Bosnia & Herzegovina
On 6 May, the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, Valentin Inzko, briefed in an open VTC on his latest semi-annual report. A civil society briefer, Irena Hasić, Executive Director of Youth Initiative for Human Rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also briefed the Council. Inzko applauded the tripartite presidency for launching the process on 28 April to implement 14 key priorities for achieving EU membership. However, he expressed concern that some political parties “will soon return to the pre-pandemic status quo” where decision-making at the State level was blocked by parties belong to Republika Srpska’s governing coalition. Hasić explained that filling the gaps in the current educational system is “crucial to offering Bosnia and Herzegovina youth the tools they need to become active and responsible citizens and promoters and drivers of change.”
On 5 November, the Council held its semi-annual debate on Bosnia and Herzegovina. High Representative Valentin Inzko briefed on the latest report of the Office of the High Representative. Selma Korjenić, Head of Programme-Bosnia and Herzegovina for the NGO TRIAL International also briefed, via video teleconference. The Council unanimously adopted resolution 2496 renewing the authorisation of the EU-led multinational stabilisation force (EUFOR ALTHEA) for another year.
On 8 May, the Council held its biannual debate on Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). The High Representative for BiH, Valentin Inzko, briefed and presented the latest report of the Office of the High Representative (S/2019/364). Inzko told the Council that no state-level Council of Ministers or new federal government has been appointed since general elections seven months ago and divisive and destabilising rhetoric persists.
On 6 November, the Council held its semi-annual debate on Bosnia and Herzegovina and unanimously adopted resolution 2443, renewing the authorisation of EUFOR ALTHEA for an additional year (S/PV.8392). High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina Valentin Inzko briefed the Council on his latest report (S/2018/974).
On 8 May, the Security Council held its semi-annual debate on BiH. High Representative for BiH Valentin Inzko presented his office’s latest report. With general elections scheduled for 7 October, and in light of an increase in divisive nationalist rhetoric, the international community must remain united and coordinate its efforts to ensure a stable and prosperous country, Inzko said.
On 7 November, the Council held its semi-annual debate on Bosnia and Herzegovina and unanimously adopted resolution 2384, renewing the authorisation of EUFOR ALTHEA for an additional year (S/PV.8089). Valentin Inzko, the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, briefed on developments (S/2017/922).
In a debate on 18 May, the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), Valentin Inzko, briefed the Council on his latest six-month report on the implementation of the peace agreement, expressing concern about the lack of progress in addressing the need for real reforms.
On 8 November, the Council held its semi-annual debate on Bosnia and Herzegovina and adopted resolution 2315, renewing the authorisation of EUFOR ALTHEA for an additional year. Valentin Inzko, the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, briefed on developments covered in both his 28 October six-month report and an appended 21 October special report.
On 10 November, the Council held a debate on the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina (S/PV.7555) and adopted resolution 2247, renewing the authorisation of the EU-led multinational stabilisation force for a year. Russia, this year’s penholder, wanted to reduce the resolution’s scope to focus on elements directly related to EUFOR. At the debate, High Representative Valentin Inzko briefed on his latest report to the Council (S/2015/841).
On 8 July, the Council held a briefing by Deputy Secretary-General Jan Eliasson and High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein on the 20th anniversary of the Srebrenica genocide. The Council voted on a draft resolution to commemorate the anniversary of the Srebrenica genocide, but it was vetoed by Russia with Angola, China, Nigeria and Venezuela abstaining. The briefing and vote had been scheduled for 7 July but was postponed by a day in an effort to avert a veto.
On 12 May, the Council held its semi-annual debate on Bosnia and Herzegovina. High Representative Valentin Inzko briefed on his office’s latest report. Inzko stressed the country had an opportunity to break the negative political and economic trends with the EU’s recent initiative to activate Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Stabilization and Association Agreement, a precursor to applying for EU membership.
On 11 November, the Council adopted resolution 2183 that renewed the authorisation for the EU-led multinational stabilisation force for a year. Following the adoption, the Council held its semi-annual debate on Bosnia and Herzegovina (S/PV.7308), which included a briefing by High Representative Valentin Inzko on his latest report on the situation in the country (S/2014/777).
The Council held its semi-annual debate on the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) on 15 May. High Representative Valentin Inzko presented his latest report on the implementation of the 1995 Dayton Peace Agreement. Inzko highlighted the February protests which he described as an expression of citizen frustration over the failure of political leaders to address socio-economic problems and rampant corruption. He said that the demonstrations should also be a “wake-up” call to the international community to change its approach to BiH. Inzko also highlighted the forthcoming October general elections.
On 12 November, the Council adopted resolution 2123 reauthorising the EU led multinational stablisation mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina for a year. Valentin Inzko, the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, briefed the Council prior to its debate of his office’s latest report. Inzko said the negative trends of political gridlock continued, which he warned could negatively impact the October 2014 national elections. He also welcomed the Council decision to reauthorise the EU led multinational force, in light of continued separatist rhetoric by political leaders of Republika Srpska.
On 14 May, High Representative Valentin Inzko briefed the Council at its debate on the latest report on implementation of the peace agreement in Bosnia and Herzegovina and other recent developments. He stressed that the country is at a critical juncture, where progress is still attainable but there is also a strong risk of failing to escape a “zero-sum approach” to politics. Critically, national leaders failed to reach an agreement regarding implementation of a European Court of Human Rights ruling affirming the right of minorities outside the three constituent peoples of Bosnia and Herzegovina to stand for political office. This remains a principle obstacle toward further progress on integration with the EU. In addition to Council members, representatives of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and the EU also participated in the discussion.
