Chronology of Events

revised on 1 April 2019

Democratic Republic of the Congo

March 2019

On 18 March, the Security Council received a briefing, followed by consultations, on MONUSCO. The Council was briefed by Special Representative of the Secretary-General Leila Zerrougui and Anny Tenga Modi, Executive Director of Afia Mamaa, a civil society organisation. A representative from the DRC mission participated in the briefing.

November 2018

On 13 November, Special Representative and head of MONUSCO Leila Zerrougui briefed the Council (S/PV.8397). Josephine Mbela of the Congolese Association for Access to Justice, a non-governmental human rights and rule of law organization, also briefed. On 15 November, Council members issued a press statement condemning the killing of seven MONUSCO peacekeepers in North Kivu (SC/13583). The meeting was followed by consultations. Council members issued a press statement on 21 November on the electoral process in the DRC (SC/13599).

October 2018

On 3 October, Council members were briefed in consultations by the Director-General of the World Health Organization, Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus on the Ebola crisis in the DRC. The Council visited the DRC between 5-7 October. A briefing by the co-leads of visiting mission (Bolivia, Equatorial Guinea and France) was held on 11 October. Also on that day, Special Representative and head of MONUSCO Leila Zerrougui briefed on the latest MONUSCO report, and Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for the Great Lakes Region Said Djinnit briefed on the latest report on the implementation of the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the Region, followed by consultations. On 30 October, the Council adopted resolution 2439 on Ebola in the DRC.

August 2018

On 13 August, Council members issued a press statement on developments in the electoral process in the DRC. The statement welcomed President Joseph Kabila’s respect for his commitment to abide by the Congolese Constitution and the provisions of the 31 December 2016 political agreement. It also underlined the importance of the entire Congolese political class and the institutions responsible for organising elections to remain committed to ensuring the success of the electoral process, leading to a peaceful transfer of power. On 27 August, the Security Council was briefed on the electoral process via video teleconference by Special Representative and head of MONUSCO Leila Zerrougui; President of the Conférence Episcopale Nationale du Congo Monsignor Marcel Utembi; and Solange Lwashiga Furaha, spokesperson for Rien Sans les Femme. On 28 August, Council members were briefed on the current Ebola outbreak in eastern DRC, under “any other business” in consultations. On 31 August, the DRC Sanctions Committee met with the Group of Experts assisting it, which will present their programme of work.

March 2018

On 7 March, Leila Zerrougui, Special Representative and head of MONUSCO, briefed the Council on the latest MONUSCO report and the report of the Secretary-General on progress in the implementation of the 31 December 2016 political agreement. Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Jean-Pierre Lacroix also participated in the consultations that followed. On 19 March, Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs, Mark Lowcock; Jeanine Bandu Bahati, Coordinator of “Encadrement des Femmes Indigènes et des Ménages Vulnérables”; and Abbé Donatien Nshole, Secretary-General and spokesperson of the Congolese National Episcopal Conference, briefed the Council on the humanitarian situation in the DRC. Council members issued a press statement on 22 March, expressing their concern over the deteriorating humanitarian situation. On 27 March, the Council adopted resolution 2409 renewing the mandate of MONUSCO until 31 March 2019. On 23 March, Zerrougui and a representative of the Joint Mission Analysis Centre of MONUSCO (responsible for monitoring the arms embargo) briefed the 1533 DRC Sanctions Committee on the security situation via video teleconference. A representative of the UN Mine Action Service also briefed the committee.

January 2018

On 9 January, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Jean-Pierre Lacroix briefed the Council on recent developments in the DRC and on the latest MONUSCO report. The briefing was followed by consultations, in which Assistant Secretary-General for Human Rights Andrew Gilmour also participated. Council members issued a press statement on 16 January, calling on all stakeholders to remain committed to the 31 December 2016 Agreement, which remains the only viable path out of the current political situation. The DRC Sanctions Committee held a briefing open to all UN member states on 26 January.

November 2017

On 7 November, the Council adopted a presidential statement (S/PRST/2017/23) that “reiterate[d] the need for the Government of the DRC to  fully investigate the killing of the two members of the [Sanctions Committee] Group of Experts and bring the perpetrators to justice” (S/PV.8087). In the statement, the Council further noted the Secretary-General’s decision, which was agreed with the authorities of the DRC, “to deploy a United Nations team to assist the Congolese authorities in their investigations”.  On 28 November, Council members issued a press statement on the electoral process in the DRC in which they noted that presidential, legislative and provincial elections are now scheduled for 23 December 2018, and emphasised the “critical importance of ensuring the elections are not postponed further” (SC/13095).

June 2017

On 21 June, the Council adopted resolution 2360 by consensus, renewing the arms embargo, asset freeze and travel ban on the DRC until 1 July 2018. The resolution introduced attacks on peacekeepers or UN personnel, including members of the Group of Experts, as new criterion for the imposition of targeted sanctions against individuals.

May 2017

In a 4 May press statement, Council members took note of the appointment of Tshibala and of the responses of the Rassemblement and CENCO. They noted that the signatories of the 31 December agreement were unable to reach a consensus on the special arrangements and called on all parties to remain committed to the agreement and the overarching objective of organising peaceful, credible, free, fair and inclusive elections by the end of 2017. The Secretary-General submitted a report to the Council on 17 May on the implementation of the agreement as requested in resolution 2348.

March 2017

On 21 March, the Special Representative and head of MONUSCO, Maman Sidikou, briefed the Council on the latest MONUSCO report. President of the National Episcopal Conference of the Congo Marcel Utembi and Marie-Madeleine Kalala of the NGO the Common Cause Network, also briefed the Council. On 31 March, the Council renewed MONUSCO’s mandate until 31 March 2018 in resolution 2348, lowering MONUSCO’s troop ceiling to 16,215 military personnel. On 29 March, Council members condemned the killing of two experts from the DRC Sanctions Committee’s Group of Experts who were on mission in the Kasaï-Central region and expressed concern over the unknown status of the four Congolese nationals accompanying them.

On 20 March 2017, the DRC Sanctions Committee was briefed by Sidikou and the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for the Great Lakes Region, Said Djinnit. Representatives of the DRC, Angola, Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda participated in the meeting.

Februrary 2017

On 23 February, Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations El Ghassim Wane updated Council members on recent political and security developments in the DRC under “any other business”.

On 15 February, the DRC Sanctions Committee met with the then coordinator of the Group of Experts assisting it, Michael Sharp, to receive an update on the group’s work. Sharp discussed the activities of rebel groups and loopholes in the DRC banking system that hamper the implementation of the assets freeze. (Sharp and Zaida Catalan, another member of the group, went missing in Kasai Central province in DRC on 12 March. Their bodies, along with those of four Congolese nationals, were discovered on 24 March.)

Uruguay, Senegal and Sweden held an Arria-formula meeting on 24 February with heads of the human rights components of three peace operations, including that of MONUSCO, on human rights and the implementation of the overall mandates of peace operations.

January 2017

On 4 January, the Council adopted a presidential statement welcoming the signing on 31 December 2016 of a comprehensive and inclusive political agreement on the electoral calendar in the DRC. On 11 January, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous, briefed the Council on the latest MONUSCO report. Monseigneur Marcel Utembi, President of the National Episcopal Conference of the Congo, also spoke. At press time, the 1533 DRC Sanctions Committee was scheduled to meet on 30 January to discuss the latest midterm report by the Group of Experts assisting the Committee.

December 2016

On 5 December, Maman Sambo Sidikou, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of MONUSCO and Assistant Secretary-General Taye-Brook Zerihoun briefed the Council, followed by consultations. At the beginning of the meeting, the Council adopted a presidential statement calling on all political stakeholders to continue to work towards a swift political solution before 19 December 2016 that would pave the way for peaceful, credible, inclusive and timely elections. The coordinator of the Group of Experts assisting the DRC Sanctions Committee, Michael Sharp, briefed the Committee on 14 December 2016 on the Group’s midterm report .

October 2016

On 11 October, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General, Maman Sambo Sidikou, briefed the Council on the latest UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the DRC report. In addition, the chair of the DRC Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Amr Aboulatta (Egypt) briefed the Council on his 1 to 6 August visit to the DRC, Rwanda and Uganda. The meeting was followed by consultations.

September 2016

Council members issued a press statement on 21 September expressing concern over the violence and stressing the crucial importance of peaceful, inclusive and timely elections in accordance with the constitution. On 8 September 2016, the chair of the DRC Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Amr Aboulatta (Egypt) briefed the Committee members on his trip, from 1 to 6 August, to the DRC, Rwanda and Uganda.

August 2016

On 16 August, Council members issued a press statement condemning the killing of at least 50 civilians on 13 August in the area of Rwangoma village, North Kivu Province of the DRC, by suspected members of the Allied Democratic Forces. On 24 August, the Group of Experts assisting the 1533 DRC Sanctions Committee briefed Committee members on it programme of work.

July 2016

On 7 July, Deputy Secretary-General Jan Eliasson briefed the Council on the latest MONUSCO report. On 15 July, Council members issued a press statement stressing the crucial importance of a peaceful and credible electoral cycle, in accordance with the constitution, and expressed their concern at increased restrictions of the political space in the DRC.

March 2016

On 23 March, Special Representative Maman Sidikou briefed the Council on the most recent MONUSCO report and the report on the Peace, Security, and Cooperation Framework for the DRC. DRC’s Foreign Minister Raymond N’tungamulongo also participated. The Council adopted resolution 2277 on 30 March, renewing the mandate of MONUSCO for a year. The 1533 DRC Sanctions Committee was briefed by Sidikou and Sebastian Fasanello, Chief of MONUSCO’s Joint Mission Analysis Centre, on 1 March on MONUSCO’s arms embargo-monitoring mandate. Paul Heslop, Chief of the UN Mine Action Service Programme Planning & Management Section, briefed on issues of weapons management in the DRC.

January 2016

On 14 January, the Council was briefed by Special Representative Sambo Sidikou on the latest MONUSCO report.

December 2015

The Chair of the Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Dina Kawar (Jordan), briefed the Council on 17 December, along with the other Committee chairs ending their term on the Council.

November 2015

On 9 November, the Council adopted a presidential statement on the situation in the DRC (S/PRST/2015/20). The statement stressed the importance of neutralising, once and for all, armed groups in the DRC and the Council’s concern that joint operations between the Congolese army and MONUSCO’s Force Intervention Brigade have yet to resume, in particular against the Forces démocratiques de libération du Rwanda. The statement also calls on the DRC to ensure the timely holding of presidential and legislative elections by November 2016. The 1533 DRC Sanctions Committee met with the Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict Leila Zerrougui on 20 November. On 30 November, the Security Council condemned the attacks conducted on 29 November by the ADF in North Kivu, including against a MONUSCO base, that led to the killing of one peacekeeper, four FARDC soldiers and several civilians, and the injury of several others. including one peacekeeper.

October 2015

On 7 October, the Secretary-General’s exiting head of MONUSCO, Martin Kobler, briefed the Council on the latest MONUSCO report, for the last time before leaving his post (S/PV.7529). The Special Envoy of the Secretary-General to the Great Lakes Region, Said Djinnit, briefed on the latest report on the implementation of the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework Agreement. On 28 October, the Chair of the 1533 DRC Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Dina Kawar (Jordan), briefed Council members in consultations on the midterm report of the Group of Experts. Separately, the Working Group on Peacekeeping Operations met on 19 October to discuss MONUSCO.

July 2015

On 14 July, the Council was briefed by Special Representative and head of MONUSCO Martin Kobler on the latest MONUSCO report. The Council was also briefed by Ambassador Dina Kawar (Jordan), chair of the 1533 DRC Sanctions Committee, following her visit to the country. The meeting was followed by consultations.

May 2015

On 7 May, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed Council members under “any other business” on his latest visit to the DRC. The previous day, Council members had issued a press statement condemning a 5 May attack against peacekeepers in North Kivu (SC/11883).

March 2015

On 19 March, Special Representative Martin Kobler briefed the Council on the latest MONUSCO report. Special Envoy to the Great Lakes Region, Said Djinnit, briefed on the latest report on the implementation of the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework Agreement. DRC Foreign Minister Raymond Tshibanda also addressed the Council. The Council adopted resolution 2211 on 26 March, renewing MONUSCO and its intervention brigade until 31 March 2016.

January 2015

On 5 January, Special Representative and head of MONUSCO, Martin Kobler, briefed Council members via video-teleconference under “any other business” on the situation in the DRC. On 8 January, the Council adopted a presidential statement reiterating the need for the DRC, together with MONUSCO, through its intervention brigade, to neutralise the Forces démocratiques de libération du Rwanda (FDLR) by commencing military operations immediately (S/PRST/2015/1). On 22 January, the Council was briefed (S/PV.7367) by Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous on the strategic review of MONUSCO (S/2014/957) and by Kobler on MONUSCO’s latest report (S/2014/956). The chair of the 1533 DRC Sanctions Committee, Dina Kawar (Jordan), briefed the Council on the report of the Group of Experts assisting the 1533 DRC Sanctions Committee (S/2015/19). On 29 January, the Council adopted a resolution 2198 renewing the DRC sanctions regime and the mandate of the Group of Experts.

December 2014

On 17 December 2014, Council members were briefed by Special Representative Martin Kobler in consultations via video-teleconference, with Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Edmond Mulet present to address any questions. Kobler informed Council members that operational plans against the FDLR are finalised but noted that the prospective operation is dependent on the commitment of the intervention brigade contingencies and the DRC to engaging in combat with the FDLR. He also updated the Council on a new joint operation of the DRC military (FARDC) and MONUSCO against the ADF.

November 2014

On 5 November, the Council adopted a presidential statement noting deep concern over the lack of progress of the voluntary disarmament process of the Forces démocratiques de libération du Rwanda (FDLR) and calling on the DRC, in coordination with MONUSCO, to undertake immediate military action against those in the FDLR who do not engage in the demobilization process or who continue to carry out human rights abuses (S/PRST/2014/22). On 25 November, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed Council members under “any other business” on recent attacks against civilians in Beni, North Kivu that have reportedly resulted in over 200 casualties since October. Later that day, Council members issued a press statement condemning the attacks and calling on the DRC and MONUSCO to reduce threats against civilians and neutralise armed groups operating in eastern DRC (SC/11675).

October 2014

On 27 October, the Council was briefed (S/PV.7288) by Special Representative Martin Kobler on the latest MONUSCO report (S/2014/698). The newly appointed Special Envoy to the Great Lakes Region, Said Djinnit, also briefed on the latest report on implementation of the Peace and Security Framework Agreement (S/2014/697). Earlier in the month, on 3 October, Council members issued a press statement (SC/11586) noting with concern the lack of progress on the voluntary surrender of the members of the rebel group Forces démocratiques de libération du Rwanda (FDLR). Council members also reiterated their call on the DRC government, to undertake, in coordination with MONUSCO, military action against those leaders and members of the FDLR who do not engage in the demobilisation process or who continue to carry out human rights abuses.

August 2014

On 7 August, in a debate  chaired by Mark Simmonds, the UK Under-Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, the Council was briefed by Special Representative and the head of MONUSCO Martin Kobler on the latest MONUSCO report. The outgoing Special Envoy to the Great Lakes Region, Mary Robinson, and Angola’s Minister of Defence João Manuel Gonçalves Lourenço, in his capacity as representative of the Chair of the International Conference of the Great Lakes Region, also addressed the Council. On 20 August, Ambassador Dina Kawar (Jordan), the chair of the 1533 DRC Sanctions Committee, briefed Council members in consultations on the activities of the Committee and the Group of Experts’ midterm report. On 26 August, Council members issued a press statement reaffirming their support for the swift neutralisation of the Forces Démocratiques de Libération du Rwanda as a top priority in bringing stability to the DRC and the Great Lakes region.

