Chronology of Events

revised on 4 January 2019

Haiti

December 2018

On 12 December, Special Representative of the Secretary-General Helen La Lime briefed the Council on recent developments and the latest MINUJUTH report. While noting slow progress towards achieving benchmarks and the recent political crisis, she pointed out to the positive impact the mission has had  on reinforcing rule of law institutions and promotion of human rights. She further noted that the benchmarks for the transition will not be achieved by October 2019 as planned and that there are still options for reconfiguring the UN presence in the country. Council members expressed concern over the recent political instability and violent protests and called on the government to step up its efforts in achieving benchmarks.

September 2018

On 6 September, Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Bintou Keita briefed the Council on the most recent Secretary-General’s report on MINUJUSTH. Keita described the progress towards 11 benchmarks for the transition to a non-peacekeeping UN presence in the country. Council members also noted that the violent July protests in Haiti demonstrated the volatility of the socio-economic situation.

July 2018

On 12 July, Council members released a press statement that condemned the recent violence in Haiti which resulted in several deaths. They called on all parties to exercise restraint and stressed the importance of respecting the rule of law and democratic order.

April 2018

On 3 April, the Council held its regular debate on Haiti with a briefing by Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Jean-Pierre Lacroix. He presented to the Council the main findings from the report on the latest strategic assessment of MINUJUSTH, which also included the 11 benchmarks for the exit strategy and a transition to a non-peacekeeping UN presence in Haiti. In their statements, most Council members recognised the progress made over the past several years. However, there was also an emphasis on the importance of reforming the justice sector, strengthening the rule of law, and improving human rights. On 10 April, the Council adopted resolution 2410 which extended the mandate of MINUJUSTH for another year under Chapter VII and set a timeline for the gradual drawdown of formed police units. The resolution outlined comprehensive reporting requirements regarding the implementation of the resolution including progress assessments on the drawdown and exit strategy. China and Russia abstained during the vote and voiced their concern about designation of the mission’s mandate under Chapter VII noting that the situation in Haiti does not at the moment pose a threat to international peace and security.

October 2017

On 12 October, outgoing Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Haiti Sandra Honoré delivered the final briefing on the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) ahead of its 15 October closure. On 17 October, the Council adopted a presidential statement that recognised the contribution MINUSTAH had made in restoring security and stability throughout its 13‑year tenure, expressed appreciation of the efforts of the UN Country Team, and welcomed the work of the MINUJUSTH, which succeeded MINUSTAH on 16 October.

July 2017

On 18 July, Sandra Honoré, Special Representative and head of MINUSTAH briefed the Council on the latest report of the Secretary-General and recent developments. Honoré called on the Haitian authorities to restore the country’s judiciary and to bolster its independence. Council members emphasised the importance of the smooth transition to a successor mission in October. Council members also addressed the issue of cholera and some also called on the international community to contribute to the cholera fund.

June 2017

From 22 to 24 June, the Council conducted a visiting mission to Haiti led by Bolivia. The stated purpose of the visit was for the Council to: reaffirm its support for the government and people of Haiti; conduct a review of the implementation of resolution 2350; and identify requirements necessary for successful implementation of the successor mission’s mandate. Members met with various interlocutors, including President Jovenel Moïse and members of his cabinet, Prime Minister Jack Guy Lafontant, parliamentarians, the senior leadership of MINUSTAH, the Higher Council of the National Police, members of civil society, and others. In addition to various discussions on the situation concerning the rule of law, judicial reform, capacity of the Haitian National Police, and the mandate of MINUJUSTH, several interlocutors raised concerns about the UN’s response to cholera. They also asserted that the UN must assist the fatherless children born as a result of sexual exploitation and abuse committed by peacekeepers. On 30 June, Ambassador Sacha Sergio Llorentty Soliz (Bolivia) briefed the Council on the visiting mission.

April 2017

On 4 April, the Council organised a meeting with the troop- and police-contributing countries of MINUSTAH and on 11 April held a debate with a briefing by Special Representative and head of MINUSTAH, Sandra Honoré, who presented the Secretary-General’s latest report. On 13 April, in resolution 2350, the Council decided to extend MINUSTAH’s mandate for a final six-month period until 15 October and authorised the establishment of a smaller successor peacekeeping mission, referred to as the UN Mission for Justice Support in Haiti (MINUJUSTH), composed of up to seven formed police units and 295 police officers, but no military component, and with a mandate to assist the government of Haiti in strengthening rule of law institutions, further support and develop the Haitian National Police, and engage in human rights monitoring, as recommended by the Secretary-General. After the adoption of the resolution, a number of Council members spoke in explanations of vote.