The ICTY was a subject of discussion in the UN General Assembly on 10 April during a thematic debate on the role of international criminal justice in reconciliation, organised by Assembly President Vuk Jeremić of Serbia. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said the work of the ICTY had helped establish the foundation for an “age of accountability”. In contrast, Nebojša Radmanović, chairman of the presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina, claimed there was a widespread perception among the Bosnian Serb public and Republika Srpska officials that the ICTY discriminates against Serbs and has not been impartial. President Tomislav Nikolić of Serbia, argued the ICTY makes unjust legal decisions under political pressure and based on “untruths” resulting in what Serbs have reportedly termed “Hague justice”. The event was boycotted by many invited speakers and was characterised as “unbalanced” and “inflammatory” by the US, which joined Canada and Jordan in boycotting the debate.
On 27 March, the ICTY convicted Bosnian Serbs Mićo Stanišić and Stojan Župljanin, a former minister and former senior police official respectively of Republika Srpska, for crimes against civilians and sentenced them to 22 years each in prison.
On 28 February, appeals judges at the ICTY overturned the conviction of General Momčilo Perišić for aiding and abetting crimes against civilians in 44 months of attacks on Sarajevo and the killing of more than 7,000 Bosniak men and boys at Srebrenica in 1995.
On 14 November, following the biannual Council debate on Bosnia and Herzegovina the day before, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2074 authorising the the EU-led multinational stabilisation force for a further twelve months. During the debate, the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, Valentin Inzko, said that the country’s political leaders were failing to make progress. He also noted that secessionist rhetoric had intensified considerably in the six months prior, and singled out the Bosnian Serb leadership for criticism. Several Council members likewise condemned the increased divisive political rhetoric. Russia, however, said that Inzko’s report was “again written in alarmist tones.” It suggested that a more balanced interpretation should be given and emphasised that the main task of the international community was to “transfer responsibility for the fate of the country to the Bosnians themselves.”
On 16 November 2012, appeals judges at the ICTY overturned the convictions of Croatian generals Ante Gotovina and Mladen Markač for crimes related to attacks on Serb civilians in the Krajina region of Croatia in 1995.
On 15 May, the Council held a six-monthly debate on the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, briefed the Council on his latest report noting that 2012 has seen several positive developments, including the formation of a Council of Ministers and progress on two of the issues that are considered preconditions for the closure of the Office of the High Representative, but also “less welcome” developments, including the continuation of statements challenging the statehood of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
On 15 November, the Council was briefed by the High Representative for Bosnia and who reported that there was still a need for his office to remain in place, and that given the continued negative trends and political instability, it was essential for EUFOR to remain in place. The Council met again on 16 November and adopted resolution 2019 authorising a one year extension of EUFOR’s mandate. On 3 November, the Council received a report on the implementation of the peace agreement on Bosnia and Herzegovina.
On 9 May the High Representative briefed the Council on the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. He said that with political parties employing zero-sum politics, state-level legislative processes were at a standstill and the country is facing the most serious and most direct challenges to the Dayton-Paris Peace Agreement since it was signed over 15 years ago.
On 18 November the Council adopted resolution 1948, reauthorising the EU force for another year. On 11 November the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina had briefed the Security Council. While praising Bosnia and Herzegovina for the recent completion of general elections, he continued to urge the country to put an end to internal disagreements and divisive rhetoric.
At the Council Summit on 23 September, speaking on behalf of Bosnia and Herzegovina the Chair of the Bosnia and Herzegovina Presidency, accused the Bosnian Serbs of genocide in Srebrenica.
The High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina briefed the Security Council on 24 May, noting progress in addressing the membership action plan to join NATO; EU visa liberalisation; and positive attempts at regional reconciliation.
On 23 November, in a briefing to the Council on his latest report the High Representative noted that there had been persistent political problems and lack of progress, even regression, on key issues. The objective relating to completion of the Brcko Final Award had been met only partially. On 18 November the Council reauthorised the EUFOR for another 12 months in resolution 1895.
On 15 October Bosnia and Herzegovina was elected member of the Security Council for a two-year term beginning in 2010.
The High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina briefed the Council on 28 May saying that of the five objectives and two conditions set by the PIC for the transition of the Office of the High Representative to an office of the EU Special Representative, three objectives had been met (completion of the Brcko Final Award, fiscal sustainability and entrenchment of the rule of law).
On 25 March the Council adopted resolution 1869 welcoming and agreeing to the designation of Valentin Inzko as High Representative of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the PIC Steering Board.
The High Representative and EU Special Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina presented his third report to the Council on 5 December and expressed concern that while there were some encouraging signs, “negative and nationalist” rhetoric threatened to slow down Bosnia and Herzegovina’s path towards Euro-Atlantic integration. The Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina, presented a different assessment and provided reasons for why he felt 2008 had been a successful year for Bosnia and Herzegovina.
On 20 November, the Council adopted resolution 1845 reauthorising EUFOR until 20 November 2009.
On 16 June, Bosnia and Herzegovina signed the EU Stabilisation and Association Agreement (SAA).
On 19 May, the High Representative for the Implementation of the Peace Agreement in Bosnia-Herzegovina briefed the Council on his latest report. He said that although important progress had been made, the international community’s job there was not finished. He informed the Council that the Peace Implementation Council Steering Board had agreed on a set of five objectives and two conditions that needed to be met before the Office of the High Representative could close.
The ICJ ruled that there was not enough evidence to prove Serbia bore state responsibility for genocide during the Bosnian war, but that genocide occurred at Srebrenica where thousands were killed by the Bosnian Serb army.
Follow-on mission to EU Police Mission was launched for two years on 1 January.
European Forces in Bosnