Commission, and Ambassador Sebastiano Cardi (Italy), who took over the role as 2231 facilitator from Ambassador Román Oyarzun (Spain) on 1 January. The Council received a written report from the Joint Commission on 27 December 2016 (S/2016/1113), and from the facilitator on 17 January (S/2017/49). In an 18 January letter, Iran asserted that the Secretary-General had misinterpreted his reporting mandate and should cover not only implementation of annex B of resolution 2231 but also annex A (S/2017/51). Iran also contended that the report contained unsubstantiated information and false allegations. On 31 January, under “any other business” during consultations and at the request of the US, Council members discussed the ballistic missile test conducted by Iran on 29 January, with a briefing by Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs, Miroslav Jenča.
On 18 July, the Council held a briefing on the implementation of resolution 2231, which endorsed the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) on Iran’s nuclear programme. Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs Jeffrey Feltman briefed on the Secretary-General’s report on the implementation of resolution 2231. Ambassador Joâo Pedro Vale de Almeida (EU) addressed the Council on behalf of the EU in its role as the coordinator of the Joint Commission, which is responsible for overseeing the agreement’s implementation. Ambassador Román Oyarzun (Spain) briefed in his capacity as the facilitator for Council-related tasks in the resolution.
On 14 March, Council members met in consultations to discuss Iran’s ballistic missile launches on 8 and 9 March. It was the first formal discussion among Council members concerning Iran since the provisions under resolution 2231 went into effect on 16 January, terminating the Iran sanctions regime.
On 16 January, the IAEA submitted a report to the Council confirming that Iran had taken the steps required under the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action for nuclear related sanctions to be lifted, thus marking the arrival of the plan’s implementation day (S/2016/57). In accordance with resolution 2231, previous Council resolutions on Iran were automatically terminated and the 1737 Iran Sanctions Committee disbanded. A note by the president of the Council issued that same day outlined the practical arrangements and procedures for how the Council would carry out the tasks related to the implementation of the new provisions that came into effect on implementation day (S/2016/44). On 17 January, Council members issued a press statement announcing the removal of Bank Sepah and Bank Sepah International from the UN sanctions list related to Iran, now referred to as the 2231 List. On 26 January, the Council received a letter from Federica Mogherini, in her capacity as coordinator of the JCPOA’s joint commission, relating to the procurement channel established in accordance with the agreement.
On 15 December, the chair of the 1737 Iran Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Román Oyarzun (Spain), briefed the Council. While noting that the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action on Iran’s nuclear programme came into effect on 18 October, he stressed that all current Council resolutions on Iran would remain in force until implementation day. Oyarzun said the 1737 Committee had received a report on 11 December from its Panel of Experts on the 10 October missile launch by Iran, which concluded that the launch was a violation of resolution 1929. The Panel said in a 9 December report on Iran’s attempted procurement of titanium alloy bars, that it had not reached a definitive conclusion on whether the incident constituted a willful violation. Oyarzun also mentioned that the Committee had recently submitted its annual report to the Council along with the Panel of Experts’ 6 November mid-term report, which had been considered by the Committee at a 24 November meeting.
The Council received the IAEA’s latest quarterly report on implementation of the NPT safeguards agreement and relevant provisions of Council resolutions in Iran which confirmed that Iran had started removing and storing enrichment centrifuges and taken other steps required under the 14 July JCPOA. On 24 November, the 1737 Iran Sanctions Committee discussed Iran’s 11 October missile launch and the mid-term report from its Panel of Experts. The report, which was circulated to Council members on 6 November, focused on the implications of the JCPOA and the Council’s role in monitoring its implementation.
On 21 October, at the request of the US, Council members discussed Iran’s 11 October launch of a new long-range ballistic missile under “any other business”. The US and other like-minded members said the launch was a clear violation of resolution 1929 that should be looked into by the 1737 Iran Sanctions Committee and its Panel of Experts. Other Council members emphasised the importance of not undermining the 14 July Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action between Iran and the P5+1 (China, France, Germany, Russia, the UK and the US). That same day the US along with France, Germany and the UK sent a letter to the Committee about the missile launch, explaining why it was a violation of resolution 1929 and asking the Committee to take action.
The 1737 Iran Sanctions Committee met on 1 September to consider implementation of resolution 2231 on the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) agreed by Iran, the P5 and Germany on 14 July. On 14 September the Council received two reports from the IAEA: the regular quarterly report on implementation of the NPT safeguards agreement and relevant provisions of Council resolutions in Iran and a special report on the implications for the IAEA of resolution 2231. On 15 September, the Sanctions Committee chair, Ambassador Román Oyarzun (Spain), briefed the Council on the work of the Committee (S/PV.7522). He emphasised that sanctions would remain fully in effect until the Council received the report from the IAEA confirming that Iran had taken all the actions required under the JCPOA and that the Committee was fully committed to the implementation of all relevant resolutions.
On 20 July, the Council adopted resolution 2231, endorsing the recently concluded Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, agreed to on 14 July among the P5, Iran, Germany and the High Representative of the EU for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (S/PV.7488). The resolution includes a trigger for the deal to come into effect within 90 days of its adoption and a process for lifting sanctions, while establishing a strong monitoring system of Iran’s nuclear programme.
The 1737 Iran Sanctions Committee met on 1 June to discuss the final report from its Panel of Experts under resolution 2159. The report was issued as a public document on 2 June (S/2015/401). On 9 June, the Security Council adopted resolution 2224, extending the mandate of the Panel for another 13 months until 9 July 2016. On 23 June the chair of the Committee, Ambassador Román Oyarzun (Spain), presented his quarterly report to the Council on the work of the Committee. While reiterating the Committee’s support for the ongoing negotiations between Iran and the P5+1, Oyarzun emphasised that the sanctions measures imposed by the Council remained in full effect, reminded states of their obligations to implement them and said the Committee remained fully committed to the implementation of all relevant resolutions. On 11 June, the latest report from the IAEA on Iran was circulated as a Council document.
On 24 March, Ambassador Román Oyarzun (Spain), chair of the 1737 Iran Sanctions Committee, briefed the Council. He emphasised that although there are ongoing P5+1 negotiations with Iran, UN sanctions remain in full effect.
On 18 December 2014, the chair of the 1737 Iran Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Gary Quinlan (Australia), presented his final quarterly briefing on the Committee’s work (S/PV.7350). (Ambassador Román Oyarzun Marchesi [Spain] will take over the chairmanship of the Committee on 1 January 2015.) While welcoming the continued commitment of Iran and the P5+1 (China, France, Germany, Russia, the UK and the US) to reach agreement on a comprehensive solution, Quinlan emphasised that the sanctions imposed by the Council remained fully in effect and that the Committee also remained fully committed to their implementation. Noting Iran’s failure to respond to letters it had received from the Committee on recent incidents reported by member states, he encouraged it to engage with the Committee. Furthermore, Quinlan informed the Council that the Committee had met on 8 December to consider the mid-term report from the Panel of Experts assisting the Committee and had continued discussions of the Panel’s latest final report (S/2014/394).
On 15 September, the chair of the 1737 Iran Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Gary Quinlan (Australia), presented his quarterly briefing on the Committee’s work to the Council (S/PV.7265). There were no Committee meetings during the reporting period. The Council also received two reports on Iran from the Director General of the IAEA. On 5 September they received the quarterly report on implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and relevant provisions of Council resolutions on Iran. According to this report, Iran had only implemented three of the five practical measures (S/2014/681) agreed with the agency in May under the Framework for Cooperation initially agreed in November 2013. The two outstanding measures related to information sharing on its research into high explosive detonators that could be used to trigger a nuclear weapon and on studies that could be relevant to calculate the explosive yield of a nuclear weapon. Iran had also yet to propose new practical measures. On 23 September, Council members received the report on the status of Iran’s implementation of the joint plan of action agreed with the P5+1 in November 2013. It concluded that Iran had continued to comply with the measures agreed under the plan. On 18 September, a new round of talks between Iran and the P5+1 began in New York and continued over the ministerial week of the General Assembly’s general debate.
On 9 June, the Council adopted resolution 2159 which renewed for 13 months the Panel of Experts assisting the 1737 Iran Sanctions Committee, without any changes to its mandate. The resolution requested the Panel to submit a mid-term report to the Committee by 9 November 2014 and a final report by 9 May 2015. On 25 June, the chair of the Committee, Ambassador Gary Quinlan (Australia), presented his 90-day report on the work of the Committee to the Council (S/PV.7211). He reported that the Committee had had one informal meeting and two “informal informal” meetings and had discussed the Panel’s final report (S/2014/394) as well as an incident report on an interception reported by a member state (in reference to the 5 March interception of the ship Klos-C in the Red Sea by Israel). Referring to the ongoing talks between Iran and the P5+1, Quinlan emphasised that all UN sanctions remained fully in effect and could only be altered through the adoption of a Council resolution.
On 20 March, the chair of the 1737 Iran Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Gary Quinlan (Australia), briefed the Council on the work of the Committee. Quinlan said the Committee held two informal meetings and one “informal informal” meeting during the reporting period. Referring to the on-going talks between Iran and the P5+1, he reiterated that all measures imposed by the Council remained in effect and said the work of the Committee and its Panel of Experts would continue unchanged in 2014. He noted that Iran had still not responded to the two letters it received from the Committee in 2013 regarding sanctions violations and called on it to do so. In reviewing the activities of the Committee, Quinlan provided an update on the outcome of its consideration of the recommendations contained in the Panel’s 2013 final report. Also on 20 March, the Council received a report from the Director-General of the IAEA on the status of Iran’s nuclear programme in relation to the 24 November Joint Plan of Action agreed with the P5+1.
On 12 December, the chair of the 1737 Iran Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Gary Quinlan (Australia), presented his 90-day report on the work of the Committee to the Council. He welcomed the 24 November interim agreement between Iran and the P5+1 and expressed hope that the agreement would encourage Iran to engage with the Committee, in particular by responding to the letters requesting Iran’s views on the findings of the Panel of Experts assisting the Committee with regard to the Great Prophet exercise conducted by Iran in July 2012 and the interception reported by Yemen in February this year. Quinlan emphasised that all of the sanctions imposed by the Council remained in effect and that the Committee would continue its work to monitor their implementation.
A joint plan of action was agreed on 24 November between Iran and the P5+1 setting out measures to be undertaken during an initial six-month interim period, as well as elements for a long-term comprehensive solution. In a 14 November report to the Council, the IAEA said its framework agreement with Iran to resolve outstanding issues marked an important step forward and noted that unresolved issues not included in the framework would be addressed in subsequent steps. On 21 November, the 1737 Iran Sanctions Committee discussed the Panel of Experts’ mid-term report. The report was largely procedural and the discussion was not very substantive.
The 1737 Iran Sanctions Committee met on 23 October and discussed an incident report from the Panel of Experts on Singapore’s interception last year of an Iranian ship carrying high-grade carbon fibre. The report concluded that the shipment constituted a violation of resolution 1929.
On 5 September, the chair of the 1737 Iran Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Gary Quinlan (Australia) presented his 90-day report on the work of the Committee to the Council. He said the Committee on 8 August had adopted its programme of work for the period 1 July to 31 December 2013 and had otherwise continued to consider the recommendations presented in the latest report from the Panel of Experts assisting the Committee along with other outstanding issues. However, the Committee had not been able to agree on any of the recommendations and remained divided on a number of other issues, including over whether the ballistic missile launches during the so-called “Great Prophet” exercise in July 2012 were in violation of resolution 1929.
On 15 July, Ambassador Gary Quinlan (Australia), the chair of the 1737 Iran Sanctions Committee, presented the 90-day briefing on the Committee’s work to the Security Council. He reported that members were still divided over whether recent ballistic missile launches, the so-called “Great Prophet” exercises, were in violation of resolution 1929.
On 5 June, the Council adopted resolution 2105 renewing the mandate of the Panel of Experts assisting the 1737 Iran Sanctions Committee until 9 July 2014. The Panel’s latest report was circulated on 5 June. On 24 June, the Committee chair, Ambassador Gary Quinlan (Australia), held an open briefing to interested member states about the mandate and activities of the Committee. The 90-day briefing by the chair, initially scheduled for 13 June was postponed in the absence of agreement in the Committee on the text of the briefing. It seems Council members disagreed over whether to characterise the Great Prophet 7 exercises conducted from 2-4 July 2012, during which Iran launched ballistic missiles, as a violation of Council resolutions. At press time, the issue had not yet been resolved and a new date for the briefing had not been set. During consultations at ambassadorial level on 25 June, it was agreed that the Committee should make a last effort to come to an agreement, but that if no compromise had been found within ten days, the chair would present a report reflecting the divided views of Council members. It was also agreed that in the meantime, the Council president, the UK in June, would contact the Iranian permanent representative in New York to ask for a response to the letter which was sent by the Committee chair in April inviting Iran to express its views on the Panel of Experts’ conclusion that the Great Prophet exercise constituted a violation of the sanctions regime.
