On 3 June, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2636 renewing the mandate of the UN Integrated Transition Assistance Mission in Sudan (UNITAMS) without making any changes, for one year, until 3 June 2023. In its explanation of vote, the UK said that it would have preferred the adoption of a substantive resolution that would have allowed for the updating of UNITAMS’ priorities to reflect Sudan’s own request for traditional support on issues such as disarmament, demobilization and reintegration; transitional justice; and civilian protection.
On 24 May, the Council received a briefing on UNITAMS from Special Representative for Sudan and head of UNITAMS, Volker Perthes. He told the Council that the situation in the country remains precarious and that “time is short for the Sudanese to reach a political solution”. While violations still occur, Perthes noted that violence by security forces against protestors appears to have decreased overall. In relation to Darfur, he warned that “the risk of a new outbreak of violence remains high”.
On 27 April, Security Council members discussed the situation in Sudan under “any other business”. The meeting was requested by the UK (the penholder on Sudan), together with Albania, France, Ireland, Norway, and the US, in response to the escalation of violence reported in West Darfur with Perthes briefing. At the time of writing, according to media reports at least 159 people were killed in Kerenik, West Darfur, on 22 and 24 April.
On 28 March, the Security Council was briefed on Sudan by Special Representative and head of UNITAMS Volker Perthes. He said that “intercommunal conflict in Darfur has intensified”, adding that in March, at least 48 people were killed and more than 12,000 were displaced by intercommunal conflict in Jebel Moon in West Darfur. The chair of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Harold Adlai Agyeman (Ghana), provided the quarterly briefing on the committee’s work.
On 15 February, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2620, extending the mandate of the Panel of Experts assisting the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee until 12 March 2023. The resolution expressed the Council’s intention to consider by 31 August establishing clear, well-identified and realistic key benchmarks.
On 12 January, Security Council members will discuss the situation in Sudan under “any other business”. The meeting was requested by the UK (the penholder on Sudan), together with Albania, France, Ireland, Mexico, Norway, and the US. Special Representative for Sudan and head of UNITAMS Volker Perthes is briefed and updated members on the latest developments in the ongoing political crisis in Sudan following the military coup d’état of 25 October 2021. On 17 January, ICC Prosecutor Karim Asad Ahmad Khan provided the semi-annual briefing on the court’s Darfur-related activities. Khan stressed that the ICC cases in relation to Darfur are not “against Sudan” but against “individuals for whom the evidence discloses their responsibility in relation to crimes” within the court’s jurisdiction. He added that Sudan “is a partner, not an adversary” in the court’s work.
On 10 December, the Security Council was briefed on Sudan by Special Representative and head of UNITAMS Volker Perthes. The chair of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Sven Jürgenson (Estonia), provided the quarterly briefing on the committee’s work.
On 11 November, Council members again convened for closed consultations to receive an update from Perthes on the latest developments in Sudan, further details about the mediation efforts underway and UNITAMS’ role in this regard. In a 1 November press conference, Perthes said that multiple mediation efforts were being undertaken in Khartoum by “a host of actors” and that the UN continued to play a good offices role in supporting some of these initiatives, including by providing ideas and coordinating with some of the mediators. Perthes emphasised that UNITAMS was engaging with all Sudanese actors across the political spectrum and with regional and international interlocutors, with the AU being a main partner.
On 26 October, Council members convened for closed consultations to discuss the situation in Sudan. Special Representative for Sudan and head of UNITAMS Volker Perthes briefed. In a 28 October press statement, Council members expressed “serious concern about the military takeover” and called on Sudan’s military authorities to restore the civilian-led transitional government. Among other things, Council members urged all parties to refrain from violence and emphasised the importance of “full respect for human rights, including the rights to peaceful assembly and freedom of expression”.
On 14 September, the Council received a briefing on UNITAMS from Special Representative for Sudan and head of UNITAMS Volker Perthes. The chair of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Sven Jürgenson (Estonia), provided the quarterly briefing on the committee’s work. There was an unsuccessful attempted coup on 21 September by loyalists of ousted former President Omar Al Bashir, which the Security Council condemned in a press statement on 22 September.
On 27 July, the Council received an oral briefing on the drawdown and closure of UNAMID, as requested in resolution 2559, from Under-Secretary-General for Operational Support Atul Khare. On 2 August, the Council adopted a presidential statement on UNAMID’s closure. Among other things, it “recognises improvements in security conditions in some areas of Darfur and stresses the need for continued progress to consolidate peace and security, including through comprehensive implementation of the Juba Peace Agreement”.
On 3 June, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2579, which extended the mandate of the United Nations Integrated Transition Assistance Mission in Sudan (UNITAMS) until 3 June 2022. The resolution retained the strategic objectives for UNITAMS outlined in resolution 2524, which established the mission on 3 June 2020, while making some adjustments. It decided that UNITAMS should prioritise support for six specified areas during the mandate period. These areas include supporting ceasefire monitoring in Darfur, implementation of the National Plan for Civilian Protection, and the constitution-drafting process. It also requested the Secretary-General to swiftly increase the deployment of personnel to UNITAMS. On 9 June, the Security Council convened in person to receive the semi-annual briefing of the ICC Prosecutor, Fatou Bensouda, related to the Court’s work on Darfur.
On 20 May, the Council received a briefing on UNITAMS from Special Representative for Sudan and head of UNITAMS Volker Perthes. He expressed concern over delays in the political transition, intercommunal conflict and violence against women. He told the Council that UNITAMS is ready to assist the transitional government on security sector reforms and that the mission’s support for the National Plan for Civilian Protection focuses on prevention, protection and creating an enabling protective environment, including strengthening the judiciary. UNITAMS has deployed three teams to Darfur to support the Sudanese police in community policing, investigation and addressing gender-based violence, he said.
On 9 March, the Council received a briefing on UNITAMS and UNAMID from Perthes and Under-Secretary-General for Operational Support Atul Khare. Kholood Khair, managing partner of Insight Strategy Partners, briefed as a member of civil society based in Khartoum. Perthes noted that “Sudan is making significant advances in its transition” but that “the remaining challenges are staggering”. He told the Council that the UN is working to support the transitional government to strengthen the protection of civilians, including through technical advice and capacity-building support. He emphasised that “UNITAMS is a small mission with a broad mandate” and referred to the imminent launch of the Sudan Peacemaking, Peacebuilding and Stabilization Programme, which is a framework between UNITAMS and the UN country team to jointly implement resolution 2524, which established UNITAMS.
On 11 February, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2562 extending the mandate of the Panel of Experts assisting the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee until 12 March 2022. The resolution requests the Secretariat to produce a report by the end of July with recommendations for clear and well-identified key benchmarks that could guide the Council in reviewing the sanctions measures on Darfur. It expresses the Council’s intention to establish those benchmarks by 15 September.
On 8 December 2020, the Council received a briefing on UNITAMS and UNAMID from Under-Secretary-General for Political and Peacebuilding Affairs Rosemary DiCarlo, Under-Secretary-General for Peace Operations Jean-Pierre Lacroix and Under-Secretary-General for Operational Support Atul Khare. On 11 December 2020, Ambassador Sven Jürgenson (Estonia) provided the most recent quarterly briefing in his capacity as chair of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee, during which he highlighted several aspects of the panel’s reporting. He also reiterated that the sanctions regime “is not to punish the Sudan, but to support the attainment of sustainable peace”. Sudan made a statement expressing its position that sanctions should be lifted. The Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2559, on 22 December 2020, on the exit of the UN/AU Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID). The resolution terminated the mandate of UNAMID as of 31 December 2020 and requested the Secretary-General to complete the withdrawal of all uniformed and civilian UNAMID personnel by 30 June, other than those required for the mission’s liquidation.
On 25 September, the Council held an in-person briefing on Sudan in the ECOSOC chamber (S/PV.8761). Under-Secretary-General for Political and Peacebuilding Affairs Rosemary DiCarlo and Under-Secretary-General for Peace Operations Jean-Pierre Lacroix briefed on UNITAMS and UNAMID, respectively. The briefing followed the 3 June adoption of resolutions 2524 and 2525. Resolution 2524 established UNITAMS for an initial period of 12 months, while resolution 2525 extended UNAMID’s mandate until 31 December. Among other issues, the Council discussed the Secretary-General’s 17 September report, which suggested a structure and geographical deployment for UNITAMS.
On 4 June, the Security Council adopted two resolutions related to Sudan (S/2020/496 and S/2020/497). Resolution 2525 extended the mandate of UNAMID at its current troop and police ceiling for two months from 31 October until 31 December 2020. The resolution also requests the Secretary-General and the Chairperson of the AU Commission to provide the Security Council with a Special Report no later than 31 October 2020, assessing, among other things, “the impact of the peace process on the security situation in Darfur, the capacity of the Government of Sudan… to protect civilians in line with the strategy outlined in the Government of Sudan’s letter addressed to the President of the Security Council dated 21 May 2020, and recommendations on the appropriate course of action regarding the drawdown of UNAMID, taking into account the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.” Resolution 2524 established a follow-on mission, the UN Integrated Transition Assistance Mission in Sudan (UNITAMS) and requested the Secretary-General to “swiftly initiate the planning for and establishment of UNITAMS, with a view to reaching full operational capacity as soon as possible and in order to ensure the mission is able to start delivering against all its strategic objectives no later than 1 January 2021”. Both resolutions were adopted unanimously. On 9 June, the chair of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Sven Jürgenson (Estonia), provided the Council the quarterly briefing on the committee’s work in an open VTC format. On 10 June, the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court Fatou Bensouda briefed the Council on her semi-annual report to the Council. Bensouda’s briefing came the day after Ali Kushayb, a Sudanese national who is wanted for war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed in Darfur (Sudan), surrendered himself voluntarily in the Central African Republic.
On 12 March, Council members issued a press statement condemning the attack on Sudanese Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok’s convoy in Khartoum on 9 March. A briefing on the special report of the Secretary-General and the Chairperson of the AU Commission, requested in resolution 2495, did not take place as planned, as Council meetings were postponed due to measures taken to prevent the spread of COVID-19. The quarterly briefing by the chair of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Sven Jürgenson (Estonia), similarly did not take place in March. On 30 March the Council adopted resolution 2517 regarding the drawdown and exit of UNAMID and establishing a follow-on presence, in accordance with resolution 2495.
On 8 January, Council members met under “any other business” to discuss the situation in Darfur. Assistant Secretary-General for Africa Bintou Keita briefed members on recent intercommunal violence in West Darfur, which resulted in the death of several dozen civilians, as well as the looting of UNAMID’s former headquarters in South Darfur. Following the meeting, the president of the Council, Ambassador Dang Dinh Quy (Viet Nam), delivered elements to the press condemning these two incidents.
On 12 December, Ambassador Joanna Wronecka (Poland), chair of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee, provided the quarterly briefing to Council members on the committee’s work. On 18 December, the Council received the semi-annual briefing of the ICC Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda related to the court’s work on Darfur.
On 3 October, Ambassador Joanna Wronecka (Poland), chair of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee, provided the quarterly briefing to Council members on the committee’s work. On 17 October, the Council was briefed on the special report of the Chairperson of the AU Commission and the Secretary-General on UNAMID by Under-Secretary-General for Peace Operations Jean-Pierre Lacroix. He told the Council that the Sudanese government has requested more time to formulate its needs for a possible follow-on mechanism to UNAMID and recommended that for an initial period of six months, which coincides with the anticipated duration of peace talks, UNAMID would retain the same ceiling of uniformed personnel. On 31 October, the Council adopted a resolution extending UNAMID’s mandate until 31 October 2020.
