Chronology of Events

revised on 3 November 2020


October 2020

On 21 October, the Council held its second regular briefing this year on the situation in Kosovo (S/2020/1040). Special Representative and head of UNMIK Zahir Tanin briefed the Council on recent developments and the latest report by the Secretary-General. In his briefing, Tanin emphasised that recent developments in the EUfacilitated dialogue and talks in Washington demonstrate the potential for progress on outstanding issues. On the issue of rule of law, he stressed the importance of cooperation with the Specialist Chambers and the Specialist Prosecutor’s Office. Ministers for foreign affairs Ivica Dačić (Serbia) and Meliza Haradinaj-Stublla (Kosovo) addressed the Council as well. 

April 2020

On 24 April, the Security Council held an open VTC briefing on the situation in Kosovo (S/2020/339)Zahir Tanin, Special Representative and head of UNMIK, briefed on the latest Secretary-General’s report and the most recent developments. Serbia’s Minister of Foreign Affairs Ivica Dačić and Kosovo’s Minister of Foreign Affairs GlaukKonjufca also participated in the meeting. The focus of the meeting was the political situation in Kosovo, after the collapse of government and response to COVID-19 pandemic. 

October 2019

The Council held its third and final regular briefing on Kosovo for the year on 31 October. Special Representative and head of UNMIK Zahir Tanin was expected to brief on the latest Secretary-General’s report and recent developments.

June 2019

On 10 June, the Council held the second of three briefings on Kosovo scheduled for this year. In his briefing, Zahir Tanin, Special Representative and head of UNMIK, noted that the current situation in Kosovo is fragile and there has been no progress in Belgrade-Pristina dialogue for over a year. Despite the international condemnation, Tanin said that Kosovo still maintains the 100 percent tariffs on imports from Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Foreign Minister of Serbia, Ivica Dačić emphasised the importance of maintaining the UN presence in Kosovo given the risk of a worsening situation. On the other hand, Ambassador of Kosovo to the US Vlora Çitaku said that there is no justification for a continued presence of UNMIK given that Kosovo is an independent state which is no longer in crisis. Several Council members called on the parties to refrain from the further escalation of tensions.

February 2019

On 7 February, Special Representative and head of UNMIKZahirTaninbriefed the Council on the Secretary-General’s latest report and recent developments in Kosovo. Leading up to the meeting, the Council was unable to agree on a programme of work for February due to disagreement among members on whether Kosovo should be discussed during the month. The US, together with the EU members, objected to holding the meeting in February in line with their common position that the Council should reduce the frequency of meetings on Kosovo. Russia and some other members strongly opposed this, however. A compromise was reached, to avoid future disruption of the work of the Council, to hold the meeting on 7 February, while also specifying new schedule of meetings. Members agreed on a note by the president which stated that, in addition to the 7 February meeting, the Council will hold briefings on Kosovo in June and October 2019 and that as of 2020, the briefings will be held twice a year (in April and October).   

December 2018

On 17 December, the Council held an emergency meeting on the situation in Kosovo prompted by a request from Serbia citing the decision of Kosovo authorities to transform the Kosovo Security Forces into a more traditional army. In his briefing, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Jean-Pierre Lacroix expressed concern over the rising tensions and called on Serbia and Kosovo to reengage in dialogue. He echoed the Secretary-General’s remarks that resolution 1244 provides the legal framework for the international presence. President Aleksandar Vučić of Serbia and Hashim Thaçi of Kosovo participated in the meeting. While Vučić accused Kosovo authorities of destabilising the region and violating resolution 1244, Thaçi stressed that the decision of Kosovo’s parliament to expand the competencies of the Kosovo Security Forces is a sovereign right of Kosovo.

November 2018

On 14 November, Special Representative and the head of UNMIK Zahir Tanin briefed the Council on the most recent Secretary-General’s report and latest developments (S/PV.8399). While Tanin described the situation on the ground as hostile, he said that prospects for meaningful progress in the EU-facilitated dialogue have improved amid ongoing talks between Belgrade and Pristina on, among other issues, the possibility of territorial exchanges. Addressing the Council, Serbian Foreign Minister Ivica Dačić emphasised the importance of the continued presence of UNMIK and regular consideration by the Council of the Kosovo issue. Russia also reiterated the need for regular meetings on Kosovo amid ethnic tensions and lack of progress on the implementation of agreements between Belgrade and Pristina. The US and EU members of the Council called for lengthening the reporting cycle and reducing the frequency of meetings on Kosovo.

May 2018

On 14 May, Special Representative and head of UNMIK Zahir Tanin briefed the Council on the latest Secretary-General’s report. Tanin noted that there have been some positive developments, including the new border demarcation agreement with Montenegro and recent talks in Brussels. He also said that the negative rhetoric between the parties has continued, however. Tanin called on parties to move forward towards common priorities and shared goals instead of mourning the past. In their statements, four Council members that are also EU members (the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, and the UK) noted that they believe that the situation in Kosovo allows for a substantial reduction of the current reporting cycle and that there is a need for a strategic review of the mission.

February 2018

On 7 February, Zahir Tanin, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of UNMIK briefed the Council on the latest report on UNMIK. Tanin expressed concerns about the attempts of the Kosovo parliament to repeal the law on the special court that is supposed to investigate the crimes committed by the Kosovo Liberation Army during the 1990 war in Kosovo. He also called on all parties to work together to ensure accountability for the assassination of Kosovo-Serb politician Oliver Ivanović. Minister for Foreign Affairs of Serbia Ivica Dačić and Vlora Çitaku, Kosovo’s ambassador to the US, also spoke.

November 2017

On 14 November, Zahir Tanin, the Special Representative of the Secretary‑General and head of UNMIK, briefed the Council on the latest Secretary-General’s report (S/2017/911) and most recent developments (S/PV.8100). In his briefing, Tanin spoke about the 19 October municipal elections in Kosovo, the current state of the implementation of the EU-facilitated dialogue between Belgrade and Pristina. In his statement, the Russian ambassador emphasised that Kosovo still requires the attention of the Council while noting that the dialogue between Belgrade and Pristina has ceased to function. Several Council members cited improved political and security situation in Kosovo. The US, reiterated its position that UNMIK has fulfilled its mandate and that it is now time to close the mission.

May 2017

On 16 May, Zahir Tanin, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of UNMIK, briefed the Council on the latest Secretary-General’s report and recent developments. Tanin told Council members that there had been a loss of trust between the two sides as well as an increase in nationalist rhetoric. Serbia’s minister of justice, Nela Kuburović, and Kosovo’s ambassador to the US, Vlora Çitaku, also spoke.

February 2017

On 27 February, Special Representative Zahir Tanin briefed the Council at its quarterly briefing on Kosovo, presenting the latest UNMIK report. Tanin has noted that there has been heightened tension between Belgrade and Pristina over the course of the past several months. However, on the positive note, the EU facilitated dialogue between Belgrade and Pristina resumed. Serbian President Tomislav Nikolić and Kosovo’s Ambassador to the US, Vlora Çitaku, also made statements.

November 2016

On 16 November, Special Representative Zahir Tanin briefed the Council at its quarterly briefing on Kosovo, presenting the latest UNMIK report. Tanin noted that the security situation in Kosovo continues to remain stable, despite political tensions arising from the rift between the government and the opposition parties. Tanin said that there has been lack of progress on the implementation of the EU facilitated agreements between Belgrade and Pristina, especially regarding the formation of Association/Community of Serb Municipalities. Serbian Minister of Foreign Affairs Ivica Dačić and Kosovo’s Ambassador to the US, Vlora Çitaku, also made statements.

August 2016

On 25 August, Zahir Tanin, the Secretary-General’s Special Representative and head of the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, briefed Council members on recent developments and the latest Secretary-General’s report. Tanin emphasised the need to renew efforts on the implementation of the existing agreements between Belgrade and Pristina. Tanin also informed Council members about the latest developments related to the impasse in the Assembly of Kosovo concerning the border demarcation agreement with Montenegro. Ivica Dačić, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Serbia, addressed the Council, and Vlora Çitaku, Kosovo Ambassador to the US, also made a statement.

June 2016

On 16 May, Special Representative Zahir Tanin presented the most recent UNMIK report to the Council. Tanin conveyed that while UNMIK no longer administered the territory, it remained an important bridge between the Security Council and the people of Kosovo and the wider region. He also said that the recent inauguration of the new president of Kosovo and the general elections in Serbia provide an opportunity to move beyond a time marked by infighting.

February 2016

On 29 February, Special Representative Zahir Tanin briefed the Council on Kosovo and the most recent UNMIK report. At the meeting, Serbia was represented by Ivica Dačić, First Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs of Serbia, while Kosovo was represented by its ambassador to the US, Vlora Çitaku.

November 2015

On 19 November, the Council held its quarterly debate on Kosovo with a briefing by Special Representative Zahir Tanin (S/PV.7563) who presented the most recent UNMIK report (S/2015/833). At the meeting, Serbia was represented by Ivica Dačić, First Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs of Serbia. Kosovo was represented by its ambassador to the US, Vlora Çitaku, who announced that Kosovo will participate in these debates at the ambassadorial level, signaling the changing nature and format of its relationship with the UN.