January 2017

In a 4 January press statement, Council members welcomed the announcement of the final presidential results from the 20 November 2016 elections in Haiti. They urged all political actors to accept the results, refrain from violence and work together to build a stable and prosperous country.

October 2016

On 11 October, the Council held a debate on Haiti with a briefing via VTC by the head of MINUSTAH, Special Representative Sandra Honoré, who presented the most recent Haiti report. The impact of Hurricane Matthew, which struck Haiti on 4 October, and the postponement of the elections originally scheduled for 9 October were among the main issues discussed. On 13 October, the Council adopted resolution 2313 renewing the mandate of MINUSTAH for six months while maintaining its authorised troop strength at 2,370 military personnel.

May 2016

On 12 May, at the request of the US, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed Council members in consultations on the electoral crisis in Haiti. In a press statement issued the following day, Council members expressed “their deep disappointment” that Haitian leaders had failed to meet the election deadlines agreed on 5 February and called on them to ensure “the prompt return to constitutional order”. The statement also welcomed Ladsous’s planned field visit to Haiti (expected in June) to convey Council members’ sense of urgency and to assess the role of MINUSTAH and options for its future reconfiguration.

March 2016

On 17 March, Special Representative Sandra Honoré briefed the Security Council and presented the Secretary-General’s most recent MINUSTAH report. Her briefing took place amidst continuing uncertainty about the timeline for the completion of the long delayed elections, following the failure to elect a new president before the end of Michel Martelly’s term on 7 February. The next day Council members issued a press statement that expressed concern regarding the continued suspension of electoral rounds in Haiti and called for the completion of the electoral cycle without further delay.

January 2016

Council members expressed concern in a press statement over the developments leading to the indefinite postponement of the final round of elections in Haiti, scheduled to have taken place on 27 December 2015 and postponed, for the second time, to 24 January.

December 2015

On 22 December, Council members issued a press statement stressing the importance of peaceful and credible elections.

October 2015

On 8 October, the Council held its semi-annual debate on Haiti, with Special Representative and head of MINUSTAH, Sandra Honoré, briefing. Honoré said she was encouraged by the ongoing preparations for the remaining two rounds of elections and the actions taken by the Provisional Electoral Council to address shortcomings. She also highlighted the achievements of the Haitian National Police and its important role in maintaining security during the elections, while stressing the need for continued support to strengthen its capacity. On 14 October, the Council adopted resolution 2243, extending the mandate of MINUSTAH for one year while maintaining its authorised troop strength at 2,370 military personnel and 2,601 police, as recommended by the Secretary-General in his 31 August report. It also expressed its intention to consider the possible withdrawal of MINUSTAH and transition to a future UN presence no sooner than 15 October 2016 and requested the Secretary-General conduct a strategic assessment mission that would present recommendations to the Council on the future presence, within 90 days after the expected inauguration in February 2016 of a new Haitian president.

April 2015

In a 13 April press statement, Council members condemned an attack that same day against a MINUSTAH vehicle which killed a Chilean peacekeeper (SC/11858). The statement also noted that they looked forward to a full and comprehensive investigation of the incident.

March 2015

On 18 March, Special Representative Sandra Honoré briefed the Council at its semi-annual debate, presenting the Secretary-General’s MINUSTAH report (S/2015/157). The discussion included an update on preparations for legislative and presidential elections and the merits of the planned drawdown of the military component of the peacekeeping mission.

January 2015

Security Council members visited Haiti between 23 and 25 January. The co-leads of the trip, Ambassador Cristián Barros Melet (Chile) and Ambassador Samantha Power (US), briefed the Council on the visit on 29 January.

October 2014

On 14 October, the Security Council adopted resolution 2180 extending the mandate of the MINUSTAH until 15 October 2015. It authorized a reduction in the mission’s military component from 5,021 personnel to 2,370 while keeping the police contingent unchanged at 2,601 as recommended by the Secretary-General in his August report to the Council (S/2014/617). While the resolution was adopted by consensus, Argentina and Chile gave an explanation of vote, expressing regret that they had not been in a position to co-sponsor the resolution as their concerns about the recommended accelerated drawdown had not been fully taken into account. Guatemala and Ecuador also took the floor as countries contributing troops to MINUSTAH to express similar concerns, emphasising that decisions about peacekeeping operations must take the opinions of troop contributing countries into account (S/PV.7277).

