Chronology of Events

revised on 6 June 2018

Sudan/South Sudan

May 2019

On 14 May, the Security Council unanimously adopted renewing the mandate of UNISFA until 15 November 2019 (S/PV.8524). The resolution decided to reduce the authorised troop ceiling to 3,550 and increase the authorised police ceiling to 640 personnel. It also requested the Secretary-General to appoint a civilian Deputy Head of Mission for UNISFA.

November 2018

On 15 November, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2445, extending until 15 May 2019 the mandate of UNISFA (S/PV.8400). The resolution reduced the authorised troop ceiling of the mission from 4,500 to 4,140 and decided to reduce the troop ceiling by a further 295 troops following the start of the deployment of increased police personnel. As of 15 April 2019, the authorised troop ceiling will decrease by a further 557 troops, unless the Council decides to extend the mission’s support to the Joint Border Verification and Monitoring Mechanism.

October 2018

On 11 October, the Security Council unanimously renewed until 15 April 2019 the support of UNISFA to the Joint Border Verification and Monitoring Mechanism (JBVMM), established in 2011 to conduct monitoring and verification activities along the Sudan-South Sudan border. Resolution 2438 decided to maintain UNISFA’s troop ceiling of 4,500 until 15 November, the expiration date of the current UNISFA mandate. As of 15 April 2019, however, the authorised troop ceiling will decrease by 541 troops—the number of troops required for the mission’s support to the JBVMM—unless the Council decides to extend such support. As in previous resolutions, it decided that this will be the final extension of support to the JBVMM unless both parties demonstrate measurable progress on specific border demarcation measures set out in the resolution. The Council was briefed in consultations on 29 October, on UNISFA and Sudan/South Sudan issues.

September 2018

On 20 September, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Jean-Pierre Lacroix and Special Envoy for Sudan and South Sudan Nicholas Haysom briefed the Council. The briefing was held in the open chamber, departing from the usual practice of receiving these briefings in consultations.In keeping with the Secretary-General’s 20 August letter, Lacroix called for changes to UNISFA’s mission concept within the current ceiling of uniformed personnel. He maintained that the JBVMM “remains a vital part of the framework that regulates the relationship between the two countries.” Haysom said that the resolution of the final status of Abyei “above all else…would allow for the timely exit by UNISFA from Abyei.” He noted that internal problems in both Sudan and South Sudan had hindered negotiations on this issue in recent years.

May 2018

On 15 May, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2416, which renewed the mandate of UNISFA until 15 November and reduced the authorised troop ceiling of the mission from 4,791 to 4,500 (S/PV.8258).

April 2018

On 13 April, the Council adopted resolution 2411, allowing for a ten-day technical rollover of UNISFA’s support to the JBVMM. On 23 April, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2412 which extends the mission’s support for the JBVMM until 15 October, and maintains the authorised troop ceiling of 4,791 until 15 October, after which the troop ceiling will decrease to 4,250, unless the Council decides to extend the mission’s support to the JBVMM. The resolution also determines that both parties should demonstrate measurable progress on border demarcation and imposes six specific measures in this regard. On 24 April, Council members were briefed in consultations by Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Jean-Pierre Lacroix and Special Envoy for Sudan and South Sudan Nicholas Haysom.

November 2017

On 15 November, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2386, extending until 15 May 2018 the mandate of UNISFA. The resolution also extended until 15 April 2018 UNISFA’s support to the Joint Border and Verification Monitoring Mechanism (JBVMM) and stated that this would be the final extension of support to the JBVMM unless both parties adhere to the specific measures agreed to in the May and October 2017, by no later than 15 March 2018. These measures include: facilitating the full freedom of movement for UNISFA air and ground patrols; opening of Phase I of the border crossing corridors; holding at least one meeting to resume border demarcation discussions; reactivating the ad hoc committee of the 14 mile area (the temporary administrative line for the Safe Demilitarised Border Zone); and facilitating the operationalization of the four JBVMM team sites. The Council also decided to maintain the authorized troop ceiling of 4,791 until 15 April 2018, after which the authorized troop ceiling shall decrease to 4,235, unless it decides to extend the mission’s support for the JBVMM.

October 2017

On 26 October, Council members were briefed by Assistant Secretary-General for Rule of Law and Security Institutions Alexander Zuev and Special Envoy for Sudan and South Sudan Nicholas Haysom (S/PV.8078). In a break with previous practice, the briefing took place in the Council chamber instead of in consultations. Both briefers stressed UNISFA’s stabilising role. Haysom added that this should inform any decision regarding Abyei and the JBVMM. Zuev briefed on the Secretary-General’s report on the situation in Abyei (S/2017/870), which recommended UNISFA’s mandate be extended for another six months.

August 2017

On 9 August, Council members were briefed in consultations by the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations El Ghassim Wane on the first of two reports requested in resolution 2352 on progress in implementing the mandate of the UN Interim Security Force for Abyei (S/2017/649). He noted that the security situation in the Abyei Area remains unpredictable and that in the absence of progress in the implementation of the Agreement of 20 June 2011, and on the final status of the territory, intercommunal tensions and the proliferation of arms create a continued risk.

May 2017

On 15 May, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2352, renewing the UNISFA mandate for an additional year. The resolution also reduced the troop ceiling from 5,326 to 4,791 and stipulated that the Joint Border Verification and Monitoring Mechanism would not be further renewed without a clear demonstration of Sudan and South Sudan’s commitment to implementation.

April 2017

During consultations on 26 April, Council members were briefed by the Special Envoy for Sudan and South Sudan, Nicholas Haysom, on the current state of the Sudan/South Sudan political process. Council members were also briefed by the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, El Ghassim Wane, on the strategic review of UNISFA, and by the chair of the 1591 Sudan Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Volodymyr Yelchenko (Ukraine).

November 2016

On 3 November, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed Council members on the activities of UNISFA and the most recent report of the Secretary-General on Abyei, the disputed area straddling the Sudan-South Sudan border. On 15 November, the Council adopted resolution 2318 renewing the mission’s mandate for six months. At press time, Nicholas Haysom, the UN Special Envoy for Sudan and South Sudan, was expected to brief members (via video teleconference) on 29 November in consultations on Sudan/South Sudan issues.

August 2016

On 11 August, Council members held consultations on Sudan and South Sudan. Nicholas Haysom, Special Envoy for Sudan and South Sudan, briefed. Following the meeting, they issued a press statement welcoming the signing on 8 August of the Roadmap Agreement by opposition groups and commending the government of Sudan for having signed the agreement on 16 March.

May 2016

The Council adopted resolution 2287 on 12 May, renewing the mandate of UNISFA until 15 November (S/PV.7691). Council members were briefed in consultations the same day via video teleconference by Haile Menkerios, Special Representative to the AU, on Sudan/South Sudan issues.

April 2016

On 27 April, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed Council members in consultations on UNISFA. He reportedly noted that recent dialogue between the Ngok-Dinka and Misseriya communities in Abyei was encouraging.

February 2016

On 18 February, Special Envoy Haile Menkerios briefed Council members via video teleconference on the implementation of resolution 2046 on Sudan/South Sudan issues. On 25 February, Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs Stephen O’Brien briefed Council members on the humanitarian situation in Sudan and South Sudan under “any other business.” Following the meeting, press elements were issued in which Council members expressed concern about the deteriorating humanitarian situation in both countries.

December 2015

On 15 December, the Council adopted resolution 2251 which extended the mandate of UN Interim Security Force for Abyei until 15 May 2016.

November 2015

On 24 November, Council members held consultations on Sudan/South Sudan and UNISFA. Haile Menkerios, Special Envoy for Sudan and South Sudan, briefed (via video teleconference from Addis Ababa) on Sudan/South Sudan, while Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed on UNISFA. Members agreed to press elements in which, among other things, they urged the parties in Sudan to agree to a way forward for an inclusive and comprehensive national dialogue and welcomed agreements reached by Sudan and South Sudan on the border and urged them to implement them.