August 2015

On 21 August, the Council held a quarterly debate on Kosovo. Special Representative Farid Zarif briefed the Council on the Secretary-General’s Kosovo report and recent developments. Zarif emphasised the importance of continued dialogue between Belgrade and Pristina as well as the recently approved constitutional changes paving a way for the establishment of the special court for war crimes. After four years as head of UNMIK, Zarif said he would be relinquishing the post shortly after the debate.

May 2015

On 26 May, the Council held a quarterly debate on Kosovo with a briefing by Special Representative Farid Zarif who presented the latest Secretary-General’s report. The prime ministers of Serbia and Kosovo participated in the debate.

February 2015

On 6 February, Special Representative and head of UNMIK Farid Zarif briefed the Council on the most recent UNMIK report and latest developments. First Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs of Serbia Ivica Dačić and First Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs of Kosovo Hashim Thaçi also addressed the Council.

December 2014

On 4 December 2014, the Council held its quarterly debate on Kosovo (S/PV.7327). Special Representative Farid Zarif briefed on recent developments and the latest Secretary-General’s report (S/2014/773). Aleksandar Vučić, Prime Minister of the Republic of Serbia and Hashim Thaçi of Kosovo also participated. Most of the delegations joined Zarif in calling on both sides to resume the EU facilitated dialogue that had been stalled due to the delay in forming Kosovo’s new government. Some members also called for a reduction in the frequency of Council meetings on Kosovo, citing the normalisation of relations between Belgrade and Pristina.

August 2014

On 29 August, the Council held a quarterly debate on Kosovo (S/PV.7254) with a briefing by Farid Zarif, the Special Representative and head of UNMIK, on the latest UNMIK report.

May 2014

On 27 May, the Council held a quarterly debate on Kosovo with a briefing by Farid Zarif, the Special Representative and head of UNMIK. Zarif presented the latest Secretary-General’s report. Presidents Tomislav Nikolić of Serbia and Atifete Jahjaga of Kosovo also participated. 

February 2014

On 10 February, the Council held its quarterly debate on Kosovo and was briefed by Farid Zarif, the Special Representative and head of UNMIK on the latest report of the Secretary-General. 

November 2013

On 19 November the Council held its quarterly debate on Kosovo with a briefing by Farid Zarif, the Special Representative and Head of UNMIK. Zarif briefed the Council on the latest report of the Secretary-General and on recent developments regarding local elections in Kosovo.

August 2013

On 29 August, the Council held its quarterly debate on Kosovo following a briefing by Special Representative Farid Zarif on the lastest UNMIK reportMinister for Foreign Affairs of Serbia Ivan Mrkić and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Kosovo Enver Hoxhaj also participated. 

June 2013

On 14 June, the Council held a quarterly debate on Kosovo. Farid Zarif, Special Representative and head of UNMIK, briefed the Council on the Secretary-General’s latest report. Prime Minister Ivica Dačić of Serbia and Prime Minister Hashim Thaçi of Kosovo also addressed the Council. Zarif emphasised the progress made in political dialogue between Serbia and Kosovo, particularly the “First Agreement on Principles Governing the Normalization of Relations” agreed on 19 April. Both Zarif and Dačić noted the recurring challenges posed by insecurity in northern Kosovo, while Thaçi suggested the UN should consider withdrawal of UNMIK in the near future in order to facilitate local ownership, preserve credibility and reduce expenses.

March 2013

Farid Zarif, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Head of UNMIK, briefed the Council on 22 March regarding the Secretary-General’s report of 4 February and recent developments. Prime Minister Ivica Dačić of Serbia and Prime Minister Hashim Thaçi of Kosovo also addressed the Council in the debate. Zarif reported that since he last briefed the Council on 27 November 2012, there had been positive developments related to the high-level political dialogue facilitated by the EU in Brussels, with the most recent meeting having taken place on 20 March. Nonetheless, significant challenges remain, particularly within the mixed communities of the north where security incidents have inflamed ethnic tensions. Dačić suggested that “the situation on the ground has not been substantially improved”, particularly with regard to the human rights of ethnic Serbs in Kosovo. Thaçi stated the principal obstacle to further progress in political talks has been Serbia’s proposal for territorial integrity and separate institutions for Serbs in Kosovo, which he claimed would be detrimental to an efficient, stable and centralised state. Council members expressed strong support for EU mediation, but also noted with concern the potential for a fragile security situation to undermine political progress.

January 2013

On 17 January, Prime Minister Ivica Dačić of Serbia and Prime Minister Hashim Thaçi of Kosovo met in Brussels, where they held the fourth meeting of an EU-sponsored “Belgrade-Pristina dialogue”. The unusually lengthy 17 January meeting was constructive, and the two leaders reached a “provisional understanding” on the collection of customs duties at their border.