September 2014

On 11 September, the Council held a debate on the Secretary-General’s latest report on MINUSTAH (S/2014/617), featuring a briefing by the Special Representative and head of mission, Sandra Honoré. Haiti also participated in the debate, along with Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Spain, Uruguay and the EU (S/PV.7262). Commenting on the political deadlock over the electoral process, Honoré said that, given the time needed for logistical preparations, the window for holding the elections before the end of the year was rapidly closing. She noted that if elections were not held by 12 January 2015 (when the terms of the remaining two-thirds of the senators and all members of the chamber of deputies expire) parliament would become dysfunctional and a constitutional vacuum would result. With regard to the Secretary-General’s recommendation in his report for a further drawdown of MINUSTAH, Honoré stressed that this was based on a careful analysis. She expressed confidence that the mission would be able to fulfil its mandate with a reduced presence, but strongly emphasised that all stakeholders had to redouble their efforts to enable the police to meet major benchmarks by 2016 and assume full responsibility for security and stability in Haiti.

March 2014

On 14 March, the Council held a meeting on MINUSTAH with troop- and police -contributing countries featuring a briefing by Deputy Special Representative for Haiti Carl Alexandre. Also present were the outgoing force commander for the mission, Lieutenant General Edson Leal Pujol, whose assignment ended on 15 March, and MINUSTAH police commissioner Luis Miguel Carrilho. The new force commander for MINUSTAH is Lieutenant General José Luiz Jaborandy Jr. On 24 March, Special Representative Sandra Honoré briefed the Council on the Secretary-General’s latest report on MINUSTAH. In her briefing, Honoré welcomed recent progress in the preparation for the holding of elections in Haiti, in particular the 14 March “El Rancho” accord on key outstanding issues, while emphasising that it was of critical importance that the provisions of the accord be implemented in a timely manner by Haiti. She also highlighted progress in the security situation and building the capacity of the Haitian National Police and noted that the economic situation was improving.  With regard to the options for the future UN presence in Haiti presented in the Secretary-General’s report, Honoré said the UN would conduct a UN-wide strategic assessment and consult widely with relevant stakeholders to provide the Council with an “updated, in-depth evaluation”.

October 2013

On 10 October the Council adopted resolution 2119 extending the mandate of MINUSTAH until 15 October 2014. The resolution authorised a reduction in MINUSTAH’s troop strength from 6,270 to 5,021 while maintaining the size of the police component at 2,601 as recommended by the Secretary-General in his most recent report. It also urged Haiti to complete all steps required for the holding of elections in accordance with the constitution. In an explanation of vote after the adoption, the UK expressed concern that MINUSTAH was still performing tasks that could be better managed by other parts of the UN system, and questioned in particular the continuation of quick impact projects. It also expressed support for a more accelerated drawdown of the mission, in particular with regard to engineering personnel.

August 2013

The Council held a debate on 28 August to consider the Secretary-General’s semi-annual report on MINUSTAH (S/2013/493). It included a briefing by Sandra Honoré, the new Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of mission. The Council held a private meeting with the countries providing police and military personnel to MINUSTAH on 26 August.

July 2013

On 15 July Sandra Honoré took office as Special Representative and head of MINUSTAH after the government agreed on her appointment.

March 2013

On 20 March, the Council held its semi-annual debate on Haiti during which the Secretary-General’s Acting Special Representative, Nigel Fisher, presented the Secretary-General’s 8 March report on MINUSTAH and provided an update on recent developments. Fisher described the situation in Haiti as challenging both at the political and socioeconomic levels. He emphasised in particular that it was crucial for elections to take place in 2013 and said the president of Haiti had committed to establishing a temporary electoral council (a prerequisite for elections to move forward) before Easter. Fisher also presented the conditions-based consolidation plan for MINUSTAH, which was annexed to the Secretary-General’s report.