On 21 August, Council members issued a press statement welcoming the 17 August agreement on the establishment of a new civilian-led transitional government and transitional institutions in Sudan. Among other things, the press statement also welcomed “the pledge of the parties to respect human rights and fundamental freedoms…[and] the commitment to create a national independent committee to investigate the violent acts committed on 3 June and other incidents of human rights violations and abuses.” On 26 August, Under-Secretary-General for Peace Operations Jean-Pierre Lacroix briefed the Council (via video teleconference) on UNAMID. The briefing was in accordance with resolution 2479 of 27 June, requesting the Secretary-General to provide the Security Council with an oral update about the situation on the ground 60 days after the adoption of the resolution. AU Commissioner for Peace and Security Smaїl Chergui also briefed (via video teleconference).
On 11 June, Council members issued a press statement which strongly condemned the recent violence, called for respect for human rights, and encouraged the Secretary-General to continue to support regional and international efforts, in particular, those led by the AU, to facilitate and agree on a national transitional process. On 14 June, Under-Secretary-General for Peace Operations Jean-Pierre Lacroix briefed the Council on UNAMID and the special report of the Chairperson of the AU Commission and the UN Secretary-General on the strategic assessment of UNAMID (S/2019/445). Assistant Secretary-General for Human Rights Andrew Gilmour also briefed. The briefing was followed by consultations. On 19 June, the Council received the semi-annual briefing of the ICC Prosecutor related to the court’s work on Darfur. On 26 June, Ambassador Joanna Wronecka (Poland), chair of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee, provided the quarterly briefing to Council members on the committee’s work. The Council renewed the mandate of UNAMID on 27 June.
On 12 April, Assistant Secretary-General for Africa Bintou Keita briefed Council members under “any other business” at the request of Belgium, France, Germany, Poland, the UK and the US, following the ousting of President Omar al-Bashir on 11 April by the Sudanese military. Also on 12 April, the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee met during informal consultations to receive a briefing from the Panel of Experts on the Panel’s workplan, in accordance with the Panel’s mandate as extended by resolution 2455 until 12 March 2020. On 17 April, the Security Council was briefed on the Secretary-General’s 90-day report on UNAMID by Joint Special Representative and head of UNAMID Jeremiah Mamabolo (via video teleconference from Khartoum). He told the Council the planned withdrawal of UNAMID by 30 June 2020 is on track, but the political situation in Sudan has changed drastically and could affect implementation of the mission’s mandate going forward. Assistant Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs Ursula Mueller also briefed. The briefing was followed by consultations.
On 7 February, the Security Council adopted resolution 2455 extending the mandate of the Panel of Experts assisting the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee until 12 March 2020. The resolution expressed the Council’s “intention to establish clear, well identified, and measurable key benchmarks that could serve in guiding the Security Council to review measures on the Government of Sudan”. On 25 February, the Council was briefed by Assistant Secretary-General for Africa Bintou Keita on UNAMID and the Secretary-General’s 90-day report. Assistant Secretary-General of the UN Development Programme Mourad Wahba and Assistant Secretary-General for Peacebuilding Support Oscar Fernandez-Taranco also briefed. The briefing was followed by consultations.
On 14 December, ICC Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda briefed the Council, providing the semi-annual briefing on the ICC’s work with regard to Darfur. Bensouda noted that while levels of violence in Darfur have decreased, impunity as well as reports of serious crimes persist. Violations of the ICC’s Rome Statute, including failure to arrest fugitives as they cross international borders, are unlikely to end if the Security Council remains unwilling to take action against such non-compliance, she said.
On 3 October, Ambassador Joanna Wronecka (Poland), chair of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee, provided the quarterly briefing to Council members on the committee’s work (S/PV.8366). She highlighted aspects of the interim report of the Panel of Experts presented to the committee on 17 August. On 22 October, Joint Special Representative and head of UNAMID Jeremiah Mamabolo briefed (S/PV.8377) the Council on the Secretary-General’s 90-day report (S/2018/912). He said that with the Council’s adoption of resolution 2429 in July, UNAMID has begun its reconfiguration and drawdown, while monitoring the reconfiguration’s impact on security and the protection of civilians. He also emphasised the importance of meeting the benchmarks for the mission’s exit set out in the Secretary-General’s report.
On 13 July, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2429, extending until 30 June 2019 the mandate of UNAMID (S/PV.8311). The resolution decided to reduce, over the course of the mandate renewal period, the troop ceiling to 4,050 personnel and authorised the deployment of the necessary police force, not exceeding 2,500 personnel. It requested the Secretary-General and the Chairperson of the African Commission to conduct a strategic review of UNAMID by 1 May 2019.
On 11 June, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Jean-Pierre Lacroix briefed the Council on the special report of the Chairperson of the AU Commission and the Secretary-General on the strategic review of UNAMID. With the security situation in Darfur remaining largely stable, the further proposed drawdown of UNAMID should be coupled with increased peacebuilding efforts focused on addressing the root causes of conflict, as set out in the special report, Lacroix said. On 13 June, Ambassador Joanna Wronecka (Poland) briefed the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee in her capacity as chair on her April visit to Sudan. The following day she provided the chair’s 90-day briefing to the Council. The Council adopted resolution 2425 on 29 June, providing for a technical rollover of UNAMID’s mandate until 13 July, to allow more time to consider possible changes to the mandate.
On 10 May, the Council received a briefing on Darfur via video teleconference from Joint Special Representative for Darfur and head of UNAMID Jeremiah Mamabolo, who briefed on the 60-day report of the Secretary-General on UNAMID (S/2018/389). He emphasised that “as UNAMID continues its reconfiguration and drawdown, the transition phase will be critical in creating the foundation for durable peace”. He added that, together with the UN country team, UNAMID has finalised a financing approach for sustaining peace in Darfur, which requires efforts towards the mobilisation of financial resources.
On 18 April, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Jean-Pierre Lacroix and AU Commissioner for Peace and Security Smail Chergui (via video teleconference) briefed Council members in an informal interactive dialogue on their joint visit to Sudan and the Central African Republic from 7 to 13 April.
On 14 March, the Council was briefed on UNAMID by Joint Special Representative for Darfur and head of UNAMID Jeremiah Mamabolo (via video teleconference) on the Secretary-General’s latest 60-day report on this issue. Ambassador Joanna Wronecka (Poland), the chair of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee, provided the quarterly briefing to Council members on the Committee’s work. The briefings were followed by consultations. Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children in Armed Conflict Virginia Gamba briefed members in the consultations.
On 10 January, the Council was briefed by Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Jean-Pierre Lacroix on the 60-day report of the Secretary-General on UNAMID and on the joint assessment by the Chairperson of the AU Commission and the Secretary-General of phase one of the reconfiguration of UNAMID. As UNAMID moved towards the implementation of phase two, he recommended that a review should take place to consider a new mission concept. On 31 January, the Council adopted its first presidential statement on Darfur since April 2012. The statement dealt with the security and political conditions in Darfur, the situation of IDPs, and the government’s weapons collection campaign. It also requested UNAMID and the UN Country Team to continue to monitor closely the impact of the reconfiguration on the situation on the ground. The statement requested a written report of the review of UNAMID’s mandate by 1 June. (For more details see our What’s In Blue story from 30 January.)
On 7 December, the Chair of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Volodymyr Yelchenko (Ukraine), briefed the Council, in an open meeting instead of consultations, on the Committee’s work from 25 July to 7 December 2017. Yelchenko also spoke at an 8 December briefing by the outgoing chairs of subsidiary bodies of the Security Council. He said that a sanctions committee could be paralysed by its politicisation and by what he described as an “abuse of the consensus rule”, such as the fact that in recent years the Committee had been unable to present its 90-day report in an open format. He noted that his briefing in the open chamber the previous day broke with this trend. He also expressed hope that this practice of public briefings will continue by default. On 12 December, ICC Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda provided the semi-annual Council briefing on the ICC’s work with regard to Darfur, saying the ICC’s entire judicial machinery could be frustrated unless the suspects it had indicted appeared before it. Bensouda noted Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir’s most recent travels to South Africa, Jordan, Uganda, Chad and Russia and requested that the Council take action to respond to ongoing instances of non-compliance or non-cooperation relating to the situation in Darfur and outstanding arrest warrants.
On 15 November, the Council received a briefing, followed by consultations, on the Secertary-General’s 60-day report on UNAMID from Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Bintou Keita, who said the level of cooperation between UNAMID and the government of Sudan has been positive overall, although access restrictions and customs clearance at Port Sudan remain challenging. The establishment of the Golo team site is essential to UNAMID’s reconfiguration and goes hand-in-hand with the mission’s withdrawal from more stable parts of Darfur, she said.
On 14 September, Jeremiah Mamabolo, the Joint Special Representative for UNAMID, briefed the Council on the Secretary-General’s recent report on UNAMID. Mamabolo said cooperation with the government has noticeably improved in relation to humanitarian access and restrictions on UNAMID’s movements. There is an urgent need for the government, with the support of the international community, to find sustainable solutions that would enable the IDPs to return to their homes voluntarily, he said, adding that the cooperation of the government on the reconfiguration of UNAMID, particularly the establishment of a temporary operating base in Golo, is a matter of priority. The briefing was followed by consultations.
On 3 July, the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee met to discuss the report of the chair, Ambassador Volodymyr Yelchenko (Ukraine), on his 14 to 18 May 2017 visit to Sudan. Yelchenko briefed Council members in consultations on the work of the committee on 24 July.
On 1 June, Council members issued a press statement condemning the attack on UNAMID peacekeepers by an unidentified group in a carjacking incident, which resulted in one peacekeeper being killed. On 8 June, the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC), Fatou Bensouda, briefed the Council on the situation in Darfur and cooperation with the ICC’s work pursuant to resolution 1593. Bensouda requested that the Council take action to respond to ongoing instances of non-compliance or non-cooperation relating to the situation in Darfur and the outstanding warrants. On 14 June, the Council was briefed by the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, El-Ghassim Wane, on the joint AU-UN strategic review on UNAMID. Wane reported on the changes in UNAMID’s operating environment and recommended the proposed restructure, redeployment and refocusing of UNAMID to reflect the mission’s “new realities”. Key changes to UNAMID’s priorities discussed by Wane included the recommended increased focused on the effective implementation of the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur and an increased focus on the protection of civilians in the greater Jebel Marra area. On 29 June, the Council adopted resolution renewing the mandate for UNAMID for an additional year. In line with the AU-UN strategic review, UNAMID will begin a process of restructuring and redeployment to be completed over the course of two successive six-month phases. An assessment will be completed following the first phase, allowing the Council an opportunity to delay or alter the second phase if required.
On 4 April, the Joint Special Representative for Darfur and head of UNAMID, Jeremiah Mamabolo, briefed the Council on the quarterly report of the Secretary-General. Mamabolo described Darfur as being “a very different place from what the region was in 2003”, but noted that banditry and criminality continued to be widespread, and that the improving situation in Darfur had not yet resulted in significant advances in efforts to reach a long-term political resolution. On 26 April, the chair of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Volodymyr Yelchenko (Ukraine), provided the quarterly briefing to Council members in consultations.
On 12 January, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed the Council on UNAMID. Ladsous said that continued delays in customs clearances for contingency-owned equipment and delays in issuing visas (as well as denials of visa requests) for UNAMID’s human rights section continued to be problems for the mission. He added that while the joint working group on an exit strategy for UNAMID—consisting of representatives of Sudan, the AU and the UN—convened in October and November 2016 in Khartoum, they were unable “to reach a consensus on specific modalities for the reconfiguration of the mission”. Council members engaged with Thabo Mbeki (chair of the AU High-Level Implementation Panel), who briefed via video teleconference, during an informal interactive dialogue following Ladsous’s briefing. Mbeki spoke about the political process in Darfur, which has been unsuccessful in ending a conflict now in its 14th year. He noted that the rebel groups continued to have objections to the Doha document. As noted in the Secretary-General’s most recent report on UNAMID, implementation of several of the provisions of the document—including those related to compensation, arms control and justice and reconciliation, among others—has not occurred. In press elements read out by Ambassador Olof Skoog (Sweden), the Council President in January, members underlined their support for Mbeki’s mediation efforts. On 20 January, Ambassador Volodymyr Yelchenko (Ukraine), the chair of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee, provided the quarterly briefing on the Committee’s work, focusing on the Panel of Experts’ final report. The report noted that the “United Nations and its partners continue to face access restrictions in providing humanitarian assistance in different regions of Darfur, in particular in the areas of Jebel Marra affected by the 2016 crisis.”
On 4 October, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed the Council on the most recent UNAMID report. Ladsous noted that fighting continued in the Jebel Marra region between government forces and the Sudan Liberation Army–Abdul Wahid rebel group. In reference to the late September allegations by Amnesty International that government forces had used chemical weapons in the Jebel Marra area, Ladsous said that without further information or evidence being made available, it is not possible at this stage for the OPCW to draw any conclusions. In the consultations following the briefing, there was reportedly widespread agreement that there needed to be additional investigation of Amnesty International’s findings. The Sudan Sanctions Committee met with the newly appointed Panel of Experts on 28 October. During the meeting, the Panel presented its programme of work and underscored its commitment to provide the committee with impartial and balanced reporting.
On 8 July, Zainab Bangura, the Secretary-General’s Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict, briefed the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee. Bangura apparently reported that sexual violence was a consistent characteristic of the Darfur conflict. She also reported that restrictions on humanitarian access and impunity remained challenges in Darfur.
On 9 June, the Council received a briefing by the ICC Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda on the Court’s work on Darfur (S/PV.7710). Bensouda reiterated her concern regarding the Council’s inaction with respect to Sudan’s non-compliance with the Court. On 14 June, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed the Council (S/PV.7716) on the special report of the UN Secretary-General and the AU Commission Chairperson on UNAMID (S/2016/510). On 29 June, the Council adopted resolution 2296 renewing UNAMID’s mandate for one year.
On 6 April, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed the Council on UNAMID. He said that since his last briefing to the Council in January, fighting had continued in Darfur’s Jebel Marra region between government forces and the SLA-AW faction, leading to the significant displacement of people. Council members discussed Darfur under “any other business” on 12 April at the UK’s request. The meeting focused on restrictions imposed by the Sudanese government on UNAMID’s operations, mainly delays in issuing visas for UNAMID staff and in providing customs clearances for supply containers to be shipped to UNAMID. On 19 April, the Sanctions Committee met with Leila Zerrougui, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict, who said that Sudan had recently signed an Action Plan committing to prevent the recruitment and use of children in armed conflict.
On 10 March, Council members issued a press statement that condemned the 9 March attack by unidentified assailants on UNAMID peacekeepers in North Darfur that resulted in the death of one peacekeeper.
On 4 February, Council members held consultations on the work of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee. Ambassador Rafael Ramírez (Venezuela), chair of the Committee, briefed on the Panel of Experts’ final report, which at press time was not yet public. On 10 February, the Council adopted resolution 2265, renewing the mandate of the Panel until 12 March 2017 (S/PV.7619).
On 17 January, UNAMID released a press statement in which it expressed deep concern about clashes near its Neriti team site, in Central Darfur, between Sudanese government forces and armed groups. The mission also reported aerial bombardments in the area. On 25 January, the Council was briefed on UNAMID by Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous. Ladsous expressed concern with the impact of the renewed upsurge in fighting on civilians in the Jebel Marra region of Darfur. He emphasised the difficulties in the political process between the government and the armed groups.
On 18 December, the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee’s Panel of Experts briefed the Committee on its final report.
On 4 November, Ambassador Rafael Ramírez of Venezuela, the chair of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee, provided the quarterly briefing to Council members on the committee’s work. He said that he had received an invitation to visit Sudan from the government, but that a date for such a trip had yet to be determined.
On 14 October, Council members received a briefing under “any other business” from Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous at the request of the UK, regarding obstacles imposed on UNAMID by the government of Sudan. Ladsous told members that Sudan continued to block the transport of 190 cargo containers of food and other supplies intended for UNAMID in Port Sudan, some for as long as 84 days. Council members decided at the meeting that Ambassador Román Oyarzun of Spain, in his capacity as president of the Security Council, should meet with Sudan permanent representative to the UN, Ambassador Omer Dahab Fadl Mohamed, and request that the containers be transported to Darfur. If the shipments were not commenced within three days, members determined that they should consider issuing a press statement, although some were less supportive of pursuing a statement than others. Later that day, Oyarzun met with Mohamed and expressed the Council’s concerns. In a letter to the Council on 15 October, Mohamed said that “the competent Sudanese authorities [had] granted customs clearance for the UNAMID containers”. On 28 October, the Council held a briefing, followed by consultations, on UNAMID. Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Edmond Mulet told the Council that the security situation in Darfur remained “precarious and unpredictable.” He said that a meeting between the government and the rebel groups on the cessation of hostilities is currently planned for 18-19 November in Addis Ababa under the auspices of the AUHIP.
On 26 August, Ambassador Rafael Ramirez (Venezuela), chair of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee, briefed Council members in consultations. The quarterly briefing covered the work of the Committee since the last briefing by Ramirez on 28 May, including the 1591 Committee’s most recent meeting on 20 August where it discussed the Panel of Experts’ mid-term report.
On 10 June, the Council held a briefing, followed by consultations, on the situation in Darfur and the UNAMID report. During the briefing, Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Edmond Mulet told the Council that there had been “limited progress in the peace process” and described the “devastating impact that the security situation…had on innocent civilians”. On 29 June, the Council adopted resolution 2228 renewing the mandate of UNAMID for an additional year. A closed Arria-formula meeting was held on 19 June on the human rights situation in Darfur, which was intended to mark the 10th anniversary of the Commission of Inquiry report on Darfur, submitted to the Council on 31 January 2005. Former Commission member Hina Jilani; Abdelrahman Gasim of the Darfur Bar Association; and Hawa Abdalla, an IDP camp leader and activist on women’s issues, briefed. ICC Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda provided the semi-annual briefing on the Court’s work with respect to Darfur on 29 June (S/PV.7478).
On 17 March, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed the Council on the most recent UNAMID report and on the special report on the implementation of UNAMID’s strategic review. He said that the “security situation had deteriorated significantly over the past year” in Darfur. He also indicated that the UN, the AU and Sudan had begun discussions on the creation of an exit strategy for UNAMID. Sudan also addressed the Council. On 25 March, the UK circulated a draft presidential statement reiterating the Council’s endorsement of UNAMID’s revised strategic priorities. As of the end of March, the draft was still pending.
On 6 February, Ambassador Rafael Ramírez (Venezuela), the chair of the Sudan Sanctions Committee, briefed Council members in consultations. Ramírez told the members that the Committee recognised the quality of the Panel’s final report. He added that the Committee was concerned about attacks on civilians and UN personnel in Darfur, while noting that several Committee members remarked on continued violations of the arms embargo. On 12 February, the Council adopted resolution 2200 renewing the mandate of the Panel of Experts of the Sudan Sanctions Committee for an additional 13 months until 12 March 2016 (S/PV.7380). In the US’s explanation of vote, Ambassador Samantha Power said that the resolution “speaks to our deep concern about ongoing violations” and “presses the Government of the Sudan to take long-overdue steps necessary to protect the people of Darfur and stop the violence.”
On 4 December 2014, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed the Council and reported that Sudan had publicly called for UNAMID’s departure (S/PV.7326). He also presented the quarterly UNAMID report (S/2014/852). On 12 December, ICC Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda, during her semi-annual briefing on the Court’s work in Darfur, said that the ICC was suspending its investigations in Darfur because of the Security Council’s lack of action on the matter and the limited resources of her office which would be applied elsewhere (S/PV.7337). On 30 December, Council members held consultations to discuss Sudan’s decision to expel two high-level UN officials from the country, Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Ali al-Zaatari (Jordan) and UN Development Programme (UNDP) Country Director Yvonne Helle (Netherlands). Deputy Secretary-General Jan Eliasson briefed.
On 10 November, Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Edmond Mulet and Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict Zainab Bangura (who participated via video-teleconference from Geneva) briefed Council members in consultations under “any other business” on the alleged rapes in Tabit and on UNAMID’s efforts to investigate the allegations. The Council issued a press statement on 19 November calling on Sudan to provide proper access to Tabit and its people to enable UNAMID to “verify whether these incidents have occurred”. On 24 November, the Council received the quarterly briefing, followed by consultations, from the chair of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee, Ambassador María Cristina Perceval (Argentina), on the Committee’s work in Darfur (S/PV.7320). Perceval said that she was briefing in an open session to promote the transparency of the work of the Sanctions Committee.
On 16 October, three Ethiopian peacekeepers with the AU/UN Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) died after they were ambushed and shot by unidentified assailants in Karma, North Darfur, while protecting a water pump that was used by internally displaced persons and students from a nearby school. Council members issued a press statement condemning the attack (SC/11603).
On 7 August, the Council held a briefing, followed by consultations, on Darfur. Mohamed Ibn Chambas, the Joint AU-UN Special Representative for Darfur and head of UNAMID, briefed the Council on the latest UNAMID report. Ambassador Rahamtalla Mohamed Osman Elnor (Sudan) addressed the Council after Chambas. On 27 August, the Council adopted resolution 2173 renewing the mandate of UNAMID for 10 months. The same day, Council members received a briefing in consultations on the work of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee from its chair, Ambassador Maria Cristina Perceval (Argentina).
On 2 July, Stéphane Dujarric, spokesman for Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, announced that the Secretary-General had “instructed the Secretariat to review the reports of all [UNAMID] investigations and inquiries undertaken since mid-2012 to ensure that their recommendations have been implemented and that any relevant issues have been fully addressed”. The announcement followed on the heels of ICC Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda’s call, during her 17 June briefing to the Council, for an independent and thorough inquiry into allegations that UNAMID reporting had been manipulated to conceal crimes against civilians and peacekeepers.