September 2015

On 17 September, Council members were briefed in consultations on Sudan/South Sudan and on UNISFA. Haile Menkerios, Special Envoy for Sudan and South Sudan, briefed on Sudan/South Sudan issues, while Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous reported on the Secretary-General’s UNISFA report.

July 2015

On 8 July, Council members were briefed in consultations on UNISFA activities by the head of the mission, Haile Tilahun Gebremariam, and on Sudan and South Sudan issues by Special Envoy for Sudan and South Sudan Haile Menkerios (via video teleconference from Addis Ababa). The discussion on UNISFA addressed the Secretary-General’s report (S/2015/439) on the situation in Abyei and the recent work of the mission. On 14 July, the Council adopted resolution 2230, renewing the mandate of UNISFA for an additional five months until 15 December (S/PV.7483).

May 2015

On 5 May, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed Council members in consultations on UNISFA. He said that polling was held in Misseriya ethnic areas in northern Abyei during Sudan’s 13-16 April elections, adding that there had been no violent incidents during the electoral process. Ladsous said that the reconvening on 29-30 March in Addis Ababa of the Abyei Joint Oversight Committee (AJOC), designed to provide administrative and political oversight to the area, had been an encouraging development. (The AJOC had not met since May 2013, when Ngok-Dinka paramount chief Deng Kuol Deng was assassinated by a Misseriya.)

March 2015

On 17 March, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed Council members under “any other business” on the situation in Abyei, focusing on a 2 March incident in which Misseriya assailants attacked a Dinka village. He noted that UNISFA peacekeepers detained several of the assailants, and based on interrogations, learned that one of the attackers was affiliated with Sudanese military intelligence. On 24 March, Haile Menkerios, Special Envoy for Sudan and South Sudan and Special Representative to the AU, briefed via video teleconference on Sudan/South Sudan relations.

February 2015

On 10 February, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed Council members in consultations on UNISFA. Ladsous reiterated key recommendations outlined in the Secretary-General’s 30 January UNISFA report. He underscored the recommendation that the mission engage more systematically in disarming individuals and armed groups. He also highlighted that the mission’s mandate could be adjusted to enable UNISFA police to engage in community protection committees—which have been established to fill the vacuum created by the lack of legal and security institutions in Abyei—and are particularly important given the rising criminality in the area. On 26 February, the Council adopted resolution 2205 and renewed the mandate of UNISFA until 15 July 2015.

December 2014

On 8 December 2014, Council members held consultations on Sudan/South Sudan issues as well as on the most recent UNISFA report (S/2014/862). Special Envoy Haile Menkerios briefed on Sudan/South Sudan via video-teleconference while Under Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous and Force Commander Major-General Halefom Moges briefed on UNISFA. On 11 December, Council members issued a press statement reiterating grave concern with the humanitarian situation in South Kordofan and Blue Nile and at the “relatively calm but highly volatile security situation in Abyei” (SC/11694).

October 2014

On 7 October, Assistant-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Edmond Mulet briefed Council members in consultations on the latest UNISFA report (S/2014/709). Mulet said unilateral actions by the parties have not been helpful and referred to the Ngok-Dinka’s decision to establish a committee to lobby for international support for October 2013 referendum, which was not recognised by Sudan, but during which the Ngok-Dinka voted overwhelmingly to join South Sudan. Additionally, he mentioned the instability that could be caused by Sudan’s intention to include Abyei among the areas that will participate in the country’s 2015 national elections. The Council met again on 14 October to adopt resolution 2179 extending UNISFA’s mandate until 28 February 2015. During the meeting, Ambassador Francis Deng of South Sudan and Ambassador Rahamtalla Mohamed Osman Elnor of Sudan addressed the Council (S/PV.7276). Deng called for the report of the AU Investigation Committee on the assassination of the Ngok-Dinka paramount chief in May 2013 to be released. Elnor argued that Abyei remains part of Sudan until a final settlement is reached.

September 2014

The Council held an informal interactive dialogue on 17 September, with Thabo Mbeki the AU High-Level Implementation Panel chair. Mbeki admitted the need for a strategy on Abyei but noted that South Sudan’s preoccupation with its own civil war had distracted it from focusing on the region. Mbeki also alluded to South Sudan’s concerns about the placement of the centre line of the Safe Demilitarised Border Zone, a buffer zone between Sudan and South Sudan. According to the Secretary-General’s 23 July report on Abyei, South Sudan is concerned that the coordinates of the centre line could be used to “demarcate the agreed border corridors in disputed border areas [which] would then amount to de facto border demarcation.”

August 2014

The Council held consultations on Sudan-South Sudan issues and the situation in Abyei on 20 August, with Edmond Mulet, Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, and Haile Menkerios, the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for Sudan and South Sudan, briefing. Mulet gave an overview of the Secretary-General’s 23 July report on Abyei (S/2014/518), which stated that “the situation in Abyei during the period under review [14 May to 23 July] was relatively calm, although the underlying conditions remained volatile and unpredictable”. Menkerios reported that progress had not been made in implementing the 27 September 2012 agreements.

July 2014

The Council held consultations on Sudan-South Sudan issues on 16 July, with Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for Sudan and South Sudan Haile Menkerios and Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs Valerie Amos briefing. Menkerios told Council members that alongside Thabo Mbeki, head of the AU High-Level Implementation Panel (AUHIP), he would try to urge Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) to re-engage in negotiations. He also indicated that opposition parties in Sudan had requested Mbeki to help mediate the national dialogue process in Sudan and that Mbeki would be meeting with opposition politicians to discuss what role he could play. Amos said that, according to reputable sources, 170,000 people had been displaced in SPLM-N held areas of Sudan in the first half of 2014. She also noted that Sudan and South Sudan faced significant humanitarian challenges, with both countries experiencing refugee outflows and food shortages.

June 2014

The Council held consultations on Sudan-South Sudan issues on 10 June. The Special Envoy for Sudan and South Sudan and head of the UN Office to the AU Haile Menkerios stated that Sudan and South Sudan had made no progress in addressing the political and security issues that continue to divide them. As in prior consultations, he reiterated that the national dialogue in Sudan was a positive development, while suggesting that the recent arrests of key opposition figures and restrictions on the press are counterproductive. Menkerios also spoke about recent Sudan Armed Forces’ bombardments of civilian areas in South Kordofan.

May 2014

On 19 May, the Council held consultations on Sudan-South Sudan and on the UN Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA). Menkerios briefed on Sudan-South Sudan relations, while UNISFA Force Commander Major General Yohannes Gebremeskel Tesfamariam briefed on UNISFA. Menkerios said that Sudan and South Sudan had not made progress recently in addressing the issues dividing them, while Tesfamariam described the challenges facing UNISFA in Abyei. The most recent Secretary-General’s report on Abyei (S/2014/336), noted that Ethiopian officials have indicated that Ethiopia would have to reconsider its military commitment to UNISFA if Sudan and South Sudan continue their lack of cooperation in administering the area and in establishing law and order and inter-communal mechanisms there. This would present an enormous challenge for the mission as UNISFA is almost exclusively comprised of Ethiopian troops. On 29 May, the Council adopted resolution 2156 renewing the mandate of UNISFA for an additional four months. While the resolution leaves the fundamental mandate of the mission unchanged, it expresses concern over the lack of progress by Sudan and South Sudan in honouring security and political commitments regarding Abyei and the border areas more generally.

April 2014 

On 10 April, head of the UN Office to the AU and Special Envoy for Sudan and South Sudan Haile Menkerios briefed Council members in consultations via videoconference from Addis Ababa. He updated them on recent developments with respect to the national dialogue process in Sudan and reported that Sudan and South Sudan continued to maintain a military presence in the disputed Abyei region.

March 2014

Council members were briefed in consultations by Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for Sudan and South Sudan Haile Menkerios on 12 March. Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous also briefed Council members in consultations on UNISFA. On 17 March, the Council issued a press statement concerning developments in Abyei, the AUHIP-mediated talks and the humanitarian situation in South Kordofan and Blue Nile states (SC/11321).