January 2013

On 22 January the Special Representative of the Secretary-General, Mariano Fernández, gave a final briefing to Council members—at the initiative of Guatemala. The Group of Friends of Haiti in New York (Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, France, Guatemala, Peru, Uruguay and the US) issued a joint statement on 23 January. On 28 January, the Council members issued a press statement reaffirming their support for Haiti, urging political actors to redouble their efforts to preserve progress made over the past year and underscoring the importance of holding elections by the end of 2013.

October 2012

On 3 October, the Council held a debate on the Secretary-General’s most recent MINUSTAH report and was briefed by Mariano Fernández, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and the head of MINUSTAH. On 12 October, the Council adopted resolution 2070, renewing the mandate of MINUSTAH until 15 October 2013.   

September 2012

On 12 September, the Council held a meeting with MINUSTAH troop and police contributing countries. During the meeting, Special Representative Mariano Fernández underscored political progress, including the appointment of a new prime minister in May and the publication of constitutional amendments in June. However, he cautioned that socioeconomic development was necessary to consolidate security gains. From 12 to 15 September, Assistant Secretary-General for Human Rights Ivan Šimonovic visited Haiti ahead of the renewal of MINUSTAH’s mandate by the Security Council. Šimonovic called for the planned downsizing of MINUSTAH’s military forces to be accompanied by further support to the national police and the rule of law institutions.

March 2012

On 8 March, the Council held a debate and was briefed by the Special Representative on the 29 February MINUSTAH report which highlighted the tensions between the legislative and executive branches and the resignation of Prime Minister Garry Conille on 24 February. The debate came at an important time for MINUSTAH as the mission is in the process of drawing down the temporary increases in personnel put in place in the aftermath of the 2010 earthquake. On 6 March, Council members held consultations to provide feedback on the Council’s February visiting mission to Haiti. (It is unusual for a Council mission to be followed by anything more than a briefing and a report but there was interest in a broader exchange of views on the mission to discuss lessons learnt that could be applied to future missions.)

February 2012

On 28 February, Ambassador Susan Rice (US) briefed on the Council’s 13-16 February visiting mission to Haiti where Council members met with Haitian President Michel Martelly, and with presidents of both chambers of parliament and some senators.

January 2012

On 21 January, the UN sent a team to Haiti to investigate allegations of sexual abuse and exploitation.  On 16 January, MINUSTAH contacted UN headquarters regarding allegations of sexual abuse and exploitation that had been made against mission personnel in two separate instances. One complaint focused on UN police officers in Port-au-Prince, while the other accusation was against one or more UN personnel serving in the Formed Police Unit in Gonaïves.

November 2011

On 3 November, a petition was filed with the UN requesting financial compensation and judicial remedy from an independent body on behalf of those affected by the cholera epidemic in Haiti.

October 2011

On 14 October, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2012, which extended MINUSTAH’s mandate for a year and recognised that the overall security situation in Haiti had improved since 2010 and decided to reduce the mission’s military strength.

September 2011

On 16 September, the Council was briefed on the 25 August MINUSTAH report that highlighted the considerable progress made by Haiti since the devastating earthquake in January 2010 and noted a peaceful transition of power from a democratically elected president to one from the opposition for the first time in the country’s history.

May 2011

On 17 May, the Security Council issued a press statement congratulating the people of Haiti on the peaceful conduct of the recent elections and welcoming the inauguration of the new government. (On 14 May, following a contentious and extended electoral process, Michel Martelly was sworn in as president.) On 12 May, the Secretary-General announced Mariano Fernández as his special representative in Haiti and head of MINUSTAH replacing Edmond Mulet.

April 2011

On 6 April Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos presided at a Council open debate on Haiti. Speakers at the meeting included the Secretary-General, Haitian President René Garcia Préval and former US President and UN Special Envoy for Haiti Bill Clinton. A presidential statement was adopted at the meeting which reiterated the need for security to be accompanied by social and economic development and reaffirmed the responsibility of MINUSTAH in supporting the rule of law and good governance in Haiti.

March 2011

Haiti held legislative elections and the presidential run-off on 20 March. On 21 March, MINUSTAH urged all candidates and their followers to exercise restraint while voting results were tallied.  Earlier in the month, a 16 March statement from MINUSTAH voiced concern over violence connected to some political campaigning and called on all candidates to avoid threats, intimidation and harassment.

January 2011

On 20 January, the Council was briefed by DPKO and OCHA on Haiti. DPKO noted that the international community should work with Haiti to help ensure a credible elections so the country’s government can remain focused on earthquake recovery efforts. He voiced commitment to shedding further light on the origins of the cholera epidemic. OCHA said much had been accomplished in the last year in providing shelter, drinking water, sanitation and education to the people of Haiti.

 December 2010

On 10 December the Council was briefed by DPKO on Haiti. The Council issued a press statement stressing the importance of holding peaceful and credible elections and expressed deep concern at incidents of violence that followed the announcement of preliminary election results. MINUSTAH was urged to continue extending critical support in ensuring a peaceful environment. On 17 December, the Secretary-General announced the creation of an independent panel to investigate a cholera epidemic which had appeared in late October 2010 in the western region of Haiti. (There were some allegations that UN peacekeepers from Nepal were the source of the outbreak.)

October 2010

On 14 October, the Council adopted resolution 1944, renewing the mandate of MINUSTAH for a year. The resolution maintained force levels and called for an assessment of the security environment following the 28 November elections and transfer of power to a new government in 2011. It also stresses that these elections must be free, fair, inclusive and transparent for stabilization in the country.  On 12 October, MINUSTAH had voiced concern over reports that arms were being distributed in advance of national elections.

20 August 2010

Haiti’s electoral council approved 19 candidates to run in the November presidential election (including two former prime ministers) and disqualified 15 candidates from running. (Apparently candidates of the Fanmi Lavalas party, which is loyal to exiled former President Aristide, were exluded because the party did not provide required registration documents.)

17 August 2010

The Interim Haiti Reconstruction Commission announced it would support 29 reconstruction projects with $1.6 billion in international funding.

14 July 2010

The ECOSOC Ad Hoc Advisory Group on Haiti released a report based primarily on a visit to the country made from 16 to 19 June.

12 July 2010

The Inter-Agency Standing Committee, composed of UN and partner agencies, issued a 6-month report on the response to the 12 January earthquake in Haiti.

Late June 2010

Haitian President René Préval issued decrees mandating presidential and legislative elections for 28 November.

17 June 2010

The Interim Haiti Reconstruction Commission, meant to oversee the aid pledged to be delivered in the initial 18-month phase of reconstruction, held its first meeting.

4 June 2010

The Council expressed concern in resolution 1927 over new challenges and threats resulting from the 12 January earthquake in Haiti and authorised the deployment of 680 additional officers for the police component of MINUSTAH and encouraged the mission, within available means, to provide temporary logistical and technical support to the government of Haiti that is to be phased out as Haiti’s national capacity grows.

31 March 2010

The International Donors’ Conference, Towards a New Future for Haiti, was held at UN headquarters in New York.

19 February 2010

The Council issued a press statement conveying the Council’s appreciation for MINUSTAH’s work and pledged its continuing support to the nation and people of Haiti.

19 January 2010

The Council increased the personnel for MINUSTAH by 1,500 additional police and 2,000 additional military personnel.

18 January 2010

The Council issued a press statement expressing deep sympathy to the people of Haiti, and condolences to the families of all members of MINUSTAH who lost their lives in the earthquake, including Special Representative of the Secretary-General Hedi Annabi, Principal Deputy Special Representative Luiz Carlos da Costa and Acting UN Police Commissioner in Haiti Doug Coates.

12 January 2010

A devastating earthquake hit Haiti

9 October 2009

A plane crash killed all eleven passengers on board, including UN peacekeepers.

17 September 2009

The Group of Friends of Haiti (Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, France, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and the US) met on 17 September to discuss the MINUSTAH expiry.

9 September 2009

The Council held an open debate and heard from more than thirty speakers on the matter of Haiti including UN Special Envoy to Haiti former US President Bill Clinton, the Secretary-General’s Special Representative for Haiti Hédi Annabi and Haitian Prime Minister Michèle Duvivier Pierre-Louis.

11 August 2009

In his capacity as UN Special Envoy to Haiti, former US President Bill Clinton nominated Dr. Paul Farmer his deputy.

6-8 July 2009

Clinton made his first visit to Haiti as UN Special Envoy.

22 June 2009

MINUSTAH congratulated Haiti for holding peaceful and well-run senate elections.

21 June 2009

Run-off elections were held in Haiti.