International Criminal Court (ICC) Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda delivered on 17 June her semi-annual briefing to the Council on the work of the ICC in Darfur (S/PV.7199). She stated that “the time is long overdue for…Sudan’s consistent defiance of Security Council resolutions to be met by decisive action from the Council”. Bensouda also called for a “thorough, independent and public inquiry” into allegations that UNAMID reporting had been manipulated “with the intentional effect of covering up crimes committed against civilians and peacekeepers”. Bensouda further indicated that there should be greater scrutiny of the UN’s non-essential contacts policy with ICC indictees. (In her written report to the Council, she expressed concern about a long meeting that Deputy Secretary-General Jan Eliasson held with President Omar al-Bashir of Sudan—who has been indicted by the ICC for war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide—during the AU Summit in January in Addis Ababa.)
On 20 May, Ambassador María Cristina Perceval (Argentina), chair of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee, provided the quarterly briefing to the Council on the Committee’s work in consultations. Perceval reported that concerns had been expressed by a number of Committee members about ongoing violations of the arms embargo. She added that several Committee members would welcome information from the Panel of Experts on the impact of the conflict in South Sudan on Darfur. An AU/UN Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) peacekeeper was shot and killed in Kubkabiya, North Darfur on 24 May while trying to mediate between members of the Fur ethnic group and an Arab militia. Three other peacekeepers were wounded in the incident. Council members issued a press statement the same day condemning the attack (SC/11413).
On 3 April, the Council adopted resolution 2148, which endorsed the revised strategic priorities for UNAMID proposed in the Secretary-General’s special report of 25 February (S/2014/138) outlining the results of the recent review of the mission’s mandate. On 24 April, the Council received a briefing (S/PV.7159), followed by consultations, on the most recent quarterly UNAMID report. Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed in the open session. Ladsous underscored the deteriorating security situation in Darfur, citing reports by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs that 370,000 people have been displaced since January and that more than 2 million people are currently internally displaced in Darfur. Joint AU-UN Special Representative for Darfur and Chief Mediator Mohamed Ibn Chambas also addressed Council members.
Council members discussed Darfur and UNAMID in consultations with Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous on 12 March. Ladsous briefed on the Secretary-General’s special report (S/2014/138) on UNAMID effectiveness, which recommends adjusting the benchmarks for assessment of UNAMID and re-evaluating the mission after one year.
The Council addressed Darfur on 13 February with the adoption of resolution 2138, which extended for 13 months the mandate of the PoE assisting the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee (S/PV.7111). Resolution 2138 reduced the reporting requirements of the PoE from three to two reports annually: a midterm briefing due by 31 July and a final report due by 17 January 2015. Resolution 2138 also included new language on the need for Sudan to address the illicit transfer, accumulation and misuse of small arms and light weapons in Darfur. During consultations on 11 February, Ambassador María Cristina Perceval (Argentina), chair of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee, briefly discussed her trip to Sudan from 20-23 January. The final report of the PoE was transmitted to the Council on 7 February (S/2014/87).
The Council received a briefing on UNAMID from Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous on 23 January followed by consultations (S/PV.7100). During the briefing, Ladsous highlighted the deteriorating security and humanitarian situation in Darfur during the past year, as well as the limited progress that has been made in implementing the DDPD and in bringing tangible benefits to the people of Darfur. The Sanctions Committee chair visited Sudan from 20-23 January, traveling to Khartoum and Darfur and meeting with Sudan government officials and UN representatives. The main objective was for the Committee to enhance its understanding of the state of implementation of the Council’s resolutions related to the Sudan sanctions regime. Some other Council members with diplomatic representation in the region also took part in several meetings held in the context of the trip.
ICC Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda briefed the Council on 11 December on the work of the ICC in Darfur. During her briefing, she was highly critical of Sudan for its non-compliance with Council decisions and of the Council for its failure to ensure that the ICC indictees are tried for their alleged crimes. On 30 December, the Council issued a press statement condemning an attack on a UNAMID convoy which resulted in the deaths of two peacekeepers.
On 20 November, Ambassador María Cristina Perceval (Argentina), chair of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee, provided the quarterly briefing in consultations on the Committee’s work. Concern was expressed during the meeting with violations of the arms embargo and the ongoing inter-communal violence in Darfur. A UNAMID peacekeeper was killed by unidentified assailants on 24 November. The Council issued a press statement condemning the attack on 25 November.
Four UNAMID peacekeepers were killed in two separate attacks in Darfur on 11 October and 13 October. On 14 October, the Council issued a press statement condemning these attacks and calling on Sudan bring those responsible to justice. On 23 October the Council was briefed by the AU-UN Special Representative and Joint Chief Mediator Mohamed Ibn’ Chambas on his meeting with key figures from rebel groups that expressed their commitment for a negotiated political settlement. Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Hervé Ladsous also briefed and reported on the limited progress in the peace process, the difficult security environment and the ongoing need for humanitarian assistance in Darfur.
On 18 September, the ICC Pre-Trial Chamber issued a public decision in which it invited US officials to apprehend and surrender Bashir to the court if he enters the US to attend the 68th UN General Assembly. In the decision, the ICC noted that while the US is not a state party to the ICC, the Council “urge[d] all States…to cooperate fully with the Court” in resolution 1593, which was adopted under Chapter VII. Ultimately, however, Bashir decided to call off his trip.
On 22 August, Ambassador María Cristina Perceval (Argentina), in her capacity as chair of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee, provided Council members with the quarterly briefing on the committee’s work in consultations.
On 14 July, Council members issued a press statement condemning the 13 July attack on UNAMID that resulted in the death of seven Tanzanian peacekeepers. On 24 July, the Council held a briefing and consultations on UNAMID. The AU-UN Special Representative and Joint Chief Mediator Mohamed Ibn’ Chambas briefed Council members on the latest Secretary-General’s report on UNAMID. On 30 July, the Council adopted resolution 2113 extending the mandate of the mission for an additional year.
Fatou Bensouda, the ICC Prosecutor, briefed the Council on 5 June with “a deep sense of frustration, even despair”, as each of the 17 previous briefings on the work of the ICC on Darfur “had been followed by inaction and paralysis within the Council while the plight of victims of crimes committed in Darfur has gone from bad to worse”.
Ambassador María Cristina Perceval (Argentina), chair of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee, briefed Council members in consultations on the Committee’s work on 16 May. She noted that four of the five members of the Panel of Experts were in Darfur. She added that Sudan has continued to deny access to the finance expert, Ghassan Schbley. (Sudan has objected to Schbley, expressing concerns about his activities when he was a member of the Panel of Experts for the 751/1907 Somalia/Eritrea Sanctions Committee.) Perceval also told Council members that the Committee members had agreed to visit Darfur in October.
On 19 April, the Council issued a press statement condemning an attack which killed one UNAMID peacekeeper and wounded two others. On 29 April, the Council held a briefing and consultations on Darfur. During the briefing, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Hervé Ladsous said that he was troubled by the situation in Darfur, referring to inter-communal violence, fighting between government forces and rebel movements, and large numbers of civilians recently displaced by the conflict. Regarding the Sudan sanctions regime, the Panel of Experts briefed the Sudan Sanctions Committee on 18 April and reported that they had not received visas and thus had been unable to visit Sudan to conduct their investigation. Regarding ICC activity, on 15 April the Secretary-General forwarded to the Security Council an ICC decision that Chad, a state party to the Rome Statute, has been in non-compliance with ICC requests for the arrest and surrender of Sudanese President Omar Al-Bashir.
On 14 February, the Council adopted resolution 2091 extending the mandate of the Panel of Experts of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee until 17 February 2014 (S/PV.6920). Earlier in the month, the chair of Committee, Ambassador María Cristina Perceval (Argentina), circulated to the Council the 5 February report of the Panel of Experts assisting the Committee. The report outlined several violations by Sudan of resolution 1591. It also indicated that during 2012 JEM had operated a large base around Bentiu in South Sudan’s Unity State.
On 24 January, Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Edmond Mulet briefed the Council on Darfur and the latest Secretary-General’s report on UNAMID. Mulet expressed concern at the recent deterioration of the security situation in certain parts of Darfur, particularly western Jebel Marra and North Darfur. He said that the government needed to provide “a holistic settlement of the issues of political and economic marginalisation affecting not only Darfur but Sudan as a whole” to achieve a durable and comprehensive peace in Darfur. Speaking after Mulet, Ambassador Daffa-Alla Elhag Ali Osman (Sudan) urged the Council to take stronger measures against rebel groups that have not joined the Doha peace process.
On 13 December, ICC Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda briefed the Council on Darfur. She argued that Sudan’s “actions on the ground…show an ongoing commitment to crimes against civilians as a solution to the government’s problems in Darfur.” Bensouda also indicated that given continuing allegations of crimes committed in the region she would consider opening new investigations and producing additional arrest warrant applications. On 20 December, Mohamed Ibn Chambas of Ghana was appointed as the new AU-UN Joint Special Representative for Darfur and Joint Chief Mediator.
On 24 October, the Council received a briefing from Edmond Mulet, the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping, and held consultations on the Secretary-General’s latest UNAMID report. The Council also issued two press statements on Darfur in October. On 3 October, the Council condemned the ambush on a UNAMID patrol in El Geneini by unidentified individuals that led to the deaths of four Nigerian peacekeepers and the wounding of eight others. On 17 October, the Council condemned the attack by unidentified individuals on a UNAMID patrol in North Darfur that resulted in the death of a South African peacekeeper and the wounding of three others.
The former Joint AU-UN Special Representative for Darfur, Ibrahim Gambari, announced his resignation from his post on 11 September.
On 15 August the Council issued a press statement condemning the attack on a UNAMID police centre which killed one peacekeeper. The Sudan Sanctions Committee met in consultations on 24 August to discuss the interim report of the Panel of Experts which had been delayed because the Panel was unable to secure visas in a timely fashion to conduct its investigations in Darfur.
On 31 July, the Council adopted resolution 2063 renewing the mandate of UNAMID for a year. The resolution authorised a reconfiguration of UNAMID to include 16,200 military personnel, 2,310 police personnel and 17 formed police units of a maximum of 140 personnel each. Prior to the adoption, the Council was briefed by the Joint AU-UN Special Representative for Darfur, Ibrahim Gambari. Gambari said implementation of the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur was behind schedule and that a new implementation timeline had been created.
On 5 June, ICC prosecutor Luis Moreno Ocampo gave his final briefing to the Council before relinquishing his post. He suggested that the Council consider asking member states and regional organisations to conduct operations to arrest Sudanese officials indicted by the ICC.
On 4 May, while indicating its commitment to resolution 2046 which called for Sudan and South Sudan to cease hostilities, Sudan accused South Sudan of occupying certain areas inside Sudan’s Darfur border, adding that it had a right to repel these incursions. On 17 May,
On 24 April, the Council issued a press statement condemning the 20 April attack on a formed police unit in Darfur and calling on the Sudanese government to bring those responsible to justice. The attack had occurred in Western Darfur when peacekeepers were fired upon while returning to base. Four Togolese peacekeepers were wounded, with one later dying. On 26 April, the Council was briefed on the situation in Darfur by DPKO.
On 21 March, Ambassador Néstor Osorio (Colombia), Chair of the Sudan Sanctions Committee, briefed the Council in consultations on the recent activities of the Committee. In other developments, on 1 March, the ICC issued an arrest warrant for Abdelrahim Mohamed Hussein, Sudan’s Defence Minister, for crimes allegedly committed while Hussein was Minister of the Interior and Special Representative of the President in Darfur. On 23 March, the Human Rights Council endorsed Mashood Baderin as the new UN Independent Expert on the situation of human rights in Sudan.
On 17 February, the Council adopted resolution 2035 renewing the mandate of the Panel of Experts of the Sudan Sanctions Committee for an additional year. The Darfur Regional Authority, responsible for managing implementation of the Doha Document and development in the region, was officially launched in El-Fasher. In other developments, one UNAMID peacekeeper was killed and three were wounded when unidentified gunmen ambushed them near the town of Shearia in South Darfur on 29 February. On 24 February, two members of a UNAMID formed police unit were wounded near El Dein in East Darfur when an unidentified gunman shot them while they were travelling in a bus near their base. On 19 February, 55 UNAMID peacekeepers on patrol in north-western Darfur were blocked by approximately 100 rebels of the Justice and Equality Movement.
The Council issued a press statement condemning the attack against a UNAMID patrol in Saleah, killing a peacekeeper and wounding three others on 21 January. On 11 January, DPKO briefed the Council on the Secretary-General’s 30 December UNAMID report.
The Council received a briefing from the ICC Prosecutor on 15 December. On 2 December, the ICC Prosecutor requested the pre-trail chamber to issue an arrest warrant for Sudan’s Defence Minister, Abdelrahim Mohamed Hussein, for crime against humanity and war crimes allegedly committed between August 2003 and March 2004 in Darfur. On 13 December, the ICC decided that Chad had not met its obligation to fully cooperate with the ICC by failing to arrest and surrender Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir when he visited Chad in August. On 12 December, the ICC announced that Malawi, a party to the Rome Statute, had been referred to the Security Council and the ICC’s Assembly of States Parties for its failure to apprehend and surrender Bashir when he visited Malawi in October.
On 11 November, the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), the Sudan Liberation Army—Abdul Wahid (SLA-AW), the Sudan Liberation Army—Minni Minnawi (SLA-MM) and the Sudan Peoples’ Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) formed a military and political alliance called the Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF). On 28 November, a special court for Darfur based in El Fasher sentenced seven members of JEM to death for their role in an ambush of a troop convoy in Darfur in January 2010, which led to the deaths of more than 50 Sudanese soldiers. On 6 November, a Sierra Leonean peacekeeper was killed and one Sierra Leonean peacekeeper was wounded when they were attacked while on patrol as part of UNAMID near Nyala in south Darfur. Hervé Ladsous, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, visited Sudan and South Sudan from 30 October to 6 November, making stops in Khartoum, Darfur, Abyei and Juba.
On 25 October, the Council was briefed on the 12 October UNAMID report. DPKO said that progress had been made with the signing of the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur, or DDPD. On 10 October, two Rwandan soldiers and a Senegalese police advisor were killed and five Rwandan troops and one Gambian soldier (all part of UNAMID) were wounded when they were ambushed by an unidentified group while patrolling near a camp for internally displaced persons near El Fasher in north Darfur.
On 14 September, Ibrahim Gambari, joint AU-UN Special Representative for Darfur, called on the SLM-MM, SLM-AW and JEM to join the peace process in Darfur, and estimated that armed attacks in the region had decreased by 70 percent in the previous three years. On 11 September, JEM announced that its leader, Khalil Ibrahim, had returned to Darfur from Libya, where he had been in exile since may 2010. The same day, the Implementation Follow-Up Committee for the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur (DDPD) met for the first time.
A 23 August press statement by Chairperson of the Commission of the AU, Jean Ping, stressed the need to fully launch the Darfur-based Political Process.
On 29 July, the Council adopted resolution 2003, extending UNAMID for another year. On 3 July, an Ethiopian peacekeeper serving in UNAMID was shot and killed in El Geneina, West Darfur.
On 22 June, the Council held an informal interactive dialogue with the foreign minister of Burkina Faso and former AU-UN joint mediator, Djibril Bassolé, and the state minister for foreign affairs of Qatar to discuss the Doha peace processes. Fighting in Shangil Tobaya on 18 and 19 June in North Darfur forced about 1,000 civilians to seek protection at a nearby UNAMID team site. On 8 June, the ICC Prosecutor briefed the Council on the Court’s work in Sudan. On 6 June, three Bulgarian helicopter crew kidnapped on 12 January in West Darfur state were released unharmed.
The All Darfur Stakeholders Conference is held in Doha, Qatar between 27 and 31 May. On 20 May, a Council delegation met with the AU Peace and Security Council in Addis Ababa and discussed the situation in Darfur, including the Darfur-based political process. On 17 May, the Council adopted resolution 1982 extending the mandate of the Panel of Experts of the Sudan Sanctions Committee until 19 February 2012. On 12 May, the ICC informs the Council that Sudanese President Omar Al-Bashir visited Djibouti on 8 May.
On 8 March, the Security Council released the September 2010 report of the Panel of Experts of the Sudan Sanctions Committee. On 7 March, the ICC confirmed war crimes charges against Darfur rebel leaders Abdallah Banda and Saleh Jerbo. On 20 March, Doha mediator, Dijibril Bassolé, announces the parties had agreed to four chapters of a peace agreement: human rights and fundamental freedoms; justice and reconciliation; compensation and return of internally displaced persons and refugees; and wealth sharing.
10 February 2011
The Government of Sudan announced its negotiating team would return to Doha to resume negotiations with Darfur rebel groups.
31 January 2011
The AU Summit held a meeting on Sudan.
31 December 2010
The government of Sudan delegation rejected the mediators compromise proposals and walked out of the Doha peace process negotiations.
30 December 2010
The mediators of the Doha peace process presented the government of Sudan and the Liberation and Justice Movement (LJM) with a range of compromise proposals to advance negotiations.
9 December 2010
The prosecutor of the ICC, Luis Moreno-Ocampo, presented his twelfth report to the Council on the Court’s work in Sudan.
8 December 2010
The confirmation-of-charges hearing for two rebel commanders, Abdallah Banda Abakaer Nourain and Saleh Mohammed Jerbo Jamus, (alleged to have attacked AU peacekeepers at their base in Haskanita in September 2007) was held before the Pre-Trial Chamber I of the Court.
24 November 2010
Sudan Sanctions Committee receives a private briefing from the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on the issue of human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises, John Ruggie.
15 November 2010
Representatives of JEM—a key Darfur rebel group—indicate their conditions for a possible return to the Doha peace talks (JEM withdrew from talks in May 2010).
5 November 2010
Unidentified militants shoot and wound a UN peacekeeper in North Darfur.
4 November 2010
Three civilians who operate helicopters for the World Food Programme were abducted in the South Darfur state capital of Nyala. Thirty people including 26 foreigners have been kidnapped in Darfur since March 2009.
30 October 2010
Sudanese authorities raided the office of the Human Rights and Democracy Network, arresting 13 activists including a journalist working for the Netherlands-based Radio Dabanga.
14 October 2010
The Council adopted resolution 1945 renewing the mandate of Sudan Sanctions Panel of Experts until 19 October 2011.
7 October 2010
An AU-UN Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) civilian staff member was kidnapped in El Fasher.
4 to 10 October 2010
The Security Council visited Uganda, southern Sudan (Juba), Darfur and Khartoum (terms of reference).
24 September 2010
The Secretary-General convened a high-level meeting on Sudan in order to mobilise international support for the full and timely implementation of the CPA and for the peace processes for Darfur and eastern Sudan.
7 September 2010
Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, Atul Khare, briefed the Council on the 2 September attacks in Tabarat village in northern Jebel Marra, North Darfur, which resulted in at least 37 killed and some 50 wounded.
27 August 2010
The pre-trial chamber of the ICC issued two decisions, informing the Security Council and the Assembly of the States Parties to the Rome Statute about Sudanese President Omar Al-Bashir’s visits to Chad and Kenya.
23 August 2010
Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, John Holmes, and Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, Atul Khare, briefed Council members in closed consultations concerning the humanitarian situation in Darfur. In remarks to the media following the consultations, the Council President condemned the instigation of violence in Kalma camp and attacks on humanitarian personnel.
2 to 16 August 2010
The government of Sudan blocked UN agencies and international NGOs from operating in Kalma camp.
2 August 2010
The government of Sudan demanded UNAMID hand over the six leaders in the Kalma camp community policing centre. UNAMID refused until a set of conditions were met.
30 July 2010
The Security Council adopted resolution 1935 renewing the mandate of UNAMID until 31 July 2011. Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, Alain Le Roy, briefed the Council on the violence in Kalma camp in closed consultations.
29 July 2010
Violence erupted in Kalma camp following peace talks in Doha in mid-July. Clashes between supporters of the Liberation and Justice Movement, who were in negotiations with the government, and supporters of the Sudan Liberation Movement who were not represented at the talks, led to the deaths of at least eight IDPs in Kalma camp. Six local leaders accused by the Sudanese authorities of instigating the violence sought refuge at a UNAMID community policing centre.
29 July 2010
The National Congress Party (NCP) in Khartoum approved a new strategy on Darfur which reportedly involves shifting the focus on resolving the Darfur crisis from external venues (such as the current Doha process) to a domestically controlled approach to all Darfur issues—security, development, reconciliation, humanitarian situation and political negotiations.
27 July 2010
Seven UNAMID peacekeepers on patrol in West Darfur were injured in an ambush.
21 July 2010
The AU Peace and Security Council urged the Security Council to defer the ICC proceedings against al-Bashir, emphasising the need for peace talks to be completed before the January 2011 referendum.
17 July 2010
The Sudan Consultative Forum holds its first meeting in Khartoum. The Forum was established to coordinate international support to the democratic transformation of Sudan, to implement the remaining provisions of the CPA and to promote the inclusive political agreement to bring about peace in Darfur.
12 July 2010
Pre-Trial Chamber I of the International Criminal Court issued a second arrest warrant against President Al Bashir for three counts of genocide committed agains the Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa ethnic groups, that include: genocide by killing, genocide by causing serious bodily or mental harm and genocide by deliberately inflicting on each target group conditions of life calculated to bring about the group’s physical destruction.
7 July 2010
The Sudan Sanctions Panel of Experts provided their midterm briefing to the Sanctions Committee.
5 July 2010
The AU-UN JSR for Darfur and Head of UNAMID, Ibrahim Gambari, convened a Retreat with Special Envoys and representatives of Member States and UN partners in El Fasher, North Darfur. The purpose of the Retreat was to take stock of developments in Darfur since the holding of the first Envoy’s Retreat in Kigali on 27 February 2010 and to further develop the international community’s shared understanding of, and approach to, the situation in Darfur, in the wider context of Sudan.
29 June 2010
Sudan announced that it is closing its border with Libya due to Darfur rebels operating there.
21 June 2010
Three Rwandan UNAMID personnel were killed in West Darfur.
17 June 2010
Two suspects from the Darfur opposition movement charged with alleged war crimes appeared voluntarily before the pre-trial judges of the ICC in The Hague.
14 June 2010
Joint AU-UN Special Representative for Darfur, Ibrahim Gambari, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Head of UNMIS, Haile Menkerios, Joint Chief Mediator, Djibril Bassolé, and the Chairperson of the AU High-Level Implementation Panel for Sudan, Thabo Mbeki brief the Council.
13 June 2010
The Sudanese government lifted a ban on UNAMID helicopters that it had imposed in May.
11 June 2010
The Council received its semi-annual briefing by ICC Prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo.
3 June 2010
Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator John Holmes briefed Council members in closed consultations on his 22-20 May visit to Chad and Sudan.
3 June 2010
JEM suspended its participation in the Doha Peace Talks.
25 May 2010
Pre Trial Chamber I of the ICC referred Sudan’s failure to comply with its obligations to enforce the arrest warrants for Ahmad Harun and Ali Kushayb (in accordance with resolution 1593) to the Security Council.
18 May 2010
Three aid workers were abducted by unknown gunmen in a village near Nyala, South Darfur.
10 May 2010
The Tripartite Mechanism on Darfur was held in Addis Ababa, which reviewed the latest security developments in Darfur and UNAMID’s current deployment.
8 May 2010
A consultative meeting on Sudan was held in Addis Ababa focusing on the implementation of the CPA, post-referendum issues and a political solution to the conflict in Darfur.
7 May 2010
The Secretary-General called on the Sudanese government to investigate and apprehend those responsible for the attacks on 7 May when two Egyptian peacekeepers were killed and three wounded after their convoy was attacked by armed gunmen in a remote area in South Darfur.
26 April 2010
Four peacekeepers serving with UNAMID, who were held for more than two weeks by kidnappers were released.
14 April 2010
The border between Sudan and Chad was opened.
23 March 2010
UNAMID and the League of Arab States met and discussed planned projects to promote peace and stability in Darfur.
18 March 2010
The Government of Sudan and the Liberation and Justice Movement (LJM) signed a Framework Agreement in Doha.
23 February 2010
The Government of Sudan and JEM signed the peace Framework Agreement for the Resolution of the Conflict in Darfur.
8 February 2010
Chadian President Idriss Déby met with Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir in Khartoum and agreed to direct talks and support peace and regional stability in the future between the two countries.
2 February 2010
The Secretary-General announced the appointment of Haile Menkerios of South Africa as his Special Representative for the Sudan.
Demonstrations in Khartoum and other cities led to the arrest of key SPLM and Umma party leaders.
29 December 2009
UNAMID and the Sudanese government signed a framework to increase the safety of UNAMID personnel and assets following recent attacks
14 December 2009
The Secretary-General advised the Council that four experts had been appointed to the Sudan sanctions Panel of Experts until 15 October 2010.
2 December 2009
The Secretary-General appointed Ibrahim Gambari of Nigeria as the new head of UNAMID.
22 November 2009
Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict Radhika Coomaraswamy visited Sudan and met with authorities in Darfur, South Sudan and Khartoum.
18 November 2009
The Darfur peace talks resumed in Doha, Qatar
Voter registration began for the first multiparty elections in Sudan in 24 years.
27 October 2009
US President Barack Obama renewed US sanctions on Sudan.
27 October 2009
Ten people were killed during clashes between Zaghawa and Birgid tribes in Shangil Tobaiya in south of the North Darfur capital of El-Fasher.
19 October 2009
The US announced a revised policy framework, which simultaneously focused on ending the conflict in Darfur and supporting implementation of the CPA.
19 October 2009
UNAMID reported a military build-up in North Darfur, with increased military activities by the Sudanese government and Sudan Liberation Army/Abdul Wahid Faction (SLA/AW) forces in Sortony and Kabkabiya.
19 October 2009
The ICC opened its confirmation hearing against Bahr Idriss Abu Garda, the first Darfur rebel suspect to appear before the ICC.
8 October 2009
The AU Panel on Darfur (AUPD) headed by former South African President Thabo Mbeki submitted its report to the Chair of the AU Commission.
6 October 2009
A meeting was held in Moscow focusing on resumption of Doha talks and implementation of the CPA.
28 September 2009
A convoy carrying UNAMID civilian and military personnel was attacked in El Geneina, West Darfur, which killed a Nigerian peacekeeper and left two others seriously injured.
20 September 2009
Some eighty people were killed, nearly fifty wounded and around 2,000 homes were burned when Lou Nuer gunmen attacked Dinka Hol village of Duk Padiet in Jonglei state.
19 September 2009
Clashes between the Sudanese army and anti-government militias in Korma, North Darfur led to civilian casualties, with civilians in the area fleeing their villages.
15 September 2009
The Chair of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee briefed the Council on the Committee’s activities for the past three months and highlighted the findings of its UN Panel on the developments in Darfur.
3 July 2009
The AU summit in Sirte, Libya issued a decision that AU members should not cooperate with the ICC in serving its arrest warrant against Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir, who is charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity.
18 June 2009
The Human Rights Council adopted a resolution establishing the mandate for a new independent expert on the situation of human rights in Sudan to replace the Special Rapporteur.
28 May 2009
Sudanese Army forces working with Sudanese Liberation Army forces loyal to Minni Minnawi retook the town of Kornoy, in Darfur, from Justice and Equality Movement rebels.
20 May 2009
Reports indicated that Chad’s armed forces were preparing to enter Sudan to attack Chadian opposition fighters.
18 May 2009
Rebel leader Bahr Idriss Abu Garda became the first Sudanese indictee to voluntarily appear before the ICC. He is accused of war crimes involving an attack on AU peacekeepers in 2007 in which 12 died.
8 May 2009
A Sudanese official indicted by the ICC, Ahmed Haroun, was appointed as governor of Sudan’s oil rich South Kordofan province.
7 May 2009
A UN peacekeeper was killed by attackers attempting to steal his car.
5 May 2009
Chad accused Sudan of sending armed forces and Chadian rebels into its territory.
4 May 2009
At talks in Doha, Chad and Sudan agreed to renew diplomatic ties and cease cross-border attacks.
27 April 2009
In a statement to the Council Joint AU-UN Special Representative for Darfur, Rodolphe Adada said the political process in Darfur was frozen, in particular following the decision of the ICC.
30 March 2009
The final communiqué of the Arab League Summit called on the Pre-Trial Chamber of the ICC to annul its decision to issue an arrest warrant against Sudanese President Al-Bashir.
27 March 2009
The Organisation of the Islamic Conference Executive Committee met in New York and called on the Security Council to suspend ICC proceedings.
26 March 2009
The Council received its first briefing from Djibril Bassolé, the Joint AU-UN Chief Mediator for Darfur who took up the post in August.
20 March 2009
Darfurian rebel group JEM withdrew from peace talks.
18 March 2009
An eight-member high-level panel led by former South African President Thabo Mbeki and including Burundi’s Pierre Buyoya and Nigeria’s General Abusalam Abubakar began its work examining the situation in Sudan.
5 March 2009
The Spokesperson for the Secretary-General issued a statement appealing to the government of Sudan to urgently reconsider its decision to expel 13 NGOs invovled in aid operations in Darfur.
4 March 2009
The ICC issued an arrest warrant for Al Bashir on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur. The court did not confirm the three counts of genocide that were requested by the ICC prosecutor. Following the announcement, the government expeled 13 international aid agencies and 3 national agencies accusing them of working with the ICC.
23 February 2009
Two Sudanese staff from a French aid group, Aide Médicale Internationale were shot and killed by bandits 80km north east of Nyala, South Darfur.
19 February 2009
Some 17 rebels and 11 soldiers were killed in clashes between the Sudanese army and JEM in Donki area, 25km northwest of El Fasher in North Darfur. A Sudanese military spokesperson said JEM forces had received supplies and support from the government of neighbouring Chad.
18 February 2009
Clashes were reported between Sudan Liberation Movement troops led by Minni Minnawi (SLM/MM) and JEM in North Darfur.
17 February 2009
The Sudanese government and rebel group Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) signed an agreement of goodwill and confidence building brokered by the Qatari government and the AU/UN joint chief mediator Djibrill Bassolé in Doha. The two parties agreed to refrain from all kinds of harassment of IDPs, guarantee the smooth and unobstructed flow of relief assistance to needy people, and commit to exchange prisoners.
12 February 2009
Council members met an AU and AL delegation, led by AU Commissioner for Peace and Security, Ramtane Lamamra. Council members were told that while the AU and Arab League do not believe in promoting impunity, further time was needed to allow progress in Sudan and that a deferral of ICC proceedings would facilitate process. The responses of the Council members were divided, but demonstrated that most Council members were unconvinced that a suspension would facilitate progress.
10 February 2009
A Khartoum government delegation met JEM representatives for the first time since 2007 in Doha, Qatar to begin discussions on a framework agreement for peace talks.
9 February 2009
A UNAMID helicopter was fired upon near its headquarters in El Fasher, Northern Darfur.
4 February 2009
JEM withdraws from Muhajeriya reportedly due to UNAMID’s decision to remain.
2 February 2009
At the AU Summit in Addis Ababa, the AU agreed to seek support from the international community for a 12 month suspension of ICC proceedings against President Bashir. Members of the AU Peace and Security Council also decided to establish a High-Level Panel of Eminent Personalities under the chairmanship of former President of the Republic of South Africa, Thabo Mbeki, to submit recommendations on how best to reconcile the issues of accountability and impunity with reconciliation and healing in Darfur.
2 February 2009
Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon called on the Government of Sudan and the JEM to cease all military activities in South Darfur. He also said UNAMID would not leave Muhajeriya. He urged maximum restraint by the Sudanese authorities and urged JEM rebels to withdraw from the city to protect innocent civilians. Sudanese aircraft reportedly bomb 3km east of Muhajeriya.
31 January 2009
A UNAMID staff member was shot and wounded in El Geneina, Western Darfur.
1 February 2009
The Sudanese government asked a 196-strong contingent of UNAMID peacekeepers to withdraw from Muhajeriya. Around 3,000 people gathered around the UNAMID base seeking shelter and protection. Reportedly more than 9,000 people were displaced as a result of aerial bombing and fighting in the past two weeks near El-Fasher and Muhajeriya.
31 January 2009
Sudanese President Bashir accused Chad of supporting JEM in its attacks against Muhajeriya. N’Djamena denied the accusations and accused Khartoum of brokering the creation of a new alliance between the Chadian rebels to topple the government of President Deby.
29 January 2009
Chairperson of the AU Commission, Jean Ping, announced the AU has asked the former South African leader Thabo Mbeki to head a panel on how to reconcile the fight against impunity (in Darfur) while also dealing with reconciliation and forgiveness.
27 January 2009
The Chairperson of the AU Commission, Jean Ping said a high-level Panel of Jurists and Eminent Politicians was being established with the aim of ensuring that justice was rendered in Sudan.
26-27 January 2009
The government bombed the outskirts of El Fasher, North Darfur in an attempt to clear the area of armed movements who had reportedly advanced towards the outskirts of the city.
24 January 2009
Further government bombing was reported in Muhajeriya, south Darfur. Fighting, which began on 13 January between JEM and the government, continued.
23 January 2009
The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and UNAMID issued a report concluding Sudanese security forces had violated international human rights law in the August attack on Kalma IDP camp. The report found 33 IDPs were killed and at least 108 injured after lethal force was used in an unnecessary and disproportionate manner.
20 January 2009
The third meeting of the Tripartite coordinating mechanism on UNAMID met to resolve key issues relating to its deployment. During the meeting, a memorandum of understanding on air operations was signed by the Sudanese government and UNAMID to further facilitate the airlift component of the deployment.
18 January 2009
JEM reportedly took full control of Muhajeriya, SLA/M’s former stronghold.
14 January 2009
The US commenced its airlift operation, transporting Rwandan equipment into Darfur. The African and Arab Ministerial Committee on peace in Darfur met in Qatar to discuss peace negotiations in Darfur. The committee agreed to send a delegation to New York to mobilise international support for the peace process in Darfur and to seek a deferral from the Security Council of ICC proceedings related to Sudan. Armed Irregular forces attacked Nuba villages and SPLA military camps in Southern Kordofan, reportedly killing 19 people.
13 January 2009
The Sudanese Army said it had bombed Justice and Equality (JEM) rebel positions in the Muhajeria area of South Darfur. Ground fighting between JEM forces and the government-backed faction of the Sudan Liberation Army led by Minni Minnawi (SLA/M) was also reported in the area.
11 January 2009
An application was made on behalf of two civil society groups in Sudan requesting that no arrest warrants be issued by the Pre-Trial Chamber of the ICC that relate to the conflict in Darfur. The application stated that over a million signatures of Sudanese citizens had been gathered in support.
5 January 2009
The US government announced a four-month operation to airlift equipment and vehicles into Darfur.
29 December 2008
A military officer serving with UNAMID died after being shot in the leg on 27 December during a car-jacking in El Fasher, North Darfur.
14-24 December 2008
Representatives of the Sudan Liberation Movement met in Switzerland to discuss the peace process in Darfur. Participants reportedly agreed the disarmament of Janjaweed militias and the expulsion of new settlers from Darfur were indispensible preconditions before any talks with the government.
24-30 November 2008
UN Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator John Holmes travelled through Sudan to assess the humanitarian and security situation.
21 and 22 November 2008
UNAMID investigators confirmed aerial attacks by the Government of Sudan in South Darfur.
20 November 2008
The Chief Prosecutor of the ICC requested arrest warrants for three rebels leaders believed to be responsible for attacks against AU peace keepers in Haskanita, South Darfur in 2007 which killed 12 peace keepers.
20 November 2008
Fighting between government troops and rebels erupted in North Darfur.
17 November 2008
Sudanese government extended the Moratorium facilitating humanitarian aid to Darfur until 2010.
16 November 2008
The second meeting of the Tri-partite Committee was held between the Government of Sudan, the African Union Commission and the UN.
15 November 2008
The Dakar Contact Group met in N’Djamena to further discuss deployment of a Chad-Sudan border observation mission. It followed the exchange of ambassadors between Chad and Sudan the previous week and an agreement on concrete steps for full normalisation of relations.
Rebels accused the Sudanese military of bombing north Darfur in breach of the ceasefire between 12 and 15 November and in West Darfur on 17 November.
12 November 2008
The Sudan People’s Forum, a government initiative intended to determine a political settlement for Darfur concluded. Bashir announced an immediate unconditional and unilateral ceasefire in Darfur with the caveat that an effective monitoring mechanism was in place and observed by all parties. Darfur rebel groups boycotted the forum and have not agreed to the ceasefire. The forum recommended the government cease hostilities and declare a unilateral ceasefire and support UNAMID and peace talks mediated by AU/UN Chief Mediator Djibril Bassolé. It also called for a compensation fund for internally displaced persons and refugees, the creation of an additional vice-president position to be filled by a Darfurian and the restoration of Darfur to one administration area.
10 November 2008
A UNAMID patrol was ambushed in West Darfur.
29 October 2008
South African soldiers serving with UNAMID came under attack from unidentified men who arrived in several heavily armed vehicles. One peacekeeper was killed and another wounded as a result of the attack.
27 October 2008
Five Chinese oil workers seized in Kordofan, were killed.
16 October 2008
The Sudanese Government launched its “People of Sudan” initiative during a three day forum which was boycotted by Darfur rebel movements and some opposition parties. Delegates from Egypt, Eritrea, Qatar, the AU and the Arab League attended.
15 October 2008
The Pre-Trial Chamber of the ICC requested the Prosecution to submit additional supporting materials in relation to aspects of Prosecution’s request for warrant of arrest of President Bashir by 17 November.
12 October 2008
During an Arab Justice meeting in Cairo held at the request of Sudan to discuss the arrest warrant of Bashir, ministers said the ICC chief prosecutor’s arrest warrant should be channelled through Sudanese legislation. The ministers also expressed their intention to assist Sudan in modifying its penal codes to incorporate crimes that are part o f the ICC jurisdiction.
7 October 2008
During a tri-partite meeting between the government, the African Union Commission and the UN, the government made several undertakings to assist expedite the UNAMID deployment.
6 October 2008
A UNAMID peacekeeper from Nigeria was killed, the ninth peacekeeper to die in Darfur in three months.
22 September 2008
A ministerial-level meeting of the AU Peace and Security Council (PSC) was held on the margins of the UN General Assembly. In the meeting’s communiqué, the PSC reiterated its request for the deferral of ICC proceedings against Sudanese President Bashir. It welcomed the establishment of an African High-Level Panel to make recommendations to the PSC on how best to address accountability, impunity and reconciliation issues in Darfur. The PSC also welcomed Sudan’s agreement to involve AU and Arab League lawyers in judicial proceedings of human rights violations.
12 September 2008
The AU sponsored Dakar Agreement contact group met to discuss deployment of a joint monitoring force along the border between Sudan and Chad.
9 September 2008
The Arab League announced a decision to establish a six-member committee headed by Qatar to mediate peace talks between the Sudanese Government and the Darfur rebels. Darfur rebel groups criticised the initiative questioning whether the Arab League qualified as an impartial mediator and whether it was premature to talk about peace talks before conflict suspension
28 August 2008
The newly appointed Joint UN-African Union Chief Mediator for Darfur, Djibril Yipènè Bassolé assumed his duties in El Fasher.
26 August 2008
UNAMID condemned what it considered the use of excessive force on 25 August by the Sudanese military to enforce a search warrant for drugs and weapons on Kalma camp, home to 80,000 internally displaced persons in southern Darfur, which killed 31 people and injured 117.
early to mid-August 2008
Khartoum’s cooperation with UNAMID appeared to have improved, reportedly including long-delayed permission for night flights. The Sudanese government also unveiled a reconciliation initiative for Darfur including a national dialogue conference, and appointed a prosecutor to head domestic proceedings on serious crimes in Darfur.
3 August 2008
A Special Prosecutor was appointed by the Ministry of Justice to investigate allegations of human rights abuses committed in Darfur since 2003.
31 July 2008
The Council renewed UNAMID’s mandate for 12 months in resolution 1828. Compromise on ICC issues was found in emphasising the need to bring the perpetrators of serious crimes to justice (and the government‘s obligations in this respect) and also mentioning some Council members’ concerns related to the request for an arrest warrant against al-Bashir.
24 July 2008
Following the AU PSC decision and the Arab League initiative, South Africa and Libya separately proposed that any draft resolution renewing UNAMID should include a paragraph mandating the suspension of ICC proceedings.
22 July 2008
The Organisation of the Islamic Conference’s Group in New York wrote to the Council requesting a suspension of ICC proceedings.
21 July 2008
The AU Peace and Security Council issued a communiqué requesting a UN Security Council resolution suspending ICC proceedings.
18 July 2008
At a meeting under the auspices of the Dakar Agreement Contact Group, Sudan and Chad agreed to restore diplomatic relations, broken since a rebel attack on the outskirts of Khartoum in May.
The Secretary-General held talks with the Sudanese government. He clarified that the Secretariat has no influence over the ICC, and urged Khartoum to ensure the security of humanitarian workers and the ability of UNMIS and UNAMID to carry out their mandates.
14 July 2008
The chief prosecutor of the ICC, Luis Moreno-Ocampo, presented to ICC judges an application for a warrant of arrest against Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir in connection with alleged genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes in Darfur. Sudan launched domestic and diplomatic efforts to counter the request. This included pressure particularly through the Arab League and AU member states for Security Council action to suspend ICC proceedings under article 16 of the Rome Statute.
16 July 2008
The Council adopted a presidential statement noting that the 8 July attack had been “premeditated, deliberate and intended to inflict casualties”, and that the Council is determined to “take action against those responsible.”
8 July 2008
Seven UNAMID troops were killed and 19 wounded after an attack and a three-hour heavy exchange of fire in a government-controlled area in North Darfur. The attack was apparently orchestrated and carried out by two hundred militia members armed with machine guns and anti-aircraft weapons aboard some forty vehicles.
early July 2008
The Sudanese parliament adopted the much-awaited electoral law. Southern officials expressed concern about possible bias in the law favouring the ruling National Congress Party and warned that key legislation on the media, national security and criminal acts needed to be revised to ensure free and fair elections.
30 June 2008
The Secretary-General informed the Council of the appointment of Djibril Yipènè Bassolé of Burkina Faso as the new AU-UN Joint Chief Mediator.
During a Council visit, members were informed that the World Food Programme may have to cut food rations to civilians in need in Darfur for the second time in recent weeks because of insecurity. Funding shortfalls also led to cuts in humanitarian flights in Sudan.
Chadian rebels launched a new offensive and briefly took over a number of towns in eastern Chad, threatening a new attack on N’Djaména. Chad repeated accusations of Sudanese support for rebel groups.
5 June 2008
Luis Moreno-Ocampo, Chief Prosecutor of the ICC, briefed the Council, saying that he would present a second case on Darfur to ICC judges in July. He also accused the entire Sudanese State apparatus of being implicated in the commission of crimes in Darfur and recommended the adoption of a presidential statement addressing the situation.
early June 2008
A Council mission visited Chad and Sudan, while renewed clashes between government and southern forces in the contested region of Abyei raised new concerns about the future of the north-south Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) and the potential for a renewed north-south civil war. Dozens were killed and tens of thousands displaced by the violence, which included bombing and the burning of Abyei town to the ground.
Late May 2008
A Ugandan officer serving under UNAMID was found dead in his vehicle near El Fasher, and a UNAMID convoy was ambushed and robbed by unidentified men.
13 May 2008
A meeting with troop-contributors was convened to discuss the new deployment plan.
11 May 2008
Sudan cut diplomatic ties with Chad.
10 May 2008
The rebel Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) mounted an unprecedented attack reaching the outskirts of Khartoum, surprisng both the government and UNAMID.
22 April 2008
After considerable delays and disagreement, the national census started.
The Darfur mediation team held consultations in Geneva with regional partners and international observers.
12 March 2008
On the margins of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference summit in Dakar, Chad and Sudan signed a new agreement to defuse tensions and stop mutual support for rebels.
6 March 2008
The “Friends of UNAMID” group was launched with US and Canadian support. The group—comprising Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Tanzania, the UK, the US and the EU—is expected to support UNAMID troop-contributors with training and equipment.
early March 2008
The situation along the border with Chad became highly volatile. A French soldier died and another was wounded after their vehicle crossed into Sudan from Chad as part of a reconnaissance mission under the EU Force (EUFOR).
early March 2008
Russia said it was willing to contribute helicopters to UNAMID, most likely with crews supplied by other members.
The military offensive in West Darfur included joint attacks by Sudanese armed forces and Janjaweed militia against the rebel group, JEM. These attacks were supported by fighter jets and helicopter gunships, with reports of deliberate targeting of civilians and civilian assets. Tens of thousands of civilians were reported inaccessible by aid organisations due to a ban on humanitarian flights and access restrictions imposed by rebels. UNAMID human rights monitors were also reportedly denied access to certain areas in West Darfur by the government.
late February 2008
The Sanctions Committee met to discuss Sudan’s request for sanctions against the JEM. Given members’ ongoing divisions regarding sanctions options, the Committee decided on a limited response in a letter to Sudan requesting more details regarding the individuals in question and their alleged conduct.
15 February 2008
The Sanctions Committee sent a letter to Sudan reminding it of existing sanctions against Musa Hilal.
9 February 2008
UNAMID’s status-of-forces agreement between Sudan and the UN was signed.
The government launched a large counter-offensive in West Darfur against the JEM. Particularly deadly was an air and ground attack by Sudanese government and allied militia against the town of Sirba on 8 February, according to UN investigators. Around 12,000 civilians crossed into Chad, and others were blocked along the border by unidentified armed men. High-level contacts with the Sudanese government mere made to speed UNAMID’s deployment.
Khartoum appointed Janjaweed leader Musal Hilal as a government adviser. (Hilal has been included in the Council targeted-sanctions list.)
8 January 2008
A UNAMID convoy came under attack by government forces.
1 January 2008
UNAMID formally took over peacekeeping responsibilities from AMIS.
22 December 2007
The General Assembly adopted a resolution approving UNAMID’s budget.
12 December 2007
Ambassador Johan Verbeke of Belgium submitted a letter to the Council President on behalf of EU members of the Security Council, containing the Conclusions of the Council of Europe on Sudan/Chad, which reiterated the urging of European members for Sudan to cooperate with the ICC and drew “attention to the lack of cooperation by the Government of the Sudan concerning the deployment of an effective force” in Darfur.
11 December 2007
The Group of Experts on Darfur presented its final report. It noted that Khartoum had only partially implemented the Group’s recommendations, and with limited success. The report further noted that more than 267,000 persons had been displaced in 2007 alone, and that all parties to the conflict were responsible for indiscriminate attacks resulting in civilian casualties.
5 December 2007
The Chief Prosecutor of the ICC, Luis Moreno-Ocampo, briefed the Council, noting that Khartoum had not complied with its obligations under resolution 1593, in which the Council referred the situation in Darfur to the ICC.
late October 2007
Darfur peace talks began in the Libyan city of Sirte on 27 October. The talks were mediated by representatives of the UN and the AU, and involved negotiations between representatives of the Sudanese government, militias and Darfuri rebel groups. However, the talks were marred by the lack of attendance by most major rebel factions.
8 October 2007
An attack took place against a stronghold of the only rebel group to have signed the Darfur Peace Agreement, the Sudan Liberation Army-Minni Minnawi (SLA/MM). Khartoum denied media reports that government forces and militia carried out the attack.
29 September 2007
Ten AMIS peacekeepers in Darfur were killed in an attack on their compound in the town of Haskanita.
25 September 2007
The Council authorised EU and UN deployments in Chad and the Central African Republic (CAR).
21 September 2007
Secretary-General Ban ki-Moon and AU Commission Chairman Alpha Konaré hosted a high-level consultation on Darfur at the UN.
3-4 September 2007
Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon visited Khartoum and Southern Sudan.
Khartoum appointed ICC indictee Ahmed Mohammad Haroun to head a national human rights committee.
3-5 August 2007
The UN-AU Mediation Team held pre-negotiation talks with the rebel movements in Arusha, in which a common rebel negotiating platform was adopted. Key rebel leaders, including Abdelwahid al-Nur, did not attend.
31 July 2007
The Council authorised the establishment of UNAMID in resolution 1769.
mid July 2007
The AU-UN mediation team chaired a second Libya-format meeting in Tripoli including Sudan, Chad, Libya, Eritrea, Egypt, the Council permanent members, the EU, the Arab League, Canada, Italy, the Netherlands and Norway. A communiqué was adopted emphasising that “any hindrance to the political process would be addressed through appropriate measures” by the UN Security Council and the AU.
early July 2007
The EU signalled that its available resources were depleted and called on the US and the Arab League to increase their share in assistance for AMIS.
The AU Peace and Security Council authorised the hybrid operation after Khartoum indicated that it would accept it without conditions after consultations in Addis Ababa among the UN, the AU and Sudan.
23-25 May 2007
The Security Council received the AU-UN report on the hybrid operation, after months of difficult AU-UN negotiations on the mandate and structure of the proposed operation. A subsequent Security Council statement called for it to be considered and taken forward immediately.
27 April 2007
ICC issued arrest warrants in connection with the cases against former Sudanese interior minister Ahmed Haroun and Janjaweed commander Ali Muhammad Ali Abd-al-Rahman.
Khartoum replied to the 24 January 2007 heavy-support proposal with complaints that it “reveals the existence of essential differences in the understanding of the nature and objectives” of UN support.
27 February 2007
ICC Chief Prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo presented the charges against Sudanese humanitarian affairs minister (and former interior minister) Ahmed Haroun and Janjaweed commander Ali Muhammad Ali Abd-al-Rahman (alias Ali Kushayb).
20 February 2007
Libya convened a regional peace initiative. Eritrea (as a facilitator), Chad, Sudan and rebel groups attended. Eritrea and Libya also reportedly met with the rebels separately to encourage a unified negotiating position.
14 February 2007
Khartoum refused visas for a Human Rights Council-mandated high-level mission.
13 February 2007
Sudanese aircraft bombed rebel groups preparing for a conference on a unified negotiating platform.
24 January 2007
The Secretary-General sent details of a UN-AU agreement for a “heavy-support” package for Darfur to Khartoum.
AMIS reported that Khartoum indiscriminately bombed rebel-controlled areas. Thirty humanitarian organisations launched an unprecedented appeal for hostilities to cease.
14 December 2006
The chief prosecutor of the ICC, Luis Moreno-Ocampo, briefed the Security Council and said there was sufficient evidence against individuals considered most responsible for serious crimes to present before ICC judges by February 2007.
30 November 2006
AU Peace and Security Council (PSC) adopted a communique endorsing a hybrid operation in Darfur and renewing AMIS until 1 July 2007.
25 November 2006
The AU and the UN signed a memorandum of understanding on a “lighter” UN assistance package.
18 November 2006
At a meeting in Addis-Ababa the Secretary-General, P5 members, AU Commissioner Alpha Oumar Konare, the Arab League, the EU and several African nations agreed in principle to a hybrid operation for Darfur.
10 November 2006
The Secretary-General proposed a phased approach comprising of sequential packages of “lighter” and “heavier” UN assistance for AMIS and finally a hybrid AU-UN operation.
Khartoum signalled a willingness to accept increased UN logistical and financial support to AMIS.
14 October 2006
The Eastern Sudan Peace Agreement was signed.
31 August 2006
The Council adopted resolution 1706, setting a mandate for UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) in Darfur.
29 August 2006
A government offensive in Darfur began.
16 August 2006
Non-signatories were expelled from the Ceasefire Commission (CFC).
8 August 2006
Sudan and Chad decided to normalise bilateral relations.
7 August 2006
Former rebel leader Minni Arko Minawi was sworn in as Senior Assistant to the President of Sudan.
20 July 2006
In a meeting with Salva Kiir Mayardit, US President George Bush pushed for Sudan to allow for a UN presence to stop the violence in Darfur and to allow the AU forces to be “blue-helmeted”.
18 July 2006
A pledging conference was held for AMIS in Brussels.
28 June 2006
The AU Peace and Security Council (PSC) decided that targeted sanctions measures, including a travel ban and assets freeze, should be imposed on those undermining the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA).
9-21 June 2006
A UN-AU joint assessment mission took place, finding that the most immediate need was to strengthen AMIS and adopt a unified plan for a transition to a UN operation.
4-10 June 2006
A Security Council mission visited Addis Ababa, Chad and Sudan.
14 June 2006
In a briefing to the Security Council, ICC Chief Prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo indicated that while his team had not been able to enter Darfur, evidence of large-scale violations had been gathered, and it did not appear that Sudanese courts were prosecuting cases that were or would be the focus of ICC attention.
5 May 2006
The Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA) was signed between the Government of Sudan and the Minni Minnawi-led faction of the Sudan Liberation Army (SLA). The Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) and other factions of the SLA did not sign.
25 April 2006
24 March 2006
The Security Council adopted resolution 1663, expediting the necessary preparatory planning for transition of AMIS to a UN operation.
3 February 2006
In a presidential statement the UN Security Council mandated the Secretary-General begin contigency planning for a transition from AMIS to a UN operation.
12 January 2006
The AU Peace and Security Council (PSC) announced that it accepted, “in principle,” the deployment of UN peacekeepers in Darfur.
10-20 December 2005
A joint AU-UN mechanism to assess AMIS visited Darfur.
13 December 2005
ICC Chief Prosecutor Ocampo briefed the Council. Khartoum declared it would not cooperate with the ICC.
29 November 2005
Darfur peace talks resumed.
3 November 2005
Minni Arko Minnawi was elected President of the Sudanese Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A).
20 October 2005
Darfur peace talks were suspended for a month.
15 September 2005
Darfur peace talks resumed in Abuja.
The Government of National Unity (GNU) announced the new Council of Ministers, with fifteen porfolios allotted to the National Congress Party (NCP) (including the key energy, interior and defence ministries) and eight to the Sudanese People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM).
With John Garang’s death, Salva Kiir was sworn in as first-Vice President.
30 July 2005
John Garang died in a helicopter crash in the south of Sudan.
9 July 2005
The Government of National Unity was inaugurated and Sudan People Liberation Army (SPLA) leader John Garang was sworn-in as Vice President.
28 April 2005
The AU Peace and Security Council increased the authorised strength of AMIS to 7,731 military and police personnel.
31 March 2005
The Council referred the situation in Darfur to the ICC.
29 March 2005
The Council authorised travel and financial sanctions.
24 March 2005
UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) was established to support the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement.
16 February 2005
High Commissioner for Human Rights Louise Arbour presented the report of the International Commission of Inquiry to the Security Council.
25 January 2005
The report of the International Commission of Inquiry concluded that war crimes and crimes against humanity had been committed in Darfur.
9 January 2005
The Government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement to end the North/South conflict.
20 October 2004
The AU decided to expand the mandate of African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) to include the protection of civilians in imminent danger and in the immediate vicinity of its troops.
18 September 2004
The Council asked the Secretary-General to establish a Commission of Inquiry to investigate reports of atrocities in Darfur.
1 September 2004
Parties to the conflict called for the deployment of AU peacekeepers.
23 August-1 September 2004
First round of Intra-Sudanese Peace Talks on Darfur opens in Abuja, Nigeria.
30 July 2004
The Council imposed an arms embargo against all nongovernmental entities and individuals until the Government of Sudan successfully disarms the Janjaweed.
3 July 2004
The Government of Sudan and the Secretary-General issued a Joint Communiqué, underlining Khartoum’s commitments towards peace in Darfur.
11 June 2004
Resolution 1547 welcomed the Secretary-General’s proposal to establish a special political mission in Sudan.
26 May 2004
The Security Council released a presidential statement with the first mention of the crisis in Darfur by the Security Council.
8 April 2004
The Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement was signed by the Government of Sudan, Sudanese Liberation Army (SLA) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), in N’Djamena, Chad. Also known as the N’Djamena Agreement.
7 April 2004
The Secretary-General highlighted Darfur in his address to the Commission on Human Rights.
2 April 2004
The Security Council held its first briefing on the situation in Darfur. Known as the Egeland Briefing, for Emergency Relief Coordinator Jan Egeland.
Naivasha Agreement on Security Arrangements (ceasefire between north and south) was signed.
Insurgency against the Government started in Darfur.
The Government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) signed the Machakos Protocol.