As a follow-up to the 29 April meeting, the 1737 Iran Sanctions Committee on 21 May sent a letter to Iran inviting it to respond to the Panel of Expert’s findings in writing. The Committee met again on 28 May to consider the Panel’s final report which had been submitted to Council members earlier in the month. It seems the report asserts that Iran is continuing to violate the sanctions regime both through illicit arms transfers and by attempting to source prohibited items and technology for its nuclear programme and highlights new methods used by Iran to circumvent the sanctions regime. Following a briefing by the Panel’s coordinator, Council members expressed their initial views on the report.
On 29 April, the 1737 Iran Sanctions Committee considered the Panel of Expert’s report on its investigation of the notification from Yemen about its interception of a vessel believed to be carrying illicit weapons from Iran. It seems the Panel was split, with five experts (nationals of France, Germany, Japan, the UK and the US) concluding with certainty that the intercepted arms shipment originated from Iran whereas the remaining three (nationals of China, Nigeria and Russia) said it was very likely, but could not be unequivocally confirmed based on available evidence.
On 6 March, the chair of the 1737 Iran Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Gary Quinlan (Australia) presented his first 90-day report on the work of the Committee to the Council. He said the Committee had held one meeting on 13 February during which it had discussed the interception reported by a member state (widely reported to be Yemen) of a vessel suspected of carrying illicit weapons from Iran to that state, and had encouraged the Panel of Experts to investigate the incident. The Committee had also considered an 11 January incident report from the Panel on the missile launches conducted by Iran in July 2012 which concluded that they represented a violation of resolution 1929. Quinlan said Council members were still discussing how to respond to this as well as to a Panel compilation of statements made by Iranian officials indicating potential violations of resolution 1747. Quinlan also mentioned that the Committee on 20 December had designated two additional entities as subject to targeted sanctions and had issued two implementation assistance notices, one on conventional arms and related material on 26 December and one on financial and business measures on 27 February.
The 1737 Iran Sanctions Committee met with its Panel of Experts on 13 February. Discussions mainly focused on a notification letter the Committee had received from Yemen concerning its interdiction on 24 January of a consignment of weapons believed to be from Iran. A 21 February IAEA report noted that no agreement or clarification of outstanding issues had been reached between the IAEA and Iran and that, despite repeated requests, the IAEA had not been granted access to Parchin. On 26 and 27 February, the “P5+1” and Iran met in Almaty, Kazakhstan for a new round of high-level talks on the nuclear programme.
On 13 December, the Council held a regularly scheduled public briefing by the outgoing chair of the 1737 Iran Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Néstor Osorio (Colombia). The chair noted that the Coordinator of the Panel of Experts, which assists the Committee, had briefed the Committee on its midterm report of 9 November. He also noted that during two recent Committee meetings some delegations had expressed concerns about possible non-compliance with Council resolutions, which may have led to transfers of prohibited material from Iran to regional states. On 20 December, the Committee added two further companies—Yas Air and SAD Import Export Company—to the sanctions regime, for their role in transporting and supplying prohibited arms from Iran to Syria, in violation of Council resolutions. The designation of both entities was recommended by the Committee’s Panel of Experts in its 2012 final report. On 28 December, in response to the Panel of Experts’ recommendations, the Committee issued an implementation assistance notice which noted a number of sanctions violations involving prohibited arms transfers from Iran, reminded member states of their obligations under the existing sanctions and urged them to maintain a high level of vigilance and cooperate fully with the Panel.
On 26 November, the 1737 Sanctions Committee met to discuss the 12 June report of its Panel of Experts and the 16 November IAEA report on Iran’s nuclear programme. In other developments, the P5+1 met in Brussels on 21 November to discuss the next steps concerning its negotiations with Iran on its nuclear programme.
On 20 September, Ambassador Néstor Osorio (Colombia) presented his regular quarterly briefing as chair of the 1737 Iran Sanctions Committee. Nearly all Council members in their statements referred to the recent report of the IAEA and the resolution of its Board of Governors adopted on 13 September. (The resolution expressed “serious concern regarding the continued enrichment and heavy water-related activities in Iran” and emphasised a “peaceful resolution of the international community’s concerns”.) Several members reiterated the importance of resolving the issues related to Iran’s nuclear programme through dialogue and diplomacy. Some members, including those from the EU and the US, stressed that Iran needed to abide by relevant IAEA and Council resolutions and negotiate a settlement, but that talks would not continue indefinitely if progress were not made. Other members noted that Iran had both rights and responsibilities that it needed to live up to. Calls were also made by the P3 for the Committee to implement the recommendations in the Panel of Experts’ recent report, including adding named Iranian companies to the sanctions list. Concerns were raised about Iran’s documented links to the Syrian government.
On 24 August, talks between the IAEA and Iran in Vienna did not result in an agreement concerning access to Iran’s Parchin military site.
On 9 July, Ambassador Nestor Osorio (Colombia), as chair of the 1737 Committee, and Salomé Zourabichvili (France)—the coordinator of the Iran Sanctions Panel of Experts—briefed interested member states on the activities of both the Committee and the Panel. In remarks to the press afterwards, Osorio said that it had been important to reach out to the membership at large, as members’ strong support made the Committee’s work more effective and allowed the wider membership to better understand the provisions set out in Council resolutions.
On 12 June, the Chair of the Iran Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Néstor Osorio (Colombia), briefed the Council. On 7 June, the Council adopted resolution 2049 renewing the mandate of the Iran Sanctions Committee’s Panel of Experts for 13 months. Agreement was reached to publish the Panel of Expert’s final report. The report contains 11 recommendations to the Sanctions Committee, including the designation of two companies for transporting prohibited arms from Iran bound for Syria. High-level talks in Moscow on 18-19 June between Iran and the P5+1 (the permanent members of the Security Council and Germany) ended without a breakthrough. (Negotiations had recommenced in April 2012 in Istanbul.)
On 21 March, the Chair of the Iran Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Néstor Osorio (Colombia), provided a regular 90-day briefing to the Council. He noted that within the Committee some members had expressed concern regarding the illicit transfers of arms between Iran and Syria. Several states reiterated calls for the Panel of Experts’ report from May 2011 to be released, arguing that it was an important tool to help the membership at large implement sanctions measures.
In a 24 February report following inspectors’ two recent visits to Iran, the IAEA confirmed that no agreement had been reached with Iran on a structured approach to resolving outstanding issues. On 19 February, Iran announced that it would stop exporting oil to the UK and France, saying it would sell the oil to “new customers.” (On 23 January, the EU imposed further sanctions on Iran, including a full ban on Iranian oil exports.)
On 21 December, the Chair of the Iran Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Néstor Osorio (Colombia), provided a regular 90-day briefing to the Council. On 7 December, the Committee had received an oral briefing from the coordinator of the Panel of Experts regarding its investigation of a reported violation of the ban on all exports of arms and related material from Iran (resolution 1747) and initiated an inquiry into an alleged violation of Iran of paragraph 9 of resolution 1929. (The paragraph states that Iran shall not undertake any activity related to ballistic missiles capable of delivering nuclear weapons.) Many Council members also expressed concern that the Panel’s previous report of May 2011 had not been made public due to resistance within the Committee. In other developments, on 31 December, the US imposed new economic sanctions on the Central Bank of Iran.
On 29 November, the UK Embassy in Tehran was attacked by protesters and another UK diplomatic compound in northern Tehran was also damaged. In a press statement issued later the same day, the Council condemned the attacks “in the strongest terms”.
In other developments, on 21 November the US, the UK and Canada announced that they would impose new sanctions on Iran, targeting its petrochemical, oil and gas industries. The US also designated 11 individuals and entities for their role in assisting Iran’s nuclear programme.
On 18 November, The General Assembly passed a resolution deploring the alleged plot to kill the Saudi ambassador with 106 votes in favour, 9 against and 40 abstentions. (On 11 October, the US wrote to the Secretary-General stating that the US had recently disrupted a conspiracy to assassinate the Saudi ambassador to the US, which were “conceived, sponsored and directed by elements of the government of Iran.” Iran denied any involvement in the alleged attack and rejected the allegations, citing a lack of evidence.)
The IAEA Board of Governors met on 17 and 18 November to discuss Iran. The five states that are permanent Council members, with Germany, agreed on a draft resolution about Iran’s nuclear programme, subsequently adopted by the 35-member board.
On 7 September, the Chair of the Iran Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Néstor Osorio (Colombia), briefed the Council that additional information had been received from a member state on a previously reported incident of an alleged export of arms, in violation of resolution 1747. The Committee also received a joint communication from four member states reporting a violation of resolution 1929 which bans any activity related to ballistic missiles. France, Gabon, Germany, Portugal, the UK and the US called for the May 2011 report of the Committee’s Panel of Experts to be published as soon as possible. China and Russia stressed that the work of the panel should be objective and impartial.
On 9 June, the Council adopted resolution 1984 extending the mandate of the Panel of Experts that supports the Iran Sanctions Committee for one year. On 23 June, the Chair of the Iran Sanctions Committee briefed the Council.
On 24 May, the IAEA also issued a report on Iran’s implementation of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Safeguards Agreement and relevant Council resolutions. The indicated that Iran has produced 4,105 kilograms of low enriched uranium (LEU). During the month, the US announced that it would sanction seven international firms for violating its sanctions law on Iran and the EU expanded the assets freeze it imposed against some individuals in Iran.
On 22 March, the chair of the Iran Sanctions Committee briefed the Council reporting on the interim report of the Panel of Experts which was circulated to Council members in late January. On 4 March, the coordinator of the Panel briefed the Committee on its investigation of a reported violation of the arms embargo and its assessment of member state implementation reports. In other developments, on 24 March the Human Rights Council adopted a resolution establishing a mandate of a special rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Iran.
On separate occasions, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said that Russia could not support any additional sanctions to those already in place as further measures would harm the Iran’s population.
On 21 and 22 January, discussions were held between the E3+3 and Iran in Istanbul following-up talks between the parties in Geneva the month before. The talks apparently achieved little progress.
In a briefing to the Council on 10 December, the Chair of the Iran Sanctions Committee said “it is a matter of grave concern that the apparent pattern of sanctions violations involving prohibited arms transfers from Iran, first highlighted publicly by the committee a year ago, is continuing” citing reports from two member states regarding two possible sanctions violations. In the first case, reported by Nigeria, 13 shipping containers of illegal arms were seized that reportedly originated from Iran. In the second case, reported by Italy, a container containing high explosive was inspected and seized on board the MS Finland which originated from Iran and was bound for Syria. On 13 December, Iran wrote to the president of the Security Council asserting that attacks on two physicists in Tehran on 29 November 2010 were carried out on behalf of powers opposed to the continuation of Iran’s nuclear programme and urged the attacks be condemned by the Council. In other developments, on 6 and 7 December, discussions were held between the E3+3 and Iran in Geneva.
20 October 2010
Iran announced it possessed more than 30 kilograms of uranium enriched to the 20 percent level.
22 September 2010
The E3+3 held a ministerial-level meeting to discuss the overall strategy for addressing the Iran nuclear issue, and subsequently emphasised the importance of maintaining E3+3 unity and the importance of Iran complying with Council and IAEA Board resolutions.
13 September 2010
IAEA Director-General Yukiya Amano expressed regret over Iran’s decision to bar two nuclear inspectors to the country. Amano said Iran’s action hindered the IAEA’s investigation of the nuclear programme.
2 September 2010
Japan adopted additional measures against Iran including increased restrictions on financial transactions.
21 August 2010
The nuclear reactor of the Bushehr power plant in Iran began to be charged with fuel with Russian assistance.
9 August 2010
An IAEA spokesperson advised that Iran had begun operating a second array of enrichment centrifuges to enrich uranium to the 20 percent level at the Natanz uranium enrichment complex.
26 July 2010
The EU adopted additional sanctions against Iran that included new restrictions on the energy and financial sectors as well as various asset freezes and travel bans.
1 July 2010
Additional US measures against Iran that targeted the country’s energy and banking sectors went into effect.
9 June 2010
The Council approved a fourth round of sanctions against Iran after consultations and a private meeting the day before to debate the final text. (Twelve members voted in favour of the resolution, Brazil and Turkey voted against and Lebanon abstained.)
26 May 2010
President Ahmadinejad of Iran said the fuel swap deal might be the last opportunity to resolve the situation, and urged the US to accept it. He also criticised Russia’s support for the draft sanctions resolution.
25 May 2010
President Lula of Brazil wrote to the presidents of France, Mexico, Russia and the US on 25 May arguing that Iran’s openness to a fuel swap plan showed that Iran was ready for further dialogue, and saying that Brazil continued to oppose new sanctions on the country. US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said the fuel swap plan was a “transparent ploy” to avoid further Council action.
24 May 2010
Iranian officials gave a letter to the IAEA outlining the fuel swap plan arrived at with Brazil and Turkey. The Secretary-General said that if implemented the fuel swap deal might provide an opportunity for a negotiated settlement with regard to Iran’s nuclear programme if Iran follows up with further engagement with the IAEA, but reaffirmed that Iran must comply with existing Security Council resolutions (which prohibit any enrichment).
20-21 May 2010
President Lula of Brazil said that since Iran had proven willing to engage in negotiations on the nuclear issue that the rest of the international community should also focus on negotiating a solution, while Brazil’s Foreign Minister said the issue of uranium enrichment had not been part of discussions with Iran because Brazil had not been warned that a new sanctions resolution would continue until concessions were made on enrichment activities. The US removed domestic sanctions that had been imposed on several Russian entities, including the government arms export agency, for past transfers of weapons and related technology to Iran.
18 May 2010
The US announced that the E3+3 had reached agreement on proposals for new sanctions against Iran and had circulated a draft to members in a Council meeting.
17 May 2010
Brazil, Turkey and Iran announced that Iran had indicated its agreement to a fuel swap plan after meeting bilaterally.
23-25 April 2010
In an apparent Iranian diplomatic offensive to head off a sanctions resolution, Iran’s President Mahmoud Ahmedinejad visited Uganda on 23 April and Foreign Minister Manouchehr Mottaki of Iran met with IAEA chief Yukiya Amano, as well as Austrian Foreign Minister Michael Spindelegger, in Vienna on 25 April.
19 April 2010
Iran announced it was ready to proceed with the construction of a new uranium enrichment plant.
17-18 April 2010
Iran hosted a nuclear conference in Tehran, attended by representatives from about sixty countries, focused in part on the nuclear rights of Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) signatories.
13 April 2010
A letter from Iran to the president of the Council asserted that the recently announced US nuclear posture review constituted a threat to Iran.
China, France, Germany, Russia, the UK and the US met on 8 April to discuss a new sanctions resolution and continued to meet throughout the month on a frequent basis.
26 March 2010
A letter from Iran to the Secretary-General asserted Iran’s commitment to the NPT and cooperation with the IAEA.
18 February 2010
In a new report on Iran’s implementation of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Safeguards Agreement and relevant Council resolutions, the IAEA said that Iran had still not supplied information and access necessary to resolve questions about possible military dimensions to its nuclear programme. Going further than previous reports it pointed out that information available to the IAEA, obtained from a variety of generally consistent and credible sources, “raises concerns about the possible existence in Iran of past or current undisclosed activities related to the development of a nuclear payload for a missile”.
8 February 2010
IAEA received a letter noting Iran’s announcement that it would begin producing enriched fuel for the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR), and revising the design information for its Pilot Fuel Enrichment Plant (PFEP) at Natanz to include the production of enriched uranium up to 20 percent. On the same day, a second letter notified the Agency that Iran would transfer some low enriched uranium (LEU) to the PFEP the next day.
16 January 2010
E3+3 (China, France, Germany, Russia, the UK and the US) met in New York to discuss next steps on Iran. The chair of the meeting, EU’s political director Robert Cooper, said in an agreed statement that the six countries had concluded that Iran’s response was “inadequate”. While they remained committed to a dual-track approach involving a negotiated solution, “consideration of appropriate further measures” had begun.
10 December 2009
The chairman of the Iran Sanctions Committee, Japanese Ambassador Yukio Takasu briefed the Council. Takasu confirmed that the Committee had received reports from three states of violations by Iran of the provisions of resolution 1747 imposing an export ban on arms and related materials.
27 November 2009
The Board of Governors of IAEA adopted a resolution expressing concern at Iran’s continued defiance of IAEA and Council demands and at its failure to notify the IAEA of the planned new enrichment facility at Qom. The resolution urged Iran to comply with all its international legal obligations (including by suspending immediately construction at Qom), and to engage with the IAEA on all outstanding issues (including by clarifying all aspects of the Qom facility). It also called on Iran to comply with its safeguards obligations and implement and ratify the additional protocol to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Twenty-five of the 35 Board members, including China and Russia, voted in favour of the resolution, the first adopted on Iran since 2006.
20 November 2009
Representatives from the E3+3 (China, France, Germany, Russia, the UK and the US) met in Brussels and urged Iran to accept the offer to process its low-enriched uranium in Russia and France for use in the Tehran Research Reactor.
18 November 2009
Iran’s position became more unclear when Foreign Minister Manouchehr Mottaki suggested that Iran might not allow its low-enriched uranium to be taken out of the country for further processing.
5 November 2009
Israel wrote to the Council complaining that a ship it had intercepted the previous day, the cargo vessel Francop originating in Iran and bound for Syria, had been carrying hundreds of tonnes of arms.
26-27 October 2009
IAEA inspectors visited the recently-disclosed nuclear facility north of the Iranian city of Qom
1 October 2009
E3+3 (China, France, Germany, Russia, the UK and the US) held talks with Iran in Geneva.
9 September 2009
The Council was briefed by the Chair of the 1737 Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Yukio Takasu of Japan.
19 August 2009
Ahmadinejad presented his proposed cabinet to the parliament for approval.
13 August 2009
A group of UN human rights rapporteurs and independent experts expressed concern about allegations of torture against detained protestors and reports of people dying in custody.
9 August 2009
US Ambassador to the UN Susan Rice condemned what she said were Iran’s “show trials” for demonstrators who had been arrested following the election.
8-10 July 2009
G8 leaders deplored the post-election violence in Iran. G8 members also noted that Iran persists in refusing to meet its international obligations with regard to its nuclear programme.
19 June 2009
The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights voiced concerns about human rights violations against demonstrators protesting the outcome of the presidential elections in Iran.
12 June 2009
Presidential elections were held. This was followed by disputes over the final election results.
20 May 2009
Iran announced that it had successfully test launched a missile which was later confirmed by US officials.
13 April 2009
Iran’s chief nuclear negotiator, Saeed Jalili, told EU foreign policy chief Javier Solana that Iran welcomed discussions with the E3+3 and would soon unveil its official position.
8 April 2009
The E3+3 issued a statement welcoming the US intention to participate in future meetings of the E3+3 with Iran and requested a meeting with Iran.
19 March 2009
In a video message addressed to Iran on the occasion of the Persian New Year (Nowruz), US President Barack Obama said that his administration was now committed to using diplomacy to address the full range of issues and to pursuing constructive ties.
10 March 2009
The Council was briefed by the Chairman of the 1737 Sanctions Committee on Iran, Japanese Ambassador Yukio Takasu. He said that the Committee had received a letter from a member state seeking guidance regarding its inspection of a vessel carrying its flag and coming from Iran that had been found to be transporting arms related material.
19 February 2009
An IAEA report revealed that Iran had produced an additional 209 kilograms of low enriched uranium (LEU) since the previous report was issued in November, bringing the total amount of LEU produced by Iran to approximately 700 kilograms.
10 February 2009
Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said Iran was ready to engage in dialogue with the US in an atmosphere of equality and mutual respect.
4 February 2009
Representatives from the E3+3 met in Wiesbaden, Germany to discuss the Iranian nuclear issue. They reaffirmed their commitment to the dual-track approach and emphasised the need to pursue diplomacy. The new US administration’s instinct to engage in direct talks with Iran was encouraged.
3 February 2009
Iran launched its first satellite, underlining progress towards technology that could be employed for ballistic missiles. Also, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon expressed concern over reports that Shirin Ebadi, the Iranian human rights lawyer and Nobel Peace Prize laureate, had been threatened. Ban called on the Iranian authorities to take immediate measures to ensure her safety.
29 January 2009
A ship coming from Iran and bound for Syria was detained in Cyprus inspected following suspicions that it was transporting arms in contravention of resolution 1747. The result of the search was transmitted to the Sanctions Committee.
26 January 2009
The new US Ambassador to the UN, Susan Rice, said that President Barack Obama would engage in direct diplomacy with Iran but reminded Tehran to comply with Council demands to suspend uranium enrichment.
16 December 2008
A meeting of the E3+3 with Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Kuwait, Egypt, Jordan and Iraq to discuss the Iranian nuclear issue was held at the margins of a Security Council meeting on the Middle East.
19 November 2008
An IAEA Director General’s report on implementation by Iran of relevant Council resolutions was issued (GOV/2008/59).
26 September 2008
A draft resolution reaffirming Iran’s obligation to implement Council and IAEA resolutions was circulated.
15 September 2008
11 August 2008
Despite the breakdown of discussions on the E3+3 proposal, Jalili and Solana agreed in a telephone conversation to continue talks.
8 August 2008
The EU amended its common position implementing Security Council sanctions against Iran. The new amendments slightly extended sanctions in resolution 1803 by calling on the EU’s financial institutions to exercise “restraint” (not just vigilance) on export credits, and decreeing that EU member states inspect Iran-bound cargoes.
7 August 2008
In the absence of a clear response from Iran on an E3+3 package of poposals for renewed negotiations with Iran, the E3+3 agreed to consider further sanctions against Iran.
28 July 2008
President Ahmadinejad announced that Iran now possessed between 5,000 and 6,000 nuclear centrifuges, almost twice what it disclosed in April 2007.
19 July 2008
Solana and representatives of the E3+3 met with Iranian nuclear negotiator Saeed Jalili in Geneva to discuss a consolidated proposal for cooperation in several areas they sent to Iran to be used as a basis for renewed negotiations as soon as it suspends uranium enrichment (S/2008/393). Jalili avoided these issues leading the E3+3 to ask Jalili to provide a clearer answer to their proposal within two weeks.
15 July 2008
Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said that Iran was ready to open comprehensive negotiations but that it would never accept preconditions.
9-10 July 2008
Iran conducted ballistic missile tests. In response the US said it was ready to defend its allies in the region if they are attacked.
14 June 2008
Javier Solana, the EU Foreign Policy Chief and E3+3 representative travelled to Iran with representatives from the E3 (France, Germany and the UK) and from China and Russia to present Iran a new offer for negotiations.
13 June 2008
The Council heard a briefing by the Chairman of the 1737 Sanctions Committee, Belgian Ambassador Jan Grauls, on activities of the committee from 18 March to 13 June.
26 May 2008
The ElBaradei report on implementation of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Safeguards Agreement and resolutions 1737, 1747 and 1803 in Iran was released, indicating that Iran continued to refuse to suspend uranium enrichment activities.
13 May 2008
In a letter to the UN Secretary-General, Iran affirmed that it was ready to negotiate with the E3+3 without preconditions. It included a package of proposals for negotiations on cooperation in political, security, economic and nuclear fields.
2 May 2008
The E3+3 foreign ministers met in London and agreed to put a new proposal to Iran with the condition that Iran suspends uranium enrichment.
24 April 2008
The 1737 Sanctions Commitee approved a revised guideline incorporating relevant provisions of resolution 1803, in addition to a consolidated list of individuals and entities subject to sanctions (S/PV.5909).
17 March 2008
Belgian Ambassador Johan Verbeke, briefed the Council on the activities of the Sanctions Committee (S/PV.5853).
3 March 2008
Council members held a debate and adopted resolution 1803.
21 February 2008
A draft resolution based on elements agreed among the E3 plus 3 was introduced to the rest of the Council by the UK and France. It tightened sanctions against Iran because of its non-compliance with the two previous Council resolutions.
15 February 2008
Media reports revealed that the US shared intelligence data (from an Iranian laptop) with the IAEA showing that Iran tried previously to develop a nuclear weapon. Ali Asghar Soltanieh, Iran’s envoy to the IAEA, called the data “100 percent fabricated and forged.”
4 February 2008
Iran reported it had launched a rocket from its new space centre in the Semnan province. A Russian official said this raised suspicions about Iran’s nuclear programme. Iran also stated that it was testing an advanced nuclear centrifuge. The US said that this strengthened the case for a third sanctions resolution.