March 2014

On 14 March, the Council was briefed by the Special Representative and head of MONUSCO, Martin Kobler, on the latest MONUSCO report. The Council was also briefed by Special Envoy for the Great Lakes Region Mary Robinson (via video-teleconference) on her recent report on the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework. On 28 March, the Council adopted resolution 2147 renewing the mandate of MONUSCO—including its intervention brigad—until 31 March 2015.

January 2014

On 13 January, the Council was briefed on the situation in the DRC and the latest MONUSCO report by Special Representative Martin Kobler. Special Envoy Mary Robinson also briefed on the latest report on the implementation of the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the DRC and the Region. Council members were briefed on 23 January by the chair of the DRC Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Zeid Ra’ad Zeid Al-Hussein (Jordan), on the Group of Experts (GoE) final report. The Committee met with the GoE to discuss the report and their recommendations on 17 January. The committee itself met with the GoE to discuss the report and their recommendations on 17 January. The Council renewed the sanctions regime and the mandate of the GoE on 30 January.

December 2013

On 11 December, peacekeeping head Hervé Ladsous, the head of MONUSCO Martin Kobler and Special Envoy Mary Robinson briefed Council members in consultations on the agreement between the DRC government and the M23 rebel group which was signed the next day. In sanctions-related developments, Council members received an advanced copy of the Group of Experts’s final report in mid-December, which documented continued Rwandan support to the M23. The report also documented international humanitarian law and human rights violations by the government forces and rebel groups.

November 2013

On 6 November, Council members were briefed via video-teleconference by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of MONUSCO Martin Kobler, and Special Envoy of the Secretary-General to the Great Lakes Region Mary Robinson in consultations. On 14 November, the Council adopted a presidential statement calling for the swift conclusion and implementation of a final and comprehensive agreement that provides for the disarmament and demobilisation of the March 23 (M23) rebel group and accountability for human rights abusers.

October 2013

Council members visited the Great Lakes Region in October and focused much of their trip on the DRC. On 5 October, Council members held a series of high-level meetings with the president, prime minister and foreign minister of the DRC. Overall the messages received about the implementation of the PSC Framework, agreed in Addis Ababa six months ago, and on the progress of the Kampala talks, which have been sporadically underway for a year now, were positive. On 6 October, Council members were in Goma to focus on the intervention brigade of MONUSCO and its recent joint offensive with the DRC army (FARDC) against the M23 rebel group.

On 21 October, the Council was briefed by Special Representative Martin Kobler on the Secretary-General’s most recent MONUSCO report, and by Special Envoy Mary Robinson on the report on the implementation of the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework (PSC Framework). The briefing was followed by consultations where Council members continued discussion of what key signatories of the PSC Framework—such as the DRC, Rwanda and Uganda—were doing to implement their commitments; the status of the Uganda-mediated Kampala talks between the March 23 rebel group and the DRC; and the impact of MONUSCO’s intervention brigade on the eastern DRC. (These issues were also the focus of the Council visiting mission to the DRC on 4-5 October.) At press time, fighting had resumed near Goma in eastern DRC, following the suspension of the Kampala talks. Council members were briefed on the situation by peacekeeping head Hervé Ladsous under “any other business” on 25 October and again by Kobler in consultations on 28 October. On 28 October, Council members issued a press statement condemning the M23 attacks against MONUSCO that resulted in the death of a peacekeeper and also addressed shells that had landed in Rwandan territory.

September 2013

Special Representative for the DRC Martin Kobler and Special Envoy for the Great Lakes Region Mary Robinson briefed Council members via video-teleconference on 12 September about their diplomatic efforts to calm the situation. Kobler said that the military situation has stabilised and that the M23 had been pushed back from Goma, warning that fighting might resume if the Kampala talks failed. Robinson insisted that the talks were not to result in broad amnesties for M23 rebels for grave violations of human rights and international humanitarian law. Council members then issued a press statement taking note of the ICGLR declaration and calling for the implementation of the PSC Framework.

August 2013

On 22 August, Council members received a briefing in the morning and then in the afternoon from Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Edmond Mulet on clashes between the M23 rebel group and the DRC army (FARDC). Both briefings were given under “any other business”. France circulated a press statement later that day condemning the M23 for attacks against civilians and MONUSCO. However, Council members were unable to agree on a text until a week later, following a 29 August briefing in consultations by Mulet. He reported that MONUSCO witnessed mortar shells being shot from positions held by the M23 towards Rwanda, as well as Rwandan troops crossing the border into the DRC. Rwanda categorically denied this and claimed that it had evidence that the FARDC and the FDLR rebel group had fired the mortars. The press statement condemned the recent attacks by the M23 against civilians and MONUSCO and expressed concern about reports of mortar shells and bombs being fired repeatedly into Rwanda. In sanctions-related developments, In August, the US put forward the names of two M23 members to be added to the 1533 DRC sanctions list, but Rwanda blocked them (sanctions committees routinely operate by consensus).