November 2012

On 27 November, Farid Zarif, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Kosovo and head of UNMIK, briefed the Council on the Secretary-General’s most recent report. Zarif welcomed the recent steps taken by Kosovo and Serbia to “normalise relations,” noting the important milestone that was reached on 19 October when the prime ministers from Kosovo and Serbia met in Brussels. (They met again on 7 November.) The Special Representative called on the international community to support the dialogue process and said that a unified approach of the international presence on the ground remained essential. (In addition to UNMIK, there is the EU Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo as well as the NATO-led Kosovo Force.) Council members condemned recent violence in northern Kosovo and some emphasised that attacks on international personnel must cease.

October 2012

On 19 October, the Prime Ministers of Serbia and Kosovo held EU-brokered talks in Brussels. It was the first time that the two sides had met at the prime ministerial level since Kosovo declared independence on 17 February 2008.

September 2012

On 25 September, during the General Assembly’s general debate, the Serbian president affirmed that his country was willing to “participate constructively in the negotiating process” with Pristina, though Serbia would never recognise Kosovo’s unilateral declaration of independence. As Kosovo is not a UN member or observer state it did not speak in the general debate, although its president met with the Secretary-General on the margins of the General Assembly on 23 September.

August 2012

On 21 August, the head of UNMIK briefed the Council on the latest Secretary-General’s report and recent developments in Kosovo emphasising the need for both Serbia and Kosovo to fully implement previously reached agreements and to resume the Belgrade-Pristina dialogue. Serbia’s new Prime Minister, Ivica Dacic, said that resolving the final status of what Serbia calls “Kosovo and Metohija” was one of the government’s top priorities. Kosovo’s Prime Minister Hashim Thaçi reaffirmed that Pristina was committed to the dialogue with Serbia, but that the “territorial integrity of Kosovo” would never be put into question, describing his state as a “political and juridical fact.” Several members urged for a quick resumption of delayed talks between the two sides.

July 2012

On 17 July, Council members were briefed by DPKO on UNMIK in consultations. Russia called the previously unscheduled meeting to discuss specific concerns, namely the killing of two Serbs in Kosovo and reports that Libyan and Syrian rebels had visited Kosovo for training purposes. On 24 July, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon visited Kosovo as part of a regional trip. (It was the first time that the Secretary-General had visited Kosovo—which is not a UN member—since its declaration of independence in 2008.)

May 2012

On 14 May, the Council held its quarterly debate on Kosovo and was briefed by the Special Representative head of UNMIK who praised the “highly professional facilitation” by the OSCE of Serbian general elections for Serbian citizens in Kosovo on 6 May which occurred without incident.The foreign ministers of Serbia and Kosovo also addressed the Council.

April 2012

On 9 April, the Special Representative and head of UNMIK strongly condemned the bomb attack of 8 April in Mitrovica. Pristina condemned the attack as a “criminal and terrorist act”.

February 2012

On 8 February, the Council was briefed by DPKO on the Secreatry-General’s 31 January report and on the situation in northern Kosovo, which was the epicentre of tensions during the second half of 2011. (The Special Representative and head of UNMIK participated by VTC.) As on previous occasions, ithe foreign ministers of Serbia and Kosovo participated.

December 2011

On 9 December, the European Council issued a statement welcoming Serbia’s re-engagement in the Belgrade-Pristina dialogue and its moving forward with the Integrated Border Management agreement.

November 2011

On 29 November, the Council was briefed by the Special Representative and head of UNMIK who presented the 31 October report of the Secretary-General.  The previous day, several KFOR soldiers were injured as they sought to remove roadblocks erected by Kosovo Serbs who opposed the move by Pristina to send more border guards to the crossing.

October 2011

On 11 October, the Secretary-General announced the appointment of Farid Zarif as his new Special Representative and head of UNMIK. On 20 October, KFOR troops, attempting to dismantle erected barricades, clashed with Serb protesters at two border crossings in northern Kosovo.

September 2011

The Council met on three occasions to address a border dispute in northern Kosovo in September. On 14 September Council members held consultations after Serbia and Russia requested that the Council meet in order to address a potential threat to peace and security along the disputed border. (A NATO mandate to control the contested border crossings until 15 September was set to expire.) During these consultations, Council members agreed to receive a briefing from DPKO and to hold a closed meeting with both Kosovo and Serbia present the following day, 15 September. Council members met again on 28 September in closed consultations, at Russia’s request, to receive a briefing from DPKO following violent clashes between Kosovo Serbs and NATO forces along the disputed border. Also on 28 September, following the death of a key witness in a war-crime case in Kosovo, the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights expressed its concerns about witness protection in Kosovo and called for an independent witness- and victim-protection system.

August 2011

On 30 August, the Council held its quarterly debate on  Kosovo to consider the Secretary-General’s 12 August report. The acting Special Representative briefed. The debate also focused on the border tensions in northern Kosovo which began in late July. The case of organ trafficking allegations was also discussed.