February 2014

Council members were briefed on Sudan-South Sudan issues in consultations on 11 February by Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous. Among other issues, Ladsous discussed the lack of recent progress implementing the 27 September 2012 agreements between Sudan and South Sudan. On 14 February, the Council issued a press statement on Sudan and South Sudan (SC/11282).

January 2014

On 9 January, Council members held consultations on Sudan-South Sudan issues during which they were briefed by Haile Menkerios, the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for Sudan and South Sudan and head of the UN Office to the AU. Menkerios said that it would be difficult for Sudan and South Sudan to make progress on pending issues between them, including determining the centre line of the Safe Demilitarised Border Zone, while South Sudan is in conflict. Menkerios added that there had been no progress regarding efforts to gain humanitarian access to Blue Nile and South Kordofan. The Council issued a press statement (SC/11244) the following day reiterating their strong support for the mediation efforts led by IGAD and demanding the end to human rights violations.

December 2013

On 5 December, Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Edmond Mulet briefed Council members in consultations on Sudan-South Sudan issues and on UNISFA, reporting on the heightened tensions between the Misseriya and Ngok-Dinka communities in the aftermath of the Ngok-Dinka decision to hold a unilateral referendum on the status of Abyei in late October.

November 2013

On 11 November, Council members were briefed in consultations by peacekeeping head Hervé Ladsous and OCHA’s Director of Operations, John Ging. Ladsous described tensions between the Ngok-Dinka and Misseriya communities, noting that UNISFA has been trying to establish buffer zones between the two groups. Ging spoke about the lack of progress in efforts to gain humanitarian access to rebel-held areas of South Kordofan and Blue Nile. On 25 November, the Council adopted resolution 2126 renewing UNISFA’s mandate for six months.

October 2013

On 10 October, Council members were briefed in consultations by Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Hervé Ladsous and UNISFA Force Commander Yohannes Tesfamariam on Sudan-South Sudan issues and UNISFA. Tesfamariam expressed concern that the Ngok-Dinka community residing in the area continued to make unilateral preparations of a referendum in Abyei. Ladsous noted the urgency of conducting a polio vaccination campaign for children. The Council issued a press statement on 11 October urging Sudan and the SPLM-N to hold a polio vaccination campaign in South Kordofan and Blue Nile states. On 24 October, Council members held consultations and agreed to press elements reiterating their grave concern over the volatile security situation in Abyei and calling on all parties to refrain from unilateral action. On 27 October, the Ngok-Dinka community initiated its own referendum in Abyei without endorsement from Sudan or South Sudan.

September 2013

On 5 September, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Hervé Ladsous briefed Council members in consultations on Sudan/South Sudan issues. Ladsous said that the 3 September summit between Presidents Omar al-Bashir of Sudan and Salva Kiir of South Sudan was a positive development. He also reported on preparations for an October referendum on the final status of Abyei (to determine whether Abyei belongs to Sudan or South Sudan), in accordance with the 21 September 2012 proposal of the AU High-Level Implementation Panel. On 18 September, Haile Menkerios, briefed Council members in consultations in his capacity as Special Envoy and noted that relations between the two countries had improved in recent weeks but expressed concern at the rising tensions in Abyei.

August 2013

Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Edmond Mulet briefed Council members in consultations on 7 August on Sudan-South Sudan issues and UNISFA. Council members held the second of its semi-monthly consultations on Sudan-South Sudan on 22 August with Haile Menkerios who briefed in his capacity as Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for Sudan and South Sudan. On 23 August, the Council adopted a presidential statement focusing on Sudan-South Sudan relations that expressed concern about the challenges facing implementation of the 27 September 2012 agreements. The Council also issued a press statement the same day condemning the violence in Jonglei state.

July 2013

Council members held their regular twice monthly consultations on Sudan/South Sudan issues. On 11 July Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed and Special Envoy Haile Menkerios briefed on 24 July.

June 2013

On 5 June, Special Envoy Haile Menkerios briefed Council members in consultations on Sudan/South Sudan and the Secretary-General’s latest report on UNISFA in Abyei. On 14 June, the Council issued a press statement condemning an attack on the headquarters of the JBVMM in Kadugli that killed one UNISFA peacekeeper and wounded two. Consultations on Sudan/South Sudan were again held on 20 June and Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed on the training of peacekeepers to provide protection to JBVMM monitors. OCHA head Valerie Amos also briefed on her 20-23 May visit to Sudan.

May 2013

On 6 May, Council members were briefed in consultations by Under-Secretary-General for Peackeeping Hervé Ladsous regarding a 4 May attack on a UNISFA convoy, which resulted in the death of Ngok Dinka Paramount Chief Kuol Deng Kuol, an Ethiopian peacekeeper, and left three others wounded. The Council issued a press statement condemning the attack. On 9 May, Special Envoy Haile Menkerios briefed Council members in consultations, reporting that the UN, Sudan and South Sudan would jointly conduct an investigation into the killing of Kuol and release a public report, although he did not indicate a timeframe for the investigation. Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Edmond Mulet briefed Council members in consultations on UNISFA and Sudan-South Sudan relations on 23 May. He said that UNISFA would soon be able to conduct ground patrols as part of the JBVMM, assuming that the Council authorises additional troops when it renewed the mission’s mandate. On 29 May, the Council adopted resolution 2104 extending the mandate of UNISFA until 30 November 2013 and authorising a troop ceiling of 5,326 troops.

April 2013

Council members held consultations on Sudan/South Sudan and UNISFA on 11 April. They were briefed by the UNISFA force commander and head of mission, General Yohannes Gebremeskel Tesfamariam, and Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Edmond Mulet. Tesfamariam advocated for an additional 1,126 troops to provide force protection for the Joint Border Verification and Monitoring Mechanism. On 29 April, Council members held consultations on Sudan-South Sudan relations as part of the twice monthly consultations on the issue.

March 2013

Council members were briefed in consultations on 12 March by Hervé Ladsous, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping, and Haile Menkerios, Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for Sudan and South Sudan. In light of the 8 and 12 March agreements, Ladsous discussed the technical aspects of establishing the the Joint Border Verification and Monitoring Mechanism. During the meeting, Russia tabled a draft press statement welcoming the signing of the 8 and 12 March agreements. However, the US, which had been leading negotiations on a draft presidential statement on Sudan and South Sudan since mid-February, was unwilling to endorse the statement. The Council held an informal interactive dialogue on 27 March with Thabo Mbeki, the chair of the AUHIP, on Sudan and South Sudan. Abdulsalami Alhaji Abubakar, also a member of the AUHIP, participated.

February 2013

On 7 February, the Council held consultations on Sudan and South Sudan. Haile Menkerios, the Secretary-General’s Special Envoy on Sudan and South Sudan, briefed Council members in consultations on relations between the two countries, while Edmond Mulet, Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, briefed on the UN Interim Security Force for Abyei. Council members again held consultations on 21 February, with Menkerios briefing that rhetoric between Sudan and South Sudan had escalated, indicating that there was a need for the parties to demonstrate the political will necessary to make progress in their relations. 

January 2013

On 8 January, Haile Menkerios, Special Envoy for Sudan and South Sudan, and John Ging, director of operations for OCHA, briefed Council members in consultations. Menkerios confirmed that there had been no progress in discussions on the final status of Abyei, despite a summit meeting on 4-5 January in Addis Ababa between Presidents Omar Al-Bashir of Sudan and Salva Kiir of South Sudan. Ging gave a detailed description of the humanitarian crisis in South Kordofan and Blue Nile states, emphasising the ongoing lack of humanitarian access and urging the Council to take action. The Council held consultations on Sudan-South Sudan relations on 22 January with Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefing.  A high-level delegation of the SPLM-N—including Secretary-General Yasir Arman, Chairman Malik Agar and Humanitarian Coordinator Neuron Phillip—visited New York City during the week of 20 January. They met with several Council members and the NGO community in order to provide suggestions for addressing the humanitarian and political crisis in South Kordofan and Blue Nile.

December 2012

On 6 December, Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Edmond Mulet briefed Council members in consultations on the report of the Secretary-General on  the situation in the disputed Abyei area and on other Sudan/South Sudan issues. Noting that while Sudan and South Sudan had not implemented the Joint Border Verification and Monitoring Mechanism and the Safe Demilitarised Border Zone, UNISFA was training the monitors provided by the parties. Mulet said he was unable to report any developments related to the 27 September agreements on security, oil wealth-sharing, cross-border trade and other issues. On 18 December, Council members were briefed again in consultations by Mulet and Special Envoy Haile Menkerios who reported that there was a good chance that Presidents Omar al-Bashir of Sudan and Salva Kiir of South Sudan would meet in the near future to discuss outstanding matters.

November 2012

On 16 November, the Council adopted resolution 2075 renewing the mandate of UNISFA until 31 May 2013. The resolution also urged Sudan and South Sudan to activate Joint Verification and Monitoring Mechanism and establish the Safe Demilitarised Border Zone. Council members also held consultations on 14 November on Sudan and South Sudan in accordance with resolution 2046.

October 2012

In October, the Council discussed Sudan/South Sudan issues twice in consultations. On 4 October, Under Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Hervé Ladsous, emphasised the need for the two countries to implement the agreements they had signed on 27 September on oil, border security, trade, nationality rights and other issues. He also noted that the parties have not been able to reach agreement on critical issues, including the status of Abyei and disputed border areas. Regarding South Kordofan and Blue Nile states in Sudan, Ladsous said that the security and humanitarian situations continued to deteriorate. On 16 October, Ladsous briefed again and said he was unable to report concrete developments on implementation of the 27 September agreements which had been ratified by South Sudan and Sudan on 16 and 17 October, respectively. In other developments, the AU Peace and Security Council issued a 24 October communiqué requesting the parties to resolve the status of Abyei within six weeks, using the AU High-Level Implementation Panel’s 21 September proposal as a basis for discussion.

September 2012

On 6 September, two days after Sudan and South Sudan had reconvened in Addis Ababa for a new round of negotiations on unresolved issues, Special Envoy Haile Menkerios briefed the Council in consultations. He reported that limited progress was being made in the negotiations. Menkerios again briefed the Council in consultations on 20 September and said that there had been no notable violent incidents on the Sudan-South Sudan border and that there was some further progress in the negotiations.  However, there had been significant fighting in South Kordofan and Blue Nile states. On 21 September, the Council issued a press statement affirming Sudan and South Sudan had a responsibility to successfully conclude negotiations on remaining issues.

August 2012

On 9 August, the Council held an interactive dialogue on Sudan and South Sudan. Thabo Mbeki, the chair of the AU High-Level Implementation Panel on Sudan and South Sudan, and UN Special Envoy Haile Menkerios participated. Mbeki told Council members that the Safe Demilitarised Border Zone and Joint Border Verification and Monitoring Mechanism could still not be established because Sudan was reluctant to accept the map proposed by the AU as a basis for negotiation. DPKO briefed Council members in consultations on 23 August noting that the parties were now expected to make an effort to resolve outstanding issues by 22 September, in accordance with the AU’s decision to extend the original 3 August deadline.  On 31 August the Council adopted a presidential statement expressing regret that the parties have not yet been able to resolve a number of critical issues.

July 2012

On 3 July, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights briefed Council members in consultations highlighting violations occurring in South Kordofan and Blue Nile states in Sudan. On 10 July, DPKO briefed the Council in consultations on Sudan and South Sudan reporting a lack of progress in establishing the Joint Border Verification and Monitoring Mechanism. The Council held consultations on 26 July on Sudan and South Sudan. During the consultations, the Special Envoy reported that while it was not expected the parties would reach agreement by the 2 August deadline set by the Council in resolution 2046 it seemed possible that there might be progress on the establishment of the Safe Demilitarised Border Zone and the Joint Border Verification and Monitoring Mechanism. Sudan and South Sudan continued peace talks throughout July.

June 2012

Council members issued a press statement on Sudan and South Sudan on 18 June, welcoming the resumption of negotiations between both parties and noting the decrease in violence along their mutual border.

May 2012

The Council adopted resolution 2047 on 17 May, renewing the mandate of UNISFA for an additional six months. The Council adopted resolution 2046 on 2 May, addressing the deteriorating relations between Sudan and South Sudan and supporting the AU PSC’s communiqué of 24 April.

April 2012

On 24 April the AU Peace and Security Council adopted a communiqué on 24 April that included a “roadmap,” which, inter-alia, called for an end to hostilities between the parties, including aerial bombardments, within 48 hours. Council members held an “informal interactive dialogue” on 17 April focusing on the latest developments along the Sudan-South Sudan border. On 12 April, the Council adopted a presidential statement in which it, inter-alia, demanded “a complete, immediate, and unconditional” end to all fighting, including a withdrawal of South Sudan from Heglig and an end to aerial bombings by the SAF. On 11 April the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations had briefed Council members in consultations on the most recent report of the Secretary-General on Abyei and the tensions between Sudan and South Sudan.

March 2012

The Council issued a press statement on 27 March that, inter-alia, expressed alarm at the military clashes along the Sudan-South Sudan border and demanded that the countries cease violence in the border regions. On 6 March, the Council issued a presidential statement that, inter-alia, demanded that Sudan and South Sudan cease violence along their shared border and urged the parties to reach agreement on unresolved issues.

February 2012

On 29 February the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations briefed Council members in consultations to discuss the situation along the Sudan-South Sudan border. Council members held an “informal interactive dialogue” on the situation in Sudan and South Sudan on 27 February. The Council issued a press statement on 14 February in which it expressed “deep and growing alarm” at malnutrition and food insecurity in parts of Blue Nile and South Kordofan. The Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs briefed the Council in consultations on 10 February regarding her trip to South Sudan from 1 to 4 February. The Council discussed the last report of the Secretary-General on Abyei in consultations on 9 February. The Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations briefed the Council during the meeting.

January 2012

On 22 January, South Sudan began a shutdown of its oil production as a retaliatory measure after Sudan began diverting approximately 120,000 barrels of South Sudanese oil per day, apparently in response to the lack of progress in negotiations on a transit fee for oil from South Sudan going through Sudan. The Council held consultations on 17 January on the situation in South Kordofan and Blue Nile. The Under-Secretary-General for humanitarian affairs and the UN High Commissioner for Refugees briefed the Council.

December 2011

The Council adopted resolution 2032, renewing UNISFA’s mandate on 22 December. On 14 December, the Council adopted resolution 2024 which added a border-monitoring support role to UNISFA’s mandate.

November 2011

On 11 November the Council resumed the briefing on Sudan and South Sudan in public. The Under-Secretary-General for Peackeeping Operations spoke about his recent visit to Sudan and South Sudan. The Special Envoy for Sudan and South Sudan briefed the Council in closed consultations on 10 November focusing his remarks on negotiations on the unresolved Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) issues and tensions between the parties in Abyei, Blue Nile, and South Kordofan.The Council issued a press statement on 4 November on the situation in Abyei. In the statement, the Council encouraged UNISFA to increase its patrols and air mobility. It also called on Sudan and South Sudan to withdraw their forces from Abyei immediately and without preconditions and to finalise the establishment of the Abyei Area Administration.

October 2011

On 20 October, the AU Peace and Security Council renewed the mandate of the High-Level Implementation Panel on Sudan and South Sudan for another year. On 11 October, the Council held consultations on UNISFA. During the consultations, it appears that Under-Secretary-General for Peackeeping Operations reiterated that both Sudanese and South Sudanese troops had not withdrawn from Abyei. On 8 October, the presidents of Sudan and South Sudan met in Khartoum. During a press conference, the two leaders pledged that Sudan and South Sudan would resolve the issues separating them—for example, oil sharing, border demarcation and the status of Abyei—through negotiations, not war. The Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations briefed the Council on 6 October on the situation in Abyei.

September 2011

On 18 September Sudan and South Sudan held the first meeting of the Joint Political and Security Mechanism (JPSM), which seeks to promote political and secruity cooperation between the two countries. On 8 September, the Assistant Secretary-General for peacekeeping operations, the deputy director fo the coordination and response division of the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, and the head of UNMISS briefed the Council on the situation in Sudan and South Sudan in consultations.

August 2011

On 19 August, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Assistant Secrtary-General for Peacekeeping Operations briefed the Council on the situation in Abyei and South Kordofan.

July 2011

On 30 July, Sudan and South Sudan agreed to establish a border-monitoring support mechanism in Abyei, pursuant to the 29 June agreement establishing the “Safe Demilitarised Border Zone” and the “Joint Political and Security Mechanism.” On 28 July, the Assistant Secretary-Genaral of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in New York briefed Council members in closed consultations on the situation in Southern Kordofan. The Head of UN Peackeeping briefed the Council on 27 July on the situation in Abyei, including the deployment of UNISFA. Council members receive a briefing from the head of OCHA on 15 July on the humanitarian situation in Southern Kordofan.The General Assembly admitted South Sudan as as the UN’s 193rd member on 14 July, after the Council recommended to the General Assembly that South Sudan be admitted as a member. On 11 July the Council adopted resolution 1997 deciding that UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) would withdraw by the end of August.

29 June 2011

The government of Sudan and the government of Southern Sudan signed an agreement on border security and a joint political and security mechanism.

28 June 2011

The government of Sudan and the northern chapter of the SPLM signed a framework agreement on political partnership between the National Congress Party (NCP) and SPLMN and political and security arrangements in Blue Nile and Southern Kordofan states.

27 June 2011

The Council established the UN Interim Security Force in Abyei (UNISFA).

23 June 2011

Six UNMIS national staff were arrested in Southern Kordofan.

20 June 2011

The Council received a briefing from Thabo Mbeki and the head of UNMIS, Haile Menkerios on Abyei, post-referendum issues and Southern Kordofan.

20 June 2011

The government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) signed an agreement on temporary arrangements for the administration and security of the Abyei area.

17 June 2011

Four UNMIS peacekeepers were detained by SAF and subjected to a mock firing squad.

16 June 2011

The Council received a closed briefing on the humanitarian situation in Abyei and Southern Kordofan from OCHA and the head of DPKO.

15 June 2011

Clashes between SAF and SPLA forces in Abyei resulted in five deaths.

15 June 2011

The UN announced fighting in Southern Kordofan resulted in the displacement of over 60,000 civilians.

15 June 2011

Eleven bombs were dropped in the area of Kadugli and Kauda.

14 June 2011

Two bombs landed near the UN compound in Kauda.

12 June 2011

The President of Sudan and the President of the Government of Southern Sudan met in Addis Ababa to discuss Abyei under the mediation of Mbeki.

10 June 2011

Fighting in Southern Kordofan state closed the airport in Kadugli, hampering relief efforts.

9 June 2011

SAF planes bomb the southern town of Jau in Unity state, killing five civilians and causing the displacement of 2,000.

8 June 2011

Khartoum announced it is not seeking a political solution for Southern Kordofan and the SAF was “clearing the state of the remaining rebels”.

8 June 2011

Violence in Southern Kordofan state spred outside Kadugli to Kauda and Talodi, with reports of civilians being targeted.

7 June 2011

Khartoum unilaterally appointed an interim administrator for Abyei.

5 June 2011

Violence was sparked between elements of the southern-aligned SPLA and SAF in Kadugli the capital of Southern Kordofan state.

3 June 2011

The Council adopted a presidential statement on the situation in Abyei.

31 May 2011

The Council met to hear briefings from the heads of DPKO and UNMIS on the situation in Abyei.

27 to 31 May 2011

The All Darfur Stakeholders Conference was held in Doha, Qatar.

27 May 2011

The foreign minister of Sudan wrote to the Secretary-General conveying a decision of the government of Sudan that UNMIS would terminate as of 9 July.

25 May 2011

Misseriya tribesmen fired at UNMIS helicopters in Abyei.

24 May 2011

The prime minister of Ethiopia indicated that Ethiopia would be willing to deploy troops to Abyei as a neutral force to assist in implementation of any future security arrangement reached by the parties.

24 May 2011

Sudanese President Bashir indicated Sudan had no intention of withdrawing from Abyei and ordered SAF to respond to SPLA provocations “anywhere”.

23 May 2011

The AU announced that Thabo Mbeki would undertake mediation to reach a solution to the situation in Abyei.

23 May 2011

Khartoum-aligned armed Misseriya tribesmen burned and looted Abyei.

21 May 2011

Sudan Armed Forces seized Abyei, using tanks, heavy artillery and aircraft; dismissed the Abyei Administrator; and dissolved the region’s administrative council.

19 May 2011

Southern forces attacked a Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) convoy escorted by UNMIS in Abyei, killing at least 22 SAF personnel.

17 May 2011

The Secretary-General recommended to the Council that UNMIS be rolled-over until October 2011, after which time a new mission in South Sudan should be mandated.

10 May 2011

Four UNMIS peacekeepers were shot and injured by unknown armed elements in Abyei.

8 May 2011

The CPA parties agreed on a timetable to implement the Kadugli agreement on security in Abyei, with all “unauthorised” forces to be withdrawn from Abyei by 17 May.

5 May 2011

Elections for Governor are held in Southern Kordofan state.

1 May 2011

Fighting flared between southern police and SAF in Abyei resulting in 14 deaths.

27 April 2011

The Council extended the mandate of UNMIS until 9 July 2011.

24 April 2011

The technical committee appointed to write an interim constitution for South Sudan released its draft, which included Abyei as the territory of South Sudan.

19 to 23 April 2011

Clashes between the SPLA and SSLA in Unity state led to the evacuation of northern and foreign oil workers.

14 April 2011

The Deputy Governor of Southern Kordofan (and SPLM-North candidate for Governor) accused militia loyal to the Governor, Ahmed Haroun, of burning 350 houses, killing 17 people, and violently disrupting political rallies.

13 April 2011

The UN humanitarian coordinator for Sudan announced that more than 800 people had died in violence in southern Sudan since January 2011 and close to 94,000 had been internally displaced.

11 April 2011

Former SPLA General, Peter Gadet Yak, announced the formation of a new rebel group, the South Sudan Liberation Army and issues the “Mayom Declaration” seeking the overthrow of the government of Southern Sudan.

21 March 2011

The Council held a private meeting, at the request of the SPLM, where representatives of the Government of Sudan and the Government of Southern Sudan each put forward their perspective on the accusations levelled by the SPLM against the NCP regarding support to armed militia.

18 March 2011

There were reports of heavy fighting in Duk County, Jonglei state between the SPLA and Athor’s forces.

17 March 2011

The Presidency met and agreed to resume talks on implementation of the CPA.

17 March 2011

Fighting between the SPLA and a militia composed of southern elements of the SAF that had returned to Mayom County, Unity state from northern Sudan resulted in over 30 deaths.

13 March 2011

The Sudan People’s Liberation Movement withdrew from talks with the National Congress Party on the remaining implementation of the CPA, claiming to have evidence that northern military intelligence was arming southern militia in an effort to overthrow the Government of Southern Sudan.

12 March 2011

Fighting resumed between the SPLA and Olonyi’s forces around the airport and SPLA barracks in Malakal, Upper Nile state, resulting in at least 49 deaths.

7 March 2011

The SPLA launched an attack on Athor’s forces in Jonglei. Athor accused the SPLA of subsequently burning down six villages considered loyal to Athor, killing 168 civilians.

6 to 13 March 2011

The Independent Expert on the situation of human rights in the Sudan, Mohamed Chande Othman, visited Southern Sudan and Abyei.

6 March 2011

There were clashes in Upper Nile state between the SPLA and an armed militia led by a commander called “Olonyi”—whom Athor claimed was aligned with his rebellion—with estimates of over 60 deaths.

4 March 2011

CPA parties agreed to form a committee to implement the Kadugli Agreements in talks mediated by head of UNMIS, Haile Menkerios.

3 March 2011

The Security Council held consultations on the situation in Abyei.

3 March 2011

The JEM rejoined the Doha peace talks.

27 to 28 February and 2 March 2011

Fighting between the Misseriya nomadic tribe and Southern Sudanese police and members of the Ngok Dinka community in Abyei results in close to 150 deaths.

27 February 2011

At least 92 people are killed in renewed armed confrontation between the SPLA and armed elements loyal to former SPLA General George Athor in Fangak, Jonglei state.

16 February to 31 March

A UN integrated assessment team visited Southern Sudan to consider UN assistance to the future independent state of South Sudan.

9 February 2011

The Council held a meeting where it received briefings from the head of UNMIS, Haile Menkerios, the Chair of the Secretary-General’s panel on the referenda in the Sudan, Benjamin Mkapa and the chair of the AU High-Level Implementation Panel on the Sudan, Thabo Mbeki. Representatives of the Government of Sudan and the Government of Southern Sudan also addressed the Council.

9 to 10 February 2011

Fighting between forces loyal to former SPLA commander George Athor and SPLA in Jonglei State lead to over 200 deaths, including 154 civilians.

7 February 2011

The Southern Sudan Referendum Commission confirmed the official results that 98.83 percent of voters had voted for independence.

3 to 5 February 2011

Fighting within the northern and southern elements of the Joint Integrated Unit in Malakal, Upper Nile State, caused the death of 54 soldiers with 85 wounded.

31 January 2011

The AU Summit held a meeting on Sudan.

17 January 2011

The head of UNMIS mediated a security agreement on Abyei between the interior ministers of the government of Sudan and the government of Southern Sudan.

9 to 15 January 2011

The Southern Sudan referendum was conducted.

16 December 2010

The Council issued a presidential statement and received briefings from head of the Secretary-General’s panel on the referenda, Benjamin Mkapa, and the head of UN peacekeeping, Alain Le Roy, on preparations for the referendum. Representatives from the government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement also addressed the Council.

8 December 2010

Registration closed for the Southern Sudan referendum. Close to 4 million registered to vote in Sudan and eight overseas voting locations (Australia, Canada, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, UK and US).

16 November 2010

UK Foreign Secretary, William Hague, presided over a Council debate on Sudan, where the Council heard breifings from the Secretary-General, the head of the AU High-Level Monitoring Panel, Thabo Mbeki, Sudanese Foreign Minister Ali Ahmed Karti, and the secretary general of the SPLM, Pagan Amum. The Council issued a presidential statement.

15 November to 8 December 2010

Registration for the southern Sudan referendum was held in Sudan and eight other countries where voting for the referendum is permitted (Australia, UK, US, Canada, Egypt, Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia).

14 to 22 November 2010

The UN panel to monitor the referenda in southern Sudan, led by Benjamin Mkapa (former President of Tanzania) made its second visit to Sudan.

13 November 2010

The Government of Sudan and the SPLM agreed on a framework for resolving outstanding matters related to the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement and post-referendum issues, mediated by Thabo Mbeki.

11 November 2010

Security Council members convened an informal meeting with troop-contributing countries to UNMIS.

11 November 2010

Sudan’s defence minister and the southern minister responsible for the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) held a joint press conference in which they said, “War is not an option for us, and we are prepared to build trust between us to achieve a secure and stable situation, regardless of the outcome of the referendum”.

4 November 2010

Three civilians who operate helicopters for the World Food Programme were abducted in the South Darfur state capital of Nyala.

30 October 2010

Sudanese authorities raided the office of the Human Rights and Democracy Network, arresting 13 activists including a journalist working for the Netherlands-based Radio Dabanga.

28 October 2010

The AU Peace and Security Council extended the mandate of the AU High-Level Implementation Panel, led by Thabo Mbeki, for a further 12 months.

25 October 2010

Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, Alain Le Roy, briefed the Council on referenda preparations. Council members raised with Le Roy in subsequent closed consultations reports of harassment and arrests of some IDPs whom the Council had spoken to during its visit to Darfur.

14 October 2010

Uganda, the UK and the US briefed the Council on the visit to Sudan, saying the visit helped reinforce the message that the referenda must be held on time and maintain pressure on both parties to work through the remaining procedural and political obstacles.

10 to 14 October 2010

The UN panel to monitor the referenda in southern Sudan made its first visit to Sudan.

7 October 2010

An AU-UN Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) civilian staff member was kidnapped in El Fasher.

4 to 10 October 2010

The Security Council visited Uganda, southern Sudan (Juba), Darfur and Khartoum (terms of reference).

24 September 2010

The Secretary-General convened a high-level meeting on Sudan in order to mobilise international support for the full and timely implementation of the CPA and for the peace processes for Darfur and eastern Sudan. The meeting was attended by more than thirty nations and international organisations and Sudanese First Vice President and South Sudan President Salva Kiir and Second Vice President Ali Osman Taha.

21 September 2010

The Secretary-General announced the formation of a UN panel to monitor the referenda in southern Sudan. Former Tanzanian President Benjamin Mkapa would lead the panel. The other panelists were former Portuguese foreign affairs minister (and former High Representative for the Cote d’Ivoire elections) Antonio Monteiro and the former chairman of the Nepalese election commission, Bhojraj Pokharel.

15 September 2010

Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, Alain Le Roy, briefed Council members in closed consultations on referenda preparations (which he said remained slow).

7 September 2010

The Secretary-General of the southern Sudan referendum commission, Mohamed Osman al-Nujoomi assumed his duties.

1 September 2010

The UN announced it has opened its first field office in Western Equatoria as part of its plan to expand its presence in southern Sudan for the January referendum. Offices are to be opened in the region’s 79 counties.

29 July 2010

Under Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, Alain Le Roy, briefed the Council on developments in Southern Sudan and the work of UNMIS in closed consultations.

23 June 2010

The parties to the CPA, the National Congress Party and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) signed the Mekelle Memorandum of Understanding which agreed that negotiations on post-2011 referendum issues and arrangements shall be facilitated by the AU’s High-level Implementation Panel for Sudan supported by the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD), the IGAD partners’ forum and the UN.

3 June 2010

Under Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, John Holmes, briefed Council members in closed consultations on his 22-20 May visit to Chad and Sudan.

7 May 2010

The Secretary-General called on the Sudanese government to investigate and apprehend those responsible for the attacks on 7 May.

30 April 2010

The Security Council adopted resolution 1919 renewing the mandate of UNMIS.

14 April 2010

The border between Sudan and Chad is opened.

11-15 April 2010

Sudanese voters voted for the first time in 24 years to elect a national president and to cast votes for a South Sudan presidency.

9 March 2010

A Special regional summit of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) held in Nairobi, Kenya urged the NCP and SPLM to resolve the remaining disputes in the CPA.

February 2010

Election campaigns began in Sudan and National Elections Commission released the total voter registration figures.

22 February 2010

The National Congress Party and Sudan People’s Liberation Movement agreed to increase parliamentary seats for southern Sudan in the national parliament.

2 February 2010

The Secretary-General announced the appointment of Haile Menkerios of South Africa as his Special Representative for the Sudan.

December 2009

Demonstrations in Khartoum and other cities led to the arrest of key SPLM and Umma party leaders.

21 December 2009

The Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights released a report on LRA attacks in southern Sudan stating that LR attacks may amount to crimes against humanity in the Rome Statute of the ICC.

13 December 2009

The Sudanese cabinet approved the draft bill of the South Sudan Referendum, the Abyei Referendum and the Act of People’s Consultation in South Kordofan and the Blue Nile.

7 December 2009

The National Elections Commission completed voter registration for the 2010 national elections.