July 2013

On 11 July, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed Council members on the latest MONUSCO report. On 19 July, the Group of Experts assisting the 1533 DRC Sanctions Committee officially presented their interim report to the Committee. The chair of the 1533 Committee, Ambassador Agshin Mehdiyev (Azerbaijan), briefed Council members in 22 July consultations on the Committee’s activities. On 25 July, US Secretary of State John Kerry presided over a debate on the Great Lakes and the DRC (S/PV.7011 and Resumption 1). The Secretary-General, Special Envoy for the Great Lakes Region Mary Robinson and World Bank President Jim Yong Kim (via video-teleconference) briefed the Council. Robinson’s briefing focused on her recent report on the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the DRC. The US circulated a concept note prior to the debate to guide discussion. In addition to the DRC, representatives of Belgium, Burundi, Congo, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, the AU and the EU also participated. During the debate, the Council adopted a presidential statement calling on the DRC and the countries of the region to implement promptly, fully and in good faith, their respective commitments under the Framework agreement. The Council also called on all countries of the region not to tolerate or provide assistance or support of any kind to armed groups.

June 2013

The Secretary-General appointed Martin Kobler (Germany) on 10 June as his Special Representative for the DRC and head of MONUSCO. 

May 2013

On 6 May, Mary Robinson, Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for the Great Lakes Region briefed the Council on her first visit to the region. Council members then held consultations with Robinson. On 8 May, Council members issued a press statement condemning a 7 May attack that resulted in the death of a Pakistani peacekeeper in South Kivu. On 29 May, the Secretary-General briefed Council members in consultations on the first meeting of the regional oversight mechanism of the DRC peace and security framework agreement, which took place on 26 May in Addis Ababa. Following the briefing, France proposed a press statement expressing support for the PSC Framework.  However, in Rwanda’s view the statement was overly focused on the M23 and ignored recent attacks by the FDLR.  Agreement was not reached among Council members and the press statement was not issued.

April 2013

 On 22-23 April, the Secretary-General met with Council members during a retreat where MONUSCO’s intervention brigade was a particular area of discussion. Council members received an overview from the UN Office of Legal Affairs of the possible ramifications of the intervention brigade to the protected status under international humanitarian law of UN peacekeepers.  

March 2013

On 5 March, the Council received a briefing by the Secretary-General and held consultations on his 27 February special report on possible options and their implications for reinforcing the capability of MONUSCO. He recommended that the Council establish an “intervention brigade” under the command of MONUSCO and operating alongside it. The Secretary-General informed the Council on 15 March of his intention to appoint Mary Robinson as Special Envoy for the Great Lakes Region, and on 25 March he notified the Council that the implementation of his recommendations regarding the intervention brigade would cost an additional $140 million. On 28 March, the Council adopted resolution 2098 renewing MONUSCO’s mandate—including an intervention brigade to neutralise rebel groups in eastern DRC—until 31 March 2014.

On 22 March, the Council released a press statement welcoming the surrender on 18 March of Bosco Ntaganda to the ICC. It also expressed concern that Sylvestre Mudacumura, commander of the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda, is still at large.

Also in March, the DRC Sanctions Committee’s Group of Experts visited Rwanda and Uganda, but only four of the six experts were allowed into Rwanda, which had stated in the Sanctions Committee its refusal to cooperate with the two experts.

February 2013

On 5 February, Council members were briefed in consultations by Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous on developments on the ground and on MONUSCO. The Secretary-General’s Chef de Cabinet, Susana Malcorra briefed on the Secretary-General’s diplomatic efforts to obtain a political framework agreement. On 22 February, the Council was briefed by Roger Meece, the Special Representative and head of mission, on the Secretary-General’s 15 February MONUSCO report. On 24 February, Council members issued a press statement welcoming the signing of the framework agreement in Addis Ababa that same day by the Secretary-General and the chairpersons of the AU Commission, the Southern African Development Community and the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region. In the statement, Council members also supported the swift designation of a UN Special Envoy to support implementation of the framework agreement. Council members also expressed concern about the worsening security and humanitarian situation in the eastern DRC, reiterating their demand that the M23 cease attempts to create a parallel administration and that the M23, FDLR and all other armed groups cease violence and destabilising activities.

January 2013

On 8 January, the Council was briefed in consultations by peacekeeping head Hervé Ladsous. The meeting followed a 27 December letter from the Secretary-General to the Council President, outlining the additional capacities that MONUSCO needed in light of the ongoing activities of the M23. Ladsous gave Council members initial information on employing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and protocols for using the information they retrieved. Several Council members, including Rwanda, initially expressed reservations about MONUSCO’s use of UAVs, but after further clarifications, Council members agreed in principle that deploying UAVs in the DRC on a trial basis is in line with the case-by-case approach regarding modern technologies.

December 2012

On 7 December, the Council was briefed in consultations by peacekeeping head Hervé Ladsous on recent developments in North Kivu after the M23 pulled out of Goma on 1 December and on the efforts of the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region. On 18 December, the Council was briefed again by Ladsous and by the Secretary-General’s Chef de Cabinet, Susana Malcorra, on her recent visit to Kinshasa. On 31 December, the 1533 DRC Sanctions Committee added two more M23 rebel group leaders—Eric Badege and Jean-Marie Runiga—and two entities—M23 and the Forces Democratique de Liberation du Rwanda—to the sanctions list.