22 January 2008
The E3 plus 3 foreign ministers met in Berlin and agreed on elements for a new sanctions resolution.
11-12 January 2008
ElBaradei visited Iran and met Iran’s leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei and President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Iran and the IAEA agreed that implementation of all remaining verification issues specified in the August 2007 work plan for resolving outstanding issues would be completed by 13 February.
6 January 2008
A naval incident between Iran and the US occurred in the Strait of Hormuz. The White House warned Iran that its action was provocative and dangerous. Iran accused the US of orchestrating a propaganda campaign.
18 December 2007
The Chairman of the 1737 Sanctions Committee reported to the Council on the Committee’s activities covering the period 20 September to 18 December and said that 87 member states had reported to the Committee on implementation of resolution resolution 1737, and 71 on implementation of resolution 1747.
14 December 2007
In a statement, the EU renewed support for additional UN sanctions and additional unilateral measures as well.
13 December 2007
Russia and Iran signed an agreement to complete the Bushehr nuclear plant project. Delivery of fuel, which had been delayed several times, began in December. The US said that Iran need not continue its enrichment programme, as fuel was available.
11 December 2007
Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad portrayed the NIE report’s conclusions as a “victory” for Iran. He also said there should be dialogue with the US. Former nuclear negotiator Ali Larijani also suggested that the E3+3 should hold face-to-face talks with Iran.
3 December 2007
A new US National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) was published indicating that Iran had halted its nuclear weapons programme in 2003.
1 December 2007
E3+3 political directors met and agreed that, with no new opening from Iran, work on elements of a new resolution should start.
30 November 2007
EU envoy Javier Solana and the Iranian nuclear negotiator Said Jalili met in London to discuss renewed negotiations on Iran’s nuclear programme. Solana later described the talks as “disappointing”.
22 November 2007
An IAEA report on the implementation of the Safeguards Agreement and resolutions 1737 and 1747 in Iran was considered by the IAEA Board meeting, Mohamed elBaradei briefed the board saying that the implementation was on schedule.
19 November 2007
An E3+3 meeting due to take place in Brussels to discuss the way forward was postponed after China was unable to attend.
13 November 2007
Chinese Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi visited Iran. He urged President Ahmadinejad to halt the uranium enrichment programmeand acknowledged Iran’s right to peacefully use nuclear energy.
2 November 2007
The E3+3 Political Directors met in London and reaffirmed their position as expressed in the 28 September 2007 statement.
30 October 2007
Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov visited Iran.
23 October 2007
Solana and the new Iranian nuclear negotiator met in Rome to discuss Iran’s nuclear programme. Both sides described those talks as “constructive,” but there was no movement on the issue of uranium enrichment suspension, and in a statement made on the same day, Iranian President Ahmadinejad said that Iran would not retreat “one iota” from its nuclear programme.
20 October 2007
Iranian nuclear negotiator Ali Larijani resigned and was replaced by Said Jalili, a close ally of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.
16 October 2007
Russian President Vladimir Putin met Ayatollah Ali Khamenei and President Ahmadinejad at a summit meeting in Iran. It seems they discussed the nuclear power plant Russia is building in Bushehr, and cooperation on space, aviation and energy.
15 October 2007
EU foreign ministers discussed French proposals to reinforce EU unilateral sanctions before another Security Council resolution. A statement was adopted, saying “the EU will consider what additional measures it might take in order to support the UN process.”
28 September 2007
A ministerial meeting of the EU3+3 took place on the margins of the General Assembly in New York. They adopted a statement reflecting a new “dual track” approach.
25 September 2007
During his speech to the UN General Assembly, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said he considered the dispute over Iran’s nuclear program as closed and that it had “turned into an ordinary Agency [IAEA] matter”.
21 September 2007
An EU3+3 meeting was held in Washington. It seems that theree was no agreement on a way forward.
19 September 2007
The chairman of the Iran Sanctions Committee briefed the Council and said that 81 countries had reported to the Committee on measures taken to implement resolution 1737 and 67 countries had reported on implementation of resolution 1747.
10-14 September 2007
The IAEA Board met. IAEA Director General Mohammed ElBaradei asked Iran to allow wider-ranging inspections and to resolve the outstanding issues and suspend uranium enrichment activities. He also reiterated his call for a “double time-out” suspending all enrichment-related activities and sanctions simultaneously in order to create space for negotiations.
30 August 2007
The report of the Director General of the IAEA on implementation of the Non Proliferation Treaty Safeguards Agreement in Iran and resolutions 1737 and 1747 was published.
21 August 2007
Iran released on bail the Iranian-American academic Haleh Esfandiari who had been arrested in May in Iran on espionage charges.
20-21 August 2007
A last round of talks was held between the IAEA and Iranian officials in Tehran. A timetable and modalities for Iran to respond to questions about its nuclear activities and to provide for more effective inspections of facilities was agreed.
15 August 2007
The US administration designated Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps as a foreign terrorist organisation.
31 July 2007
IAEA inspectors visited Iran’s Arak research nuclear reactor which is designed for producing plutonium. Also, an arms deal was signed between the US and various Arab allies. US officials have said that one goal was to counter the growing power of Iran. Finally, the Deutsche Bank announced its decision to cease doing business involving Iran.
24 July 2007
Another round of talks between the US and Iranian ambassadors to Baghdad was held and focused on Iraq’s security situation.
11-12 July 2007
An action plan for resolving the outstanding issues between the IAEA and Iran was prepared during an IAEA visit to Iran.
23 June 2007
Ali Larjani and Javier Solana met again.
22 June 2007
ElBaradei and Larijani met in Vienna, agreeing to draw up an action plan to resolve outstanding issues between the IAEA and Iran.
8 June 2007
In a final statement, the G8 deplored Iran’s failure to meet its obligations under Council resolutions and supported additional measures should Iran further refuse to comply.
3 June 2007
Tensions between Iran and the international community increase following President Ahmadinejad’s remarks calling for “the destruction of the Zionist regime.” France and the US pushed the Council to adopt a press statement condemning these remarks, but no consensus could be reached.
31 May 2007
The EU foreign policy chief Javier Solana met Iranian negotiator Ali Larijani in Spain. Larijani suggested that Iran was ready to better cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency.