19 May 2009

Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon announced the appointment of former US President Bill Clinton as UN Special Envoy to Haiti.

19 April 2009

Primary elections were held in Haiti.

14 April 2009

An international donors conference in Washington D.C. garnered a pledged $324 million in additional aid to Haiti over the next two years.

19 March 2009

Costa Rica’s Ambassador Jorge Urbina, who led the Council visit to Haiti between 11-14 March, briefed the Council on the and outlined the general conclusions of Council members.

9 and 10 March 2009

Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon visited Haiti, together with former US President Bill Clinton.

16 February 2009

The Haitian Electoral Council announced that it had barred candidates from the Lavalas Family party, the party of former President Jean-Bertrand Aristide who lives in exile in South Africa, from running in the senate elections, due to failure to submit registration on time.

November 2008

The Secretary-General commissioned a study assessing the impact of the 2008 food crisis and hurricanes on Haiti’s economy and proposing a strategy for achieving economic security.

October – November 2008

Several high level UN envoys visited Haiti in this period highlighting issues of sanitation, food security, and access to water, as well as the need to improve prison conditions and eliminate corruption.

2 October 2008

Haitian President René Préval requested in a letter to the Council that reference to Chapter VII of the UN Charter be removed from MINUSTAH’s mandate.

12 September 2008

Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Edmond Mulet briefed the Council on humanitarian issues in Haiti, which had been hit hard by a series of hurricanes. The Food and Agricultural Organisation reported that most of the harvests for the current season have been wiped out.

5 September 2008

The Haitian parliament approved a new government, ending a five-month impasse after the former government was dismissed in April. The new prime minister, Michèle Pierre-Louis, said that her policy priorities would be food production, job creation, security and the establishment of an environment favourable to investment.

August-September 2008

Four consecutive hurricanes caused severe damage in Haiti in August and September.

29 August 2008

The foreign and defence vice-ministers of the nine Latin American troop-contributing countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Guatemala, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay) met in Montevideo. They issued a joint communiqué defining a common position for the renewal of MINUSTAH’s mandate.

31 July 2008

Michele Pierre-Louis was approved by the senate to be the new prime minister.

27 June 2008

The Ad Hoc Advisory Group on Haiti of ECOSOC cancelled its annual trip to Haiti, originally planned for 27-30 April, because of the uncertain political context. However, it met in Washington D.C. and New York and produced a report analysing key issues for Haiti’s long-term development and providing information on the food crisis.

2 June 2008

MINUSTAH announced that a kidnapping gang had been broken up in Port-au-Prince.  Meanwhile, in Rome, the Secretary-General highlighted the food crisis in Haiti and called for immediate humanitarian aid and steps to boost agricultural production

12 April 2008

The Haitian senate voted to dismiss Prime Minister Jacques-Edouard Alexis.

4 April 2008

Violent demonstrations broke out in several cities over the rising cost of living.

February 2008

A vote of no-confidence in Prime Minister Jacques-Edouard Alexis, protesting the government’s economic policy, failed by a large majority.

December 2007

Parliament adopted three major laws on training of magistrates, the status of magistrates and the Superior Council, which will oversee their functions.

3 November 2007

Allegations of sexual misconduct by Sri Lankan peacekeepers led to the repatriation of 108 Sri Lankan soldiers (including three commanders)—out of a contingent of 950.

November 2007

The Haitian government published the final Poverty Reduction Strategy.

17 October 2007

President René Préval stated that the current constitution, established in 1987, was a threat to Haiti’s stability because of its complexity (particularly the electoral system) and ambiguities. He called for constitutional reform. Some have raised suspicions that Preval’s underlying purpose might be to seek to remain in power beyond his term, which ends in 2011. A presidential commission has been tasked to study elements for reform and is expected to submit recommendations, although it is unclear when.

27 September 2007

During his speech to the General Assembly High Level debate, Haitian President René Préval said that MINUSTAH was the “only formula that is realistic and available at this time that enables Haitians to restore freedom and live in peace.”

4 September 2007

The defence ministers and military officers of the nine Latin American MINUSTAH troop-contributing countries met in Port-au-Prince. They emphasised the necessity of strengthening cooperation between all actors involved in Haiti’s stabilisation. Argentina said it would organise a meeting to that effect in October.