July 2011

On 28 July, the Council held an urgent meeting on tensions in northern Kosovo following a Russian-backed Serbian request following an outbreak of violence along the Kosovo-Serbia border. The KFOR commander met with leaders in northern Kosovo on 27 and 28 July in an attempt to ease tensions. On 27 July, NATO took control of the two border posts seized by Kosovo on 26 July to try to enforce a newly instituted trade embargo against all Serbian products.

June 2011

On 23 June, Russia circulated a draft Security Council resolution on behalf of Serbia that requested the creation of an ad-hoc mechanism, under the authority of the Security Council, to investigate allegations of trafficking of human organs in Kosovo. (The draft resolution was never voted on.)

May 2011

On 12 May, UNMIK head Lamberto Zannier briefed the Council on the situation in Kosovo. He said that the EU-mediated talks between Kosovo and Serbia were crucial to resolving problems hampering development. He stated that he supported the call by the Council of Europe’s Parliamentary Assembly for a thorough, impartial and independent investigation into allegations of inhumane treatment of people and illicit trafficking of human organs in Kosovo and said that “UNMIK remains fully available to cooperate with such an investigation”.

April 2011

Between 1 and 19 April, Kosovo conducted its first census in 30 years. Many ethnic Serbs in northern Kosovo boycotted the census despite the fact that UN officials were sent there to register people in place of Kosovar officials. In 19 April letter to the Secretary-General, Serbia requested the creation of an ad hoc mechanism, under the authority of the Security Council, to conduct a criminal investigation into allegations of trafficking of human organs in Kosovo.

16 February 2011

Special Representative and head of mission Lamberto Zannier briefed the Council.

24 January 2011

Final election results were released, after elections were rerun in five municipalities which experienced electoral irregularities, confirming Thaçi’s PDK had won the election.

12 December 2010

Kosovo’s first general elections were held and widespread allegations of fraud followed.

12 December 2010

A report by  the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe alleged that Prime Minister Thaçi had been involved in organised crime, including drug trafficking and the illegal trafficking of human organs, during his time as a Kosovo Liberation Army leader.

29 October 2010

KFOR announced a restructuring of forces anda reduction of troop levels from 10,000 to around 5,000 by Spring 2011.

16 October 2010

The Democratic League of Kosovo (LDK) announced it was leaving the coalition government.

27 September 2010

President Fatmir Sejdiu resigned after the constitutional court ruled that he had acted in violation of the constitution by simultaneously holding office and the leadership of the LDK.

11 September 2010

Serbia indicted nine former paramilitary members for the killing of 43 ethnic Albanians in May 1999 during the Kosovo conflict.

9 September 2010

The General Assembly adopted without a vote a resolution that welcomedthe readiness of the European Union to facilitate a process of dialogue between the parties.”

3 August 2010

The Special Representative and head of UNMIK, Lamberto Zannier, briefed (S.PV/6367) the Council  following the issuance of the ICJ opinion on the legality of Kosovo’s unilateral declaration of independence. He said that the ICJ reaffirmed that Kosovo remained subject to the interim administration of the UN and resolution 1244 (1999) and UNMIK’s Constitutional Framework in Kosovo continued to apply. He also introduced the latest report on UNMIK (S/2010/401).

28 July 2010

Serbia submitted a draft resolution to the UN General Assembly calling for new negotiations on Kosovo.

22 July 2010

The ICJ released its advisory opinion on the legality of Kosovo’s Unilateral Declaration of Independence. By ten votes to four the Court concluded that the declaration of independence of Kosovo adopted on 17 February 2008 did not violate international law, Security Council resolution 1244 or the constitutional framework.

22 July 2010

The ICTY ordered ex-Kosovo premier and former Kosovo Liberation Army commander, Ramush Haradinaj, to be retried.

30 May 2010

Belgrade-organised local elections in Mitrovica were held, leading to clashes between Kosovo Serbs and Kosovo Albanian protesters.

27 April 2010

Thousands of Kosovo Serbs in the Serbian enclave of Gracanica protested against the dismantling by Kosovo authorities of two Serbian mobile phone networks deemed to be operating illegally in central Kosovo.

19 April 2010

NATO announced that it would transfer responsibility for controlling the border with Albania to the Kosovo police.

January 2010

Peter Feith, the International Civilian Representative and EU Special Representative, proposed a strategy for the integration of northern Kosovo which would have the  effect of strenghtening Pristina’s control in this area.

22 January 2009

The Special Representative of  the Secretary-General, Lamberto Zannier, briefed the Council on the Secretary-General’s latest UNMIK report in an open meeting.

13 December 2009

Second round of municipal elections were held in Kosovo.

1-11 December 2009

The ICJ held public hearings on the question of the legality of Kosovo’s unilateral declaration of independence.

15 November 2009

First municipal elections following Kosovo’s unilateral declaration of independence were held.

11 September 2009

Serbia and EULEX signed a protocol on police cooperation.

25 August 2009

Violent clashes between Kosovo Serbs and Kosovo Albanians broke out in the ethnically divided city of Mitrovica in northern Kosovo. On the same day, in a separate incident in Pristina, 24 EULEX vehicles were damaged in a protest led by Self-Determination (Vetëvendosje), an ethnic Albanian nationalist group.

30 June 2009

The General Assembly decided to reduce UNMIK’s  authorised personnel strength to 507 from 4,911 when adopting the mission’s 2009-2010 budget.

8 May 2009

The IMF offered membership to Kosovo.

17 April 2009

33 states in addition to Serbia and Kosovo had submitted their written arguments on the legality of Kosovo’s declaration of independence to the ICJ by the 17 April deadline .

6 April 2009

The EU Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo opened its headquarters in Pristina.

21 January 2009

The Kosovo Security Force (KFS) was formed, replacing the Kosovo Protection Corps (KPC), a quasi-military body made up largely of former ethnic Albanian veterans. Serbia sent a letter to NATO and the UN protesting its formation.

8 October 2008

The UN General Assembly voted 77- 6 (with 74 abstentions and 35 not voting) for a Serbian sponsored resolution asking the ICJ for an advisory opinion on the legality of Kosovo’s unilateral declaration of independence.

20 June 2008

Lamberto Zannier of Italy became the new Special Representative of the Secretary-General to Kosovo.

18 June 2008

President Fatmir Sejdiu of Kosovo signed a decree for the establishment of nine diplomatic missions.

15 June 2008

Kosovo’s new constitution came into force.

early June 2008

Serbia’s Kosovo minister gave Kosovo Serbs a deadline to form parallel municipal councils based on the 11 May local elections.

11 May 2008

Serbian-dominated areas of Kosovo held local elections, deemed illegitimate by UNMIK.

9 April 2008

The Assembly of Kosovo enacted a new constitution.

18 March 2008

Serbia asked the Council to consider the deteriorating situation in Kosovo in a letter to the president.

9 March 2008

Serbian Prime Minister Vojislav Kostunica resigned, claiming his government was divided irreparably following Kosovo’s declaration of independence.

6 March 2008

Serbia asked for an urgent meeting of the Council to consider what it referred to as an “aggravation of the situation” in Kosovo.

28 -29 February 2008

An “International Steering Group” for Kosovo was formed to  support full implementation of the Comprehensive Proposal for the Kosovo Status Settlement of UN Special Envoy Martti Ahtisaari of 26 March 2007 .  Initial membership included the UK, France, Germany, Italy, the US, Austria, the Czech Republic, Finland, Sweden, Turkey, Belgium, Denmark, Hungary, Slovenia and Switzerland. In a letter to the Secretary-General on 29 February Serbia said the Group had no legal basis.

18 February 2008

The Council held an emergency public meeting, with Serbian prime minister, Boris Tadic participating (S/PV.5839). It was held at the request of Serbia (S/2008/103) supported by Russia (S/2008/104).

17 February 2008

Kosovo declared independence.

12 February 2008

Russia wrote to the Council (S/2008/93) in support of a Serbian request (S/2008/92) for a meeting of the Council.

12 February 2008

Prime Minister Vojislav Kostunica said that Serbia intended to declare Kosovo’s proclamation of independence annulled in advance “as an act by terrorists to set up a fictitious state.”

4 February 2008

The EU established a European Union Rule of Law Mission (EULEX) to provide support for Kosovo through its Council’s Joint Action 2008/124/CFSP.

3 February 2008

Boris Tadic, representing the Democratic Party, defeated Tomislav Nikolic of the Radical Party in Serbian presidential elections.

14 December 2007

EU leaders met and agreed that negotiations had been exhausted and supported a European Security and Defence Policy mission to Kosovo.

7 December 2007

The Troika submitted its report to the Secretary-General.

27 and 28 November 2007

The troika held their final meeting with the two parties.

17 November 2007

Elections were held in Kosovo. Ex-guerilla fighter Hashim Thaci’s Democratic Party of Kosovo (PDK) won 35 precent of the votes.

September 2007

The troika met with the two parties in London in Septemeber. The first direct talks took place on 27 September.

August 2007

A troika made up of the US, EU and Russia and set up by the Contact Group on Kosovo began in August. The troika was given a 120 day period to try to broker a solution to Kosovo’s status.

20 July 2007

After consultations the draft resolution on Kosovo was put on hold after Russia made it clear that it would use its veto.  The co-sponsors released a statement indicating that the discussions would now take place within the Contact Group and reiterating their support for Martti Ahtisaari’s Comprehensive Proposal for the Kosovo Status Settlement.

17 July 2007

The draft resolution on Kosovo was put in blue but included minor changes following comments from South Africa and Indonesia.

16 July 2007

The Council held informal consultations on the informal draft but could not reach a consensus.  Russia made it clear that it still saw this draft as a continuation of the Ahtisaari plan.

13 July 2007

The co-sponsors circulated informally the latest draft of a resolution on Kosovo in a final attempt to get consensus. As with previous drafts this draft provided for a 120 day period of negotiations between the parties but unlike earlier drafts it did not specify an outcome if negotiations failed. This was done to address the objections of Russia and other member states about so called “automaticity”.

Early June 2007

A softened draft resolution on Kosovo that “supported” rather than “endorsed” the proposal by Marti Ahtisaari was circulated to the Security Council by the European members and the US.  Russia rejected the draft stating that it did not address its main concerns.

11 May 2007

In Serbia, a government was formed after four months of delay, just in time to prevent a new election being called.

11 May 2007

The EU and the US circulated a draft resolution.

10 May 2007

The formal mission report was published.

2 May 2007

The head of the mission, Ambassador Johan Verbeke of Belgium, gave an oral briefing to the Council.

Late April 2007

The Chinese deputy premier and Russia’s foreign minister made separate visits to Serbia in mid-April.  Serbia began its own diplomatic offensive with visits to South Africa, Indonesia and Qatar to court the non-permanent members of the Council.  The EU and members of the Contact Group on Kosovo met in Moscow.

25-29 April 2007

The Council’s mission led by Ambassador Johan Verbeke of Belgium visited Belgrade, Pristina and Mitrovica, with stops en route in Brussels and Vienna.

13 April 2007

The Council agreed to Russia’s proposal to send a mission to the region to obtain first-hand information on progress in Kosovo.

15 March 2007

Martti Ahtisaari submitted his final report to the Secretary-General recommending independence, supervised by the international community, and asked the Council to endorse the Kosovo Status Settlement proposal upon which independence be based.

10 March 2007

Martti Ahtisaari held his final meeting on the future status process for Kosovo with representatives from Belgrade and Pristina.

21 February 2007

Final round of talks between the two sides commenced in Vienna. The Kosovo Albanian side accepted the proposal without major changes. The Serbians opposed most of the plan, believing it violated the territorial integrity of Serbia.

12 February 2007

EU foreign ministers backed Ahtisaari’s proposal, saying the EU was ready to play a significant role in implementing a status settlement.

2 February 2007

Martti Ahtisaari presented an outline of the much-anticipated proposal for Kosovo’s status to Belgrade and Pristina.

21 January 2007

Elections in Serbia were held but did not produce a working majority in parliament.

2 October 2006

Serbia’s parliament unanimously approved a new constitution that claimed sovereignty over Kosovo.  The move opposed calls for the ethnic Albanian majority in Kosovo to be given independence.

20 September 2006

An attack on Kosovo’s minority Serbs triggered a sharp warning from the United Nations to Kosovo Albanian leaders.

13 September 2006

In his first  report to the Council, Rucker said discussions – including the first high-level meeting between both sides in July along with other talks covering boundaries and cultural sites – revealed that “the parties remain far apart on most issues.”

14 August 2006

Joakim Rucker was appointed as the Secretary General’s Special Representative for Kosovo.

14 July 2006

Russia challenged UN power to impose a Kosovo ruling.  Russia sad the UN had no authority to impose a solution on Serbia over the status of its breakaway Kosovo province and only a negotiated deal was acceptable.

12 July 2006

Special Representative Søren Jessen-Petersen announced he was leaving his post.

July 2006

First direct talks since 1999 between ethnic Serbian and Kosovo leaders on the future status of Kosovo took place in Vienna but failed to produce a breakthrough.  Belgrade was willing to give everything but independence and Pristina wanted nothing but independence.

13 June 2006

Three municipalities broke ties with Kosovo’s Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG) and organised parallel security structures using former Serb army officers.

10 March 2006

Kosovo’s parliament elected former rebel leader Agim Ceku as the province’s new prime minister. Serbia issued an arrest warrant accusing him of crimes against Serbs in Kosovo and Croatia.

1 March 2006

Kosovo Prime Minister Bajram Kosumi resigned following international criticism that he had failed to do enough to create a multi-ethnic state.

20 February 2006

Belgrade and Pristina began delicate UN-mediated Kosovo talks.

10 February 2006

Fatmir Sejdiu of the LDK party was elected as Kosovo’s new president.  He was the sole candidate.