November 2012

On 17 November, the Council issued a press statement following a briefing by Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, Hervé Ladsous, expressing its concern over the rapidly deteriorating situation. On 20 November, the Council adopted resolution 2076 condemning the M23’s actions and external support given to the group, and expressing its intention to consider additional targeted sanctions against the leadership of the M23 and those providing it with external support. On 21 November, Roger Meece, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Head of MONUSCO, briefed the Council. The chairman of the sanctions committee, Agshin Mehdiyev (Azerbaijan), briefed the Council in consultations on the Group of Experts (GoE) annual report later that day. On 27 November the Secretary-General’s Chef de Cabinet, Susana Malcorra, briefed the Council after attending the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region summit in Kampala. Ladsous also briefed the Council. On 28 November, the Council renewed the DRC sanctions and the mandate of the GoE’s supporting the sanctions committee until 1 February 2014. On 13 November, the sanctions committee met with the GoE to discuss their annual report. On 13 November the sanctions committee added Col. Sultani Makenga of the M23 to the sanctions list. On 30 November, the 1533 DRC Sanctions Committee added two M23 rebel group leaders—Baudoin Ngaruye and Innocent Kaina—to the sanctions list.

October 2012

On 10 October, Council members were briefed by Edmond Mulet, Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping, on the deteriorating situation in the eastern DRC and M23 activities. During consultations, he reported that the rebels were creating a parallel administration in eastern Congo and continuing to fight the DRC army. On 19 October, the Council adopted a presidential statement which expressed deep concern that neighboring countries provide support to the M23. In addition, it stressed the urgency of constructive engagement and dialogue between the DRC and its neighbours, especially Rwanda.  In other developments, a declaration was adopted in Kampala on 8 October by the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region regarding the establishiment of a neutral international force to monitor an area of the DRC-Rwanda border.

September 2012

On 18 September, Council members were briefed in consultations by head of peacekeeping Hervé Ladsous on his recent trip to the region. Ladsous updated the Council on regional efforts to address the crisis in North Kivu caused by the mutiny of the M23 rebel group. On 27 September, a high-level meeting on the DRC took place on the margins of the General Assembly.

August 2012

On 2 August, the Council released a press statement, condemning attacks by the M23 rebel group and calling for the cessation of all outside support to M23.  On 27 August, the Council was briefed by the head of OCHA on the humanitarian effects of the fighting in eastern DRC. On 28 August, the DRC Sanctions Committee met with the Foreign Minister of Rwanda, Louise Mushikiwabo, concerning the report by the DRC Group of Experts on Rwanda’s support of the M23. On 29 August the Council held an informal interactive dialogue with the Rwandan foreign minister and then with DRC representatives about the situation in the region.

July 2012

The Council was briefed by the Special Representative and Head of MONUSCO in consultations on 30 July regarding the situation in the DRC. On 16 July, the Council issued a press statement, condemning all outside support to all armed groups in the DRC and demanding that all forms of support to them cease immediately. Earlier, on 10 July, the Council held consultations on the DRC, and heard a briefing by Special Representative and head of MONUSCO via video-teleconference on the escalating violence in North Kivu.

June 2012

On 27 June the Council renewed MONUSCO’s mandate until 30 June 2013. This followed consultations on DRC sanctions on 26 June in which the Chair of the DRC Sanctions Committee briefed the council on the interim report of the Group of Experts on the DRC. On 12 June, the Council received a briefing by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of MONUSCO, on recent developments in the DRC, including a recent mutiny led by army officers which has caused a serious deterioration of security in the Kivus. Following the briefing the Council issued a press statement. On 6 June, the Council met with troop-contributing countries to the UN Stabilisation Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

May 2012

On 14 May, on the initiative of Pakistan, the Council held consultations and heard a briefing by the Under-Secretary General for Peacekeeping, after which it issued a press release condemning an attack in which 11 Pakistani MONUSCO peacekeepers were wounded, two of them critically, after villagers opened fire on the troops at a UN base in Bunyakiri, South Kivu. The statement also expressed concern over the deteriorating security and humanitarian situation in the Kivus. The Council also held consultations on 3 May and was briefed by the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping. Following the consultations, the Council issued a press statement, urging the DRC to continue efforts to develop and implement a comprehensive national security sector development strategy and stressed the importance of an effective reintegration process.

April 2012

On 20 April, Council members attended an Arria Formula meeting on security sector reform (SSR) in the DRC, organised by France. A focus of the meeting was a recent report titled “Taking a Stand on Security Sector Reform,” issued on 16 April by 13 international and Congolese organisations and networks.

February 2012

The Council heard a briefing from the Special Representative and Head of MONUSCO on the Secretary-General’s latest report on 7 February. Following the briefing, the Council held closed consultations with the Special Representative and the Under-Secretary-General  for Peacekeepping Operations following his recent visit to the DRC.

December 2011

The sanctions committee issued a press statement highlighting several recommendations contained in the Group of Expert’s report relating to natural resources, addressed to private companies conducting business in the DRC on 30 December. At the request of Germany, the DRC sanctions committee was briefed by Margot Wallström, Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict, on issues related to her mandate in the DRC, earlier in the month on 6 December. On 2 December, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of MONUSCO briefed the Council by videoconference on the elections. Following the briefing, Council members issued a press statement.

November 2011

The Council renewed the DRC sanctions regime and the mandate of the Group of Experts for a period of 12 months, on 29 November. The resolution welcomed measures taken by the government to implement the due diligence guidelines. On 16 November, the DRC sanctions committee was briefed by the Group of Experts on their annual report (officially released on 2 December, the Council received an advance copy in late October).  On 8 November, Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict and the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of MONUSCO briefed the Council, which issued a press statement expressing deep concern about the persistent high levels of violence, especially sexual violence, and human rights violations and abuses against civilians.

October 2011

The Security Council received a briefing via video-conference by the head of MONUSCO on 17 October. On 12 October, the DRC Sanctions Committee added Jamil Mukulu, a Ugandan national, to the sanctions list. The Committee reasoned that Mukulu is the military leader of the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), a foreign armed group operating in the DRC. An expert level meeting was held  on 3 October to allow DPKO to provide information on the gaps created by the lack of helicopters in MONUSCO.

September 2011

In a letter circulated to Council members, the Secretary-General stated that the lack of military helicopters in MONUSCO had become acute.

July 2011

On 8 July, members fo the DRC sanctions committee agreed to post updated indicators on individuals on the DRC sanctions list and the consolidated simplified version of the due diligence guidelines from the 2010 annual report of the group of experts on the committee’s website.

June 2011

The Council adopted resolution 1991 on 28 June, extending the mandate of MONUSCO until 30 June 2012. The resolution maintains the current strength and priorities of MONUSCO’s mandate and authorises the force to continue to provide technical and logistical assistance to the upcoming national and local elections.

May 2011

The Council held a debate on the DRC on 18 May, and adopted a presidential statement, applauding the cooperation of the DRC government with MONUSCO. The Secretary-General’s final report requested in resolution 1925 was distributed on 12 May. Previously, on 10 May,  during an open debate on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the head of the New York office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights reported that the DRC was preparing to establish a special chamber to investigate and prosecute serious violations of international law, including mass killings, sexual violence and displacement.

14 April 2011

In a briefing on Women, Peace, and Security, Margot Wallström  told the Council that 185 rapes of Congolese women and girls were recorded in January along the Angola-DRC border, and outlined the results of her visit to Angola in mid-March.

25 March 2011

The UN Human Rights Council adopted a resolution urging the government of the DRC to redouble its efforts to end all violations of human rights and bring perpetrators to justice.

8 March 2011

Members of the DRC Group of Experts met with the DRC Sanctions Committee ahead of their deployment to the DRC.

23 February 2011

Margot Wallström, the Secretary-General’s special representative for sexual violence in conflict reported that at least 182 rapes had allegedly taken place in January, in seven border villages along the DRC- Angola border.Wallström added that many of these acts were committed by various official forces of Angola.

21 February 2011

A military mobile court in Baraka, South Kivu sentenced Lt. Col. Kibibi Mutware and three of his subordinate officers to 20 years imprisonment. Mutware was convicted of four counts of crimes against humanity for sending his troops to rape, beat and loot in Fizi on New Year’s Day. Five other soldiers received sentences between 10-15 years.

28 January 2011

MONUSCO reported that at least 53 rapes were commited in the Moyens Plateaux in South Kivu, allegedly involving members of the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR).

25 January 2011

Callixte Mbarushimana, the Executive Secretary of the FDLR arrested in France on 11 October 2010, was transferred to the International Criminal Court (ICC) on. Mbarushimana is charged with 11 counts of crimes against humanity and war crimes committed in the DRC in 2009.

16 January 2011

The Congolese parliament approved constitutional amendments that will allow the president to be elected by a simple majority in the 27 November election, thus eliminating second round voting.

31 December 2010 – 1 January 2011

FARDC soldiers allegedly committed at least 32 acts of rape in the village of Bushani, in North Kivu. On New Year’s Day, members of the FARDC reportedly committed acts of sexual violence involving at least fifty women in the town of Fizi, in South Kivu. The officer in charge of the soldiers, Lt. Col. Kibibi Mutware, believed to be responsible for the Fizi attacks, three additional officers and 11 soldiers have been detained.

16 December 2010

The Council adopted resolution 1960, requesting the Secretary-General to establish a monitoring, analysis and reporting arrangement on conflict-related sexual violence. The resolution reiterated the Council’s intention, when adopting or renewing targeted sanctions, to consider including, where relevant, criteria for sanctioning individuals for acts of sexual violence.

1 December 2010

the DRC sanctions committee added four people to the list of individuals and entities subject to the assets freeze and travel ban. Three of the individuals listed are members of the FDLR, while the fourth is a lieutenant colonel in the FARDC listed for several human rights violations.

29 November 2010

The Council received a report from its group of experts on sanctions (S/2010/596). The report discussed the illegal exploitation of natural resources by armed groups and elements within the Congolese National Army (FARDC). The report recommended new due-diligence standards for importers, processors and consumers of minerals from the eastern part of the DRC.

22 November 2010

The trial of Jean-Pierre Bemba, former vice president of the DRC, began at the ICC. Bemba, leader of the Movement for the Liberation of Congo (MLC), is charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed in the neighbouring Central African Republic (CAR).

23 October 2010

Some fifty men attacked a UN peacekeeping base in North Kivu province. Eight of the perpetrators were killed in the incident, while two others were injured. initial reports indicate that the attackers are from the Mai-Mai militia group.

15 October 2010

The UN Refugee Agency reported increased attacks and population displacement in central Africa, including the DRC, caused by the Lord’s Resistance Army in the last few weeks.

14 October 2010

the Secretary-General’s Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict, Margot Wallström, briefed the Council.Wallström expressed concern over recent reports on the involvement of soldiers of the FARDC in rapes and looting.

11 October 2010

The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs reported that the security situation in North and South Kivu provinces continues to deteriorate, with daily reports of assassination, rape and extortion.

8 October 2010

The Appeals Chamber of the ICC decided to resume the trial of Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, founder and leader of the Union of Congolese Patriots in the Ituri region.

5 October 2010

DRC Government forces and MONUSCO siezed “Lieutenant Colonel Mayele”, one of the rebel leaders suspected of being behind the mass rapes in Walikale that took place in late July and and early August.

1 October 2010

A mapping exercise by the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights was released, reporting on serious violations of international human rights during the period from 1993 to 2003.

18 September 2010

The DRC’s defence and veteran’s minister and Uganda’s defence minister met to discuss joint operations against the LRA and the ongoing operations against the ADF-NALU.

17 September 2010

The Council issued a presidential statement (S/PRST/2010/17) declaring its readiness to consider all appropriate actions, including targeted measures, against the perpetrators of the attacks in Walikale.

14 September 2010

The Department of Peacekeeping Operations produced a non-paper for Council members containing recommendations on enhancing protection of civilians in the DRC.

8 September 2010

Members of the Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict expressed strong condemnation of the events in Walikale and highlighted the fact that there had been 32 cases of rape against children.

7 September 2010

Assistant Secretary-General in the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations, Atul Khare, acknowledged that MONUSCO’s response to the rapes in Walikale was inadequate. In a breifing to the Council, he reported on rapes committed by elements of the Congolese military (FARDC) in South Kivu.

30 August 2010

The Secretary-General’s Special Representative for the DRC and Head of MONUSCO, Roger Meece, announced that MONUSCO has launched a review of its actions and procedures to assess what  could have been done better to protect and assist the victims inWalikale.

26 August 2010

Director of Africa II Division of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, Raisedon Zenenga, briefed Council members on the Walikale incident in closed consultations.In a press statement (SC/10016) following the meeting the Security Council members called upon the government to ensure that the perpetrators are brought to justice.

11 August 2010

Human Rights Watch reported the Ugandan rebel Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) had abducted more than 697 adults and children in the Bas Uele district of northern DRC and in the Central African Republic (CAR) over the past 18 months.

30 July – 2 August 2010

Rebel groups raided some 13 villages in the North Kivu province’s Walikale area and committed mass rape. One of the affected villages was reportedly 30 kilometres from a MONUSCO forward operating base in Kibua where 80 military personnel are stationed.

25 July 2010

A delegation from the electoral assistance division of the UN Department of Political Affairs visited the DRC to evaluate the role, modalities and scope of possible electoral assistance.

9 July 2010

The Secretary-General appointed Lieutenant General Chander Prakash of India as the Force COmmander for MONUSCO, succeeding Lieutenant General Babacar Gaye of Senegal.

1 July 2010

The UN Mission in the DRC (MONUC) is renamed the UN Organization Stabilization MIssion in the DRC (MONUSCO).  Roger A. Meece replaces Alan Doss as the Secretary-General’s Special Representative for the DRC and Head of MONUSCO.

27 May 2010

The Council discussed the interim report of Sanctions’ Group of Experts (S/2010/252) in closed consultations.

19 May 2010

The Permanent Representative of France, Gerard Araud, briefed the Council on the 13 -16 May Council Mission to the DRC.  The Council visited Kinshasa and met with President Joseph Kabila, Prime Miniser Adolphe Muzito and other ministers, parliamentarians, international agencies and civil society.  Also on 19 May Kevin Kennedy, the team leader for the Great Lakes Integrated Operation Team briefed Council experts in a closed session on the outcome of the 1-10 May inter-agency mission to the DRC to assess on the implementation of MONUC’s conditionality policy.

10 May 2010

Under-Secretary-General and Emergency Relief Coordinator John Holmes briefed Council experts in a closed session on his early May visit to the DRC.  Holmes visited South Kivu, Orientale Province and Equateur Province.

13 April 2010

Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Head of MONUC Alan Doss briefed the Council in an open debate. Closed consultations were held after the briefing.

12 – 18 April 2010

The Secretary-General’s Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict Margot Wallström visited the DRC.

7 April 2010

Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Head of MONUC Alan Doss briefed MONUC troop- and police-contributing countries in a meeting of Security Council experts held in private.

4 April 2010

Enyele insurgents attacked the governor’s residence and the national assembly before temporarily taking the airport in Mbandaka, the capital of Equateur province. The FARDC with MONUC in support regained control of the airport on 5 April. The fighting reportedly led to the deaths of ten Congolese soldiers, 3 policemen, 21 rebels, two civilians and three MONUC officers.