22 November 2009

Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict Radhika Coomaraswamy visited Sudan and met with authorities in Darfur, South Sudan and Khartoum.

November 2009

Voter registration began for the first multiparty elections in Sudan in 24 years.

25 October 2009

President al-Bashir formed a committee headed by Second Vice Presindent Ali Osman Taha to review the findings of the AUPD while finalising the government’s response, to be shared at the AU Peace and Security Council meeting which began on 29 October.

22 October 2009

A staff member from International Committee for the Red Cross was kidnapped.

20 October 2009

The issue of the disputed border region with Egypt arose as Sudan’s electoral commission announced that the residents of the Red Sea border area of Halayeb will be allowed to register and vote during the election.

19 October 2009

The US announced a revised policy framework, which simultaneously focuses on ending the conflict in Darfur and supporting implementation of the CPA.

19 October 2009

UNAMID reported a military build-up in North Darfur, with increased military activities by the Sudanese government and Sudan Liberation Army/Abdul Wahid Faction (SLA/AW) forces in Sortony and Kabkabiya.

6 October 2009

A meeting was held in Moscow focusing on resumption of Doha talks and implementation of the CPA.

20 September 2009

Some eighty people were killed, nearly fifty wounded and around 2,000 homes were burned when Lou Nuer gunmen attacked Dinka Hol village of Duk Padiet in Jonglei state.

9 September 2009

Lubna Hussein, a Sudanese employee of UNMIS, arrested for wearing pants, was released after her fine was paid by the Sudanese Journalists Union.

19 August 2009

In Juba, at a meeting organised by the US government, representatives of Khartoum’s ruling National Congress Party and the southern-based SPLM signed an agreement recommitting both sides to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement that ended the 22-year civil war in 2005.

8 August 2009

Clashes between two clans of the Dinka tribe in southern Sudan reportedly left at least thirty dead and 15 abducted.

31 July 2009

South African Foreign Ministry Director-General Ayande Ntsaluba reiterated an earlier announcement that Bashir would be arrested if he travelled to South Africa.

22 July 2009

The Permanent Court of Arbitration on Abyei issued its decision regarding the region’s border; both sides agreed to respect the decision of the Court.

18 July 2

JEM released sixty Sudanese army prisoners.

17 July 2009

Alain Le Roy, the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, briefed the Security Council in closed consultations on the work of UNMIS and the Secretary-General’s 14 July report on the mission.

18 June 2009

The Human Rights Council adopted a resolution establishing the mandate for a new independent expert on the situation of human rights in Sudan to replace the Special Rapporteur.

6 June 2009

Former Sudanese Foreign Minister Lam Akol announced the founding of a new political party to challenge the SPLM: the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement—Democratic Change (SPLM-DC).

20 May 2009

Reports indicated that Chad’s armed forces were preparing to enter Sudan to attack Chadian opposition fighters.

13 May 2009

In response to continuing tribal clashes in southern Sudan, UNMIS announced that it would deploy 120 peacekeepers to assist local communities in restoring dialogue and provide security for aid delivery.

7 May 2009

A UN peacekeeper was killed by attackers attempting to steal his car.

5 May 2009

Chad accused Sudan of sending armed forces and Chadian rebels into its territory.

4 May 2009

At talks in Doha, Chad and Sudan agreed to renew diplomatic ties and cease cross-border attacks.

18 to 23 April 2009

The Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague held oral hearings on the disputed boundaries of Abyei.

2 April 2009

The National Elections Commission announced elections would be postponed until February 2010.

Early April 2009

Several SLM factions announced their merger with JEM.

18 March 2009

An eight-member high-level panel led by former South African President Thabo Mbeki and including Burundi’s Pierre Buyoya and Nigeria’s General Abusalam Abubakar began its work examining the situation in Sudan.

23 February 2009

Two Sudanese staff from a French aid group, Aide Médicale Internationale were shot and killed by bandits 80km north east of Nyala, South Darfur.

17 February 2009

The Sudanese government and rebel group Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) signed an agreement of goodwill and confidence building brokered by the Qatari government and the AU/UN joint chief mediator Djibrill Bassolé in Doha. The two parties agreed to refrain from all kinds of harassment of IDPs, guarantee the smooth and unobstructed flow of relief assistance to needy people, and commit to exchange prisoners.

12 February 2009

Council members met an AU and AL delegation, led by AU Commissioner for Peace and Security, Ramtane Lamamra. Council members were told that while the AU and Arab League do not believe in promoting impunity, further time was needed to allow progress in Sudan and that a deferral of ICC proceedings would facilitate process. The responses of the Council members were divided, but demonstrated that most Council members were unconvinced that a suspension would facilitate progress.

31 January 2009

Sudanese President Bashir accused Chad of supporting JEM in its attacks against Muhajeriya.  N’Djamena denied the accusations and accused Khartoum of brokering the creation of a new alliance between the Chadian rebels to topple the government of President Deby.

27 January 2009

The Chairperson of the AU Commission, Jean Ping said a high level Panel of Jurists and Eminent Politicians was being established with the aim of ensuring that justice was rendered in Sudan.

18 January 2009

The Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) reportedly took full control of Muhajeriya, SLA/M’s former stronghold.

12 December 2008

Violence erupted in Abyei involving members of the military joint integrated units (JIUs) and joint integrated police units (JIPUs), resulting in at least one death and thousands of civilians fleeing.

early December 2008

The Sudanese government deployed six northern battalions to Southern Kordofan after members of the Darfur rebel group Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) apparently entered this transitional area. Khartoum said the new northern force had no intention to attack the south’s Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) also deployed in the area. The South Sudanese government claims the deployment is in violation of the CPA.

27 November 2008

Sudanese President Omar Al-Bashir appoints the National Electoral Commission.

24 – 30 November 2008

UN Under Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator John Holmes travelled through Sudan to assess the humanitarian and security situation.

16 November 2008

The second meeting of the Tri-partite Committee was held between the Government of Sudan, the African Union Commission and the UN.

15 November 2008

The Dakar Contact Group met in N’Djamena to further discuss deployment of a Chad-Sudan border observation mission. This followed the exchange of ambassadors between Chad and Sudan the previous week and an agreement on concrete steps for full normalisation of relations.

27 October 2008

Five Chinese oil workers seized in Kordofan, were killed.

16 October 2008

The Sudanese Government launched its “People of Sudan” initiative during a three day forum which was boycotted by Darfur rebel movements and some opposition parties. Delegates from Egypt, Eritrea, Qatar, the African Union and the Arab League attended.

15 October 2008

The Pre-Trial Chamber of the International Criminal Court requested the Prosecution to submit additional supporting materials in relation to aspects of Prosecution’s request for warrant of arrest of President Bashir by 17 November.

18 September 2008

Suspected LRA elements attacked an SPLA detachment in South Sudan.  Reportedly, one SPLA soldier and three LRA rebels were killed.

12 September 2008

The AU sponsored Dakar Agreement contact group met to discuss deployment of a joint monitoring force along the border between Sudan and Chad.

31 August 2008

The Chief Administrator of the interim Abyei Area Administration, Arop Mayak Monytock of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) and his deputy Rahama Abdel-Rahman Al-Nour of the National Congress Party (NCP) were sworn in.

18 August 2008

Special Representative Qazi provided an assessment of the status of the CPA implementation and UNMIS’ response to the recent crisis in Abyei.

early August 2008

A joint administration for the contested area of Abyei was established in accordance with the roadmap agreed between the ruling National Congress Party (NCP) and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM).

18 July 2008

At a meeting under the auspices of the Dakar Agreement Contact Group, Sudan and Chad agreed to restore diplomatic relations, broken since a rebel attack on the outskirts of Khartoum in May.

mid-July 2008

The Secretary-General held talks with the Sudanese government. He clarified that the Secretariat has no influence over the ICC, and urged Khartoum to ensure the security of humanitarian workers and the ability of UNMIS and UNAMID to carry out their mandates.