21 January 2006

Kosovo President Ibrahim Rugova died.

16 January 2006

Martti Ahtisaari and Special Representative Søren Jessen-Petersen met in Vienna with the Contact Group (the United States, Britain, France, Italy, Russia and Germany).

17 November 2005

The Kosovo Assembly unanimously adopted a resolution reconfirming the political will of the people of Kosovo for an independent and sovereign state of Kosovo.

10 November 2005

The Council welcomed Annan’s intention to appoint Martti Ahtisaari, and issued guiding principles for the process addressing a number of issues including the need for Council endorsement of the final status of Kosovo.

1 November 2005

UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed Martti Ahtisaari as Special Envoy for status talks.

October 2005

The Council declared it was time to begin the political process to determine the future status of Kosovo.

March 2005

Kosovo Prime Minister Ramush Haradinaj was indicted by the ICTY. He resigned as Prime Minister and voluntarily surrendered to the tribunal. The Kosovo Assembly elected a new government, headed by Bajram Kosumi, on 23 March.

November 2004

General elections in Kosovo installed a new government headed by Ramush Haradinaj.

6 August 2004

A report by the Kai Eide, the Secretary-General’s Special Envoy, argued that the “standards before status” policy lacked credibility and that a priority-based standards policy aimed at facilitating orderly future status discussions should replace it.

31 March 2004

UNMIK released the “Standards Implementation Plan.”

17-20 March 2004

Rioting led by Kosovo Albanian extremists against Serb, Roma and Ashkali communities broke out.

12 December 2003

The Council endorsed Standards for Kosovo (S/PRST/2003/26).

March 2002

Ibrahim Rugova of the LDK party was elected President of Kosovo.

February 2002

A coalition government was established.

17 November 2001

Elections were held in Kosovo.

February-March 2001

Fighting erupted between Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia security forces and armed Albanian militants from Kosovo.

15 January 2001

Hans Haekkerup began his assignment as the new Special Representative of the Secretary-General.

28 October 2000

Municipal elections were held in Kosovo.

28 September 2000

Elections were held in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Vojislav Koštunica was elected president.

10 May 2000

The Kosovo Transitional Council adopted a major political statement calling for tolerance, basic rights and freedoms for all Kosovo communities and demanding that all Kosovo Albanians held in Serbian prisons and other detention facilities be unconditionally handed over to UNMIK.

20 September 1999

An agreement was reached on the transformation of KLA and on the final details of demobilisation and weapons regime.

16 July 1999

The first meeting of the Kosovo Transitional Council marked a critical first step towards the development of self-government in Kosovo.

2 July 1999

The Secretary-General appointed Dr. Bernard Kouchner as his Special Representative in Kosovo.

14 June 1999

The Secretary-General presented a preliminary operational plan for Kosovo to the Security Council (S/1999/672).

11 June 1999

The Secretary-General named Sergio Vieira de Mello as Acting Special Representative for Kosovo on an interim basis.

10 June 1999

The Security Council adopted resolution 1244 establishing UNMIK.

7 June 1999

Slobodan Miloševic accepted terms offered by Martti Ahtisaari and Russian special envoy Victor Chernomyrdin, and agreed to withdraw FRY troops from Kosovo in a phased retreat beginning 10 June.

23 March 1999

NATO authorised the commencement of air strikes on Kosovo and Belgrade.

18 March 1999

After two rounds of talks facilitated by the Contact Group, the Rambouillet Accords were signed by the Albanian forces but rejected by Serbia and Montenegro.

6 February 1999

The Rambouillet peace discussions convened.

October 1998

An agreement between US special envoy Richard Holbrooke and Yugoslav President Slobodan Miloševic averted NATO air strikes. Serb forces temporarily withdrew, and allowed access for 2,000 unarmed monitors from OSCE’s Kosovo Verification Mission, which monitored the ceasefire and verified troop movements from Kosovo to Serbia as part of the withdrawal.


As armed attacks intensified Serbian forces began a campaign of removals, violence and ethnic cleansing against ethnic Albanians.

February 1996

KLA began to claim credit for a number of violent acts such as the killing of several Serbian officials and policemen. Ethnic Albanians who were considered to be collaborators with the Belgrade government were also targeted.


Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) emerged.


Kosovo’s independence was curtailed by the Serbian government and the province was brought under the direct control of Belgrade.

July 1990

Ethnic Albanians issued a declaration of independence, and formed their own parallel governance structures as well as separate civic and professional institutions.  Ibrahim Rugova was voted in as president in elections that were not recognised by outside parties.


A Miloševic speech in Kosovo Polje marked the beginning of nationalist fervour in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY). Slobodan Miloševic abolished Kosovo’s provincial government and legislature and began the campaign against the province’s Albanian majority.