14 May 2007
Iranian nuclear negotiator Ali Larijani announced that suspension of uranium enrichment would not be negotiated.
10 May 2007
The EU3+3 met in Berlin and reaffirmed that a negotiated solution was their goal but agreed to start work on a third resolution imposing additional sanctions.
2 May 2007
EU3+3 met in London.
30 April-11 May 2007
The first of three Preparatory Committee sessions regarding the 2010 Review Conference of the Non-Proliferation Treaty took place.
25 April 2007
EU High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy Javier Solana and Ali Larijani held talks in Ankara.
10 April 2007
Iran announced that it had completed the nuclear fuel cycle and that it had plans to install 50,000 centrifuges.
22 February 2007
Director-General of the IAEA Mohammed ElBaradei confirmed that Iran had not complied with resolution 1737.
23 January 2007
The sanctions committee established by resolution 1737 of 23 December held its first meeting.
22 January 2007
EU foreign ministers announced a ban on trade with Iran of the goods on the Nuclear Supplier Group and Missile Technology Control Regime lists.
5 December 2006
The political directors of the EU3+3 met in Paris to discuss major amendments to a draft resolution presented by Russia.
3 November 2006
Russia proposed major amendments removing many of the sanctions’ measures.
24 October 2006
The EU3+3 presented a draft resolution.
6 October 2006
The EU3+3 met in London.
9 September 2006
Contacts between Javier Solana and Ali Larijani resumed.
22 August 2006
Iran presented a 21-page response to the P5 plus Germany package of incentives.
19 July 2006
Consultations between the P5 plus Germany on a draft resolution resume.
20 July 2006
Iran announced it would formally respond to the offer on 22 August 2006.
12 July 2006
The P5 plus Germany said Iran had failed to take steps needed for negotiations, leaving no choice but a return to the Council.
11 July 2006
A meeting between Ali Larijani, Javier Solana and the foreign ministers of the P5 plus Germany in Brussels ended with no result.
22 June 2006
Secretary-General Kofi Annan met with Iranian Foreign Minister Manouchehr Motaki who informed Annan that Iran was considering the package very seriously and was willing to negotiate if there are no pre-conditions.
6 June 2006
Javier Solana took the incentives package to Tehran
1 June 2006
The P5 plus Germany offered Iran a package of incentives, including suspension of Council action, as a basis for further discussion.
18 May 2006
The Secretary of the League of Arab States wrote to the Security Council expressing “complete rejection” of nuclear weapons in the region and reactivating an earlier Arab proposal for a regional nuclear weapon free zone.
2 May 2006
The Political Directors of the P5 plus Germany met in Paris.
25 April 2006
Ali Larijani said Iran would cut ties with the International Atomic Energy Agency if the Council imposed sanctions on Iran.
18 to 20 April 2006
Senior diplomats from the P5 plus Germany met in Moscow. Results of the talks are inconclusive.
13 April 2006
Mohammed ElBaradei failed to secure agreement from the Iranian government on compliance with the 29 March Council statement during a trip to Iran.
11 April 2006
Iran announced that it had managed to enrich uranium to 3.5 percent, the level needed to make reactor fuel and asserted that it was now pursuing a more sophisticated and speedy method of enrichment.
30 March 2006
Iran rejected the 29 March Council statement, reaffirmed its right to enrichment technology for civilian purposes, confirmed its intention not to suspend any nuclear activities, and hinted at the possibility of withdrawing from the Non-Proliferation Treaty and even transferring nuclear technology to other countries.
29 March 2006
The Security Council unanimously adopted a presidential statement calling on Iran to halt its nuclear work.
20 March 2006
President Bush said he hoped to solve the issue diplomatically but added that the US will use military power to protect Israel.
Iran resumed enrichment following an IAEA resolution reporting Iran to the Security Council, and threatened to withdraw from the Non-Proliferation Treaty.
31 January 2006
The EU+3, China, Russia and the US met in London and agreed that the IAEA should report Iran to the Council.
10 January 2006
After a failed attempt to have the Iranian delegation meet the UN inspectors in Vienna, Iran broke the IAEA seals at its Natanz nuclear research facility and declared its intention to resume the enrichment process.
Iran refused to resume negotiations with the EU+3. Ahmadinejad again rejected the Russian proposal, and then agreed to consider it.
11 November 2005
With the agreement of the EU and the US, Russia proposed that Iran enrich uranium in Russia. The plan was rejected by Iran.
24 September 2005
An IAEA resolution found Iran in violation of the Non-Proliferation Treaty and said that Iran’s nuclear activities “have given rise to questions that are within the competence of the Security Council.” The resolution invited the IAEA Director General to report again and noted that the Board would address this report at a later stage for a possible notification of the Council.
After rejecting the EU+3 cooperation proposal, Tehran declared it had resumed uranium conversion at its Isfahan plant and insisted the programme was for peaceful purposes.
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad won presidential elections, defeating former President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani.
13 December 2004
Negotiations between Iran and the EU+3 started.
15 November 2004
Under the Paris Accord, Iran agreed to suspend most of its uranium enrichment in return for a European undertaking to cooperate on the nuclear, commercial and political levels.
The International Atomic Energy Agency rebuked Iran for failing to fully cooperate with an inquiry into its nuclear activities and confirmed the discovery of highly enriched uranium.
18 December 2003
Iran signed the Additional Protocol to the Non-Proliferation Treaty.
10 November 2003
The International Atomic Energy Agency concluded that there was no evidence of a weapons programme in Iran.
21 October 2003
Iran agreed to fully cooperate with the IAEA by promising to suspend its uranium enrichment program and allow tougher UN inspections of its nuclear facilities through the signature of the Additional Protocol.
12 September 2003
The IAEA gave Tehran a 31 October 2003 deadline to prove it was not pursuing an atomic weapons programme.
26 August 2003
An IAEA report showed the presence of enriched uranium in Iran at rates superior to what is necessary for civilian use.
13 June 2003
The IAEA asked Iran to implement the Additional Protocol of the Nom-Proliferation Treaty.
21 February 2003
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections began.
9 February 2003
Iranian President Mohammed Khatami announced that Iran would be producing its own atomic fuel for future civilian nuclear plants.
Satellite pictures revealed two nuclear sites in Arak and in Natanz. Iran accepted an International Atomic Energy Agency inspection.