31 August 2007

Foreign and defence vice ministers of the nine Latin American MINUSTAH troop-contributing countries (the 2×9 mechanism) plus Panama, met in Guatemala. They agreed that sustaining achievements in security, institutional strengthening and socioeconomic development required MINUSTAH to remain in Haiti until all goals were met.

7 August 2007

A five-year prison reform plan was approved by the Haitian prime minister.

Late April 2007

The third and last round of local, municipal and legislative elections was held. They were peaceful, but turnout was very low

Late April 2007

The Ad Hoc Advisory Group on Haiti of ECOSOC sent a team to Haiti.

January-March 2007

Following a strengthening of its security mandate, MINUSTAH and the Haitian national police carried out numerous operations against gangs responsible for kidnappings, thefts, rapes and drug trafficking in the slums of Cité Soleil and Martissant. More than 400 people were arrested including gang leaders in both urban and rural areas.

22 December 2006

UN forces and the Haitian police launched a joint operation aimed at fighting gangs in Cité Soleil.

3 December 2006

After several months of delay, municipal and local elections were held.

29 August 2006

National Commission on Disarmament, Dismantlement and Reintegration was created by the government.

25 July 2006

A donors’ conference took place in Port-au-Prince at which the Haitian government was seeking $5 billion to finance government priorities.

June 2006

CARICOM lifted its suspension of Haiti’s membership.

10 June 2006

A new government led by Prime Minister Jacques-Edouard Alexis was formed.

14 May 2006

René Préval was sworn in as president.

21 April 2006

The second round of Haitian parliamentary elections occurred, drawing a turnout below 20 percent.  The vote had been delayed after the first round in February elicited complaints of irregularities.

7 February 2006

After several postponements, Haiti held its general elections. René Préval, former President and ally of Jean-Bertrand Aristide, emerged as the winner of the presidential elections.

7 January 2006

MINUSTAH’s Force Commander, General Urano Bacellar, committed suicide.

Late December 2005

Haiti’s presidential elections were postponed for the fourth time on the grounds that technical difficulties were unresolved and that insecurity was hampering the electoral process.

25 November 2005

The date of the first round of elections was changed to 8 January 2006 and the second round to 15 February 2006.

18 November 2005

The date of the first round of elections was set for 27 December and the second round for 31 January 2006.

November 2005

The Core Group for Haiti met in Port-au-Prince.

20-21 October 2005

An international donors’ conference for Haiti in Brussels reviewed the status of financial pledges made.

18 October 2005

Haiti’s Prime Minister, Gérard Latortue, briefed the Council and said that tremendous challenges remained with regard to the judicial system, the disarmament process and the humanitarian situation.

29 September 2005

More than 70 percent of some 4 million eligible voters had been registered.

22 June 2005

The Council extended the mandate of MINUSTAH until 15 February 2006 and supported a temporary increase of troop levels during the electoral period.

April 2005

A Council mission visited Haiti.

Late 2004

Rising levels of deadly political and gang violence occurred in the capital, Port-au-Prince.

30 April 2004

The Council established MINUSTAH.

17 March 2004

Interim Prime Minister Gérard Latortue formed a transitional government.

29 February 2004

President Jean-Bertrand Aristide was forced into exile. The Council authorised the Multilateral Interim Force to deploy in Haiti at the request of the new interim government.

January – February 2004

Violent uprisings against Jean-Bertrand Aristide took place.

1995 to 2000

There were a number of successive peacekeeping missions until 2000: the UN Mission in Haiti (UNMIH), the UN Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH), the UN Transition Mission in Haiti (UNTMIH) and the UN Civilian Police Mission in Haiti (MIPONUH).

1995

Jean-Bertrand Aristide supporters won parliamentary elections.

October 1994

The Haitian military regime relinquished power. Council-authorised forces landed in Haiti to oversee a transition to civilian government, and Aristide returned.

September 1993

The Council established the first peacekeeping operation in the country, UNMIH.

June 1993

Through resolution 841, the Council imposed sanctions after the Haitian regime rejected an accord facilitating Aristide’s return.

February 1993

The joint UN-OAS International Civilian Mission in Haiti (MICIVIH) was deployed, but due to a lack of Haitian cooperation could not carry out its mandate.

September 1991

Aristide was ousted in a coup led by Brigadier-General Raoul Cédras.

December 1990

Jean-Bertrand Aristide was elected president in an election monitored by the UN and OAS.