10 July 2008

Rebel commanders and humanitarian agencies held discussions on improving access and security.

early July 2008

The Sudanese parliament adopted the much-awaited electoral law. Southern officials expressed concern about possible bias in the law favouring the ruling National Congress Party and warned that key legislation on the media, national security and criminal acts needed to be revised to ensure free and fair elections.

1 July 2008

The deadline for full withdrawal from the Abyei area, contested by the north and south, which both sides failed to meet.

30 June 2008

The Secretary-General informed the Council of the appointment of Djibril Yipènè Bassolé of Burkina Faso as the new AU-UN Joint Chief Mediator.

24 June 2008

The Council adopted a statement  calling on UNMIS to deploy robustly in the area around Abyei to prevent escalation of the conflict in support of CPA implementation, and requested an assessment of UNMIS’ role vis-à-vis the recent violence and appropriate follow-up steps.

Mid-June 2008

Chadian rebels launched a new offensive and briefly took over a number of towns in eastern Chad, threatening a new attack on N’Djaména. Chad repeated accusations of Sudanese support for rebel groups.

8 June 2008

The parties to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) signed a roadmap on the return of displaced civilians and implementation of the Abyei Protocol.

early June 2008

A Council mission visited Chad and Sudan, while renewed clashes between government and southern forces in the contested region of Abyei raised new concerns about the future of the north-south Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) and the potential for a renewed north-south civil war. Dozens were killed and tens of thousands displaced by the violence, which included bombing and the burning of Abyei town to the ground.

13 May 2008

A meeting with troop contributors was convened to discuss the new deployment plan.

11 May 2008

Sudan cut diplomatic ties with Chad.

22 April 2008

After considerable delays and disagreement, the national census started.

12 March 2008

On the margins of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference summit in Dakar, Chad and Sudan signed a new agreement to defuse tensions and stop mutual support for rebels.

early March 2008

The situation along the border with Chad became highly volatile. A French soldier died and another was wounded after their vehicle crossed into Sudan from Chad as part of a reconnaissance mission under the EU Force (EUFOR).

Mid-January 2008

Khartoum appointed Janjaweed leader Musal Hilal as a government adviser. (Hilal has been included in the Council targeted-sanctions list.)

9 January 2008

Southern representatives resumed their participation in the central government after months of suspension, and northern troops finalised redeployment away from the south.

12 December 2007

Ambassador Johan Verbeke of Belgium submitted a letter to the Council President on behalf of EU members of the Security Council, containing the Conclusions of the Council of Europe on Sudan/Chad, which reiterated the urging of European members for Sudan to cooperate with the ICC and drew “attention to the lack of cooperation by the Government of the Sudan concerning the deployment of an effective force” in Darfur.

31 October 2007

The Council renewed UNMIS for six months in  resolution 1784 which signaled growing Council attention to the broader linkages between the parallel peace processes in Sudan.

early October 2007

Citing the north’s unwillingness to implement the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, the southern Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) announced its withdrawal from the national government.

25 September 2007

The Council authorised EU and UN deployments in Chad and the Central African Republic (CAR).

10 September 2007

The President of South Sudan, Salva Kiir, painted an alarming picture of the relations between north and south and the CPA’s status, saying, “I am worried [that] it is likely that Sudan will reverse again to war if we do not act now with our partner [Sudan’s ruling National Congress Party].”

3-4 September 2007

Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon visited Khartoum and Southern Sudan.

3-5 August 2007

The UN-AU Mediation Team held pre-negotiation talks with the rebel movements in Arusha, in which a common rebel negotiating platform was adopted. Key rebel leaders, including Abdelwahid al-Nur, did not attend.

mid July 2007

The AU-UN mediation team chaired a second Libya-format meeting in Tripoli including Sudan, Chad, Libya, Eritrea, Egypt, the Council permanent members, the EU, the Arab League, Canada, Italy, the Netherlands and Norway. A communiqué was adopted emphasising that “any hindrance to the political process would be addressed through appropriate measures” by the UN Security Council and the AU.

9 July 2007

The deadline for the redployment of all northern forces away from southern Sudan was not met.

early July 2007

The EU signalled that its available resources were depleted and called on the US and the Arab League to increase their share in assistance for AMIS.

June 2007

The AU Peace and Security Council authorised the hybrid operation after Khartoum indicated that it would accept it without conditions after consultations in Addis Ababa among the UN, the AU and Sudan.

23 – 25 May 2007

Security Council received the AU-UN report on the hybrid operation, after months of difficult AU-UN negotiations on the mandate and structure of the proposed operation. A subsequent Security Council statement called for it to be considered and taken forward immediately.

March 2007

Khartoum replied to the 24 January 2007 heavy-support proposal with complaints that it “reveals the existence of essential differences in the understanding of the nature and objectives” of UN support.

20 February 2007

Libya convened a regional peace initiative. Eritrea (as a facilitator), Chad, Sudan and rebel groups attended. Eritrea and Libya also reportedly met with the rebels separately to encourage a unified negotiating position.

14 February 2007

Khartoum refused visas for a Human Rights Council-mandated high-level mission.

13 February 2007

Sudanese aircraft bombed rebel groups preparing for a conference on a unified negotiating platform.

24 January 2007

Secretary-General sent details of a UN-AU agreement for a “heavy-support” package for Darfur to Khartoum.

25 November 2006

The AU and the UN signed a memorandum of understanding on a “lighter” UN assistance package.

22 November 2006

Security Council renewed the UN Peacebuilding Support Office in the Central African Republic (BONUCA)’s mandate until the end of 2007, as large numbers of refugees from Darfur continued to spill over the border into the Central African Republic.

18 November 2006

At a meeting in Addis-Ababa the Secretary-General, P5 members, AU Commissioner Alpha Oumar Konare, the Arab League, the EU and several African nations agreed in principle to a hybrid operation for Darfur.

October 2006

Khartoum signalled a willingness to accept increased UN logistical and financial support to AMIS.

14 October 2006

The Eastern Sudan Peace Agreement was signed.

31 August 2006

The Council adopted resolution 1706, setting a mandate for UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) in Darfur.

16 August 2006

Non-signatories were expelled from the Ceasefire Commission (CFC).

8 August 2006

Sudan and Chad decided to normalise bilateral relations.

7 August 2006

Former rebel leader Minni Arko Minawi was sworn in as Senior Assistant to the President of Sudan.

20 July 2006

In a meeting with Salva Kiir Mayardit, US President George Bush pushed for Sudan to allow for a UN presence to stop the violence in Darfur and to allow the AU forces to be “blue-helmeted”.

4 – 10 June 2006

A Security Council mission visited Addis Ababa, Chad and Sudan.

3 November 2005

Minni Arko Minnawi was elected President of the Sudanese Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A).

September 2005

The Government of National Unity (GNU) announced the new Council of Ministers, with fifteen porfolios allotted to the National Congress Party (NCP) (including the key energy, interior and defence ministries) and eight to the Sudanese People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM).

August 2005

Sima Samar appointed Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in the Sudan.

August 2005

With John Garang’s death, Salva Kiir was sworn in as first-vice president.

30 July 2005

John Garang died in a helicopter crash in the south of Sudan.

9 July 2005

The Government of National Unity was inaugurated and Sudan People Liberation Army (SPLA) leader John Garang was sworn in as vice-president.

24 March 2005

UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) was established to support the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA).

16 February 2005

High Commissioner for Human Rights Louise Arbour presented the report of the International Commission of Inquiry to the Security Council.

9 January 2005

The Government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) to end the North/South conflict.

1 September 2004

Parties to the conflict called for the deployment of AU peacekeepers.

11 June 2004

Resolution  1547 welcomed the Secretary-General’s proposal to establish a special political mission in Sudan.

8 April 2004

The Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement was signed by the Government of Sudan, Sudanese Liberation Army (SLA) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), in N’Djamena, Chad. Also known as the N’Djamena Agreement.

September 2003

Naivasha Agreement on Security Arrangements (ceasefire between north and south) was signed.

July 2002

The Government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) signed the Machakos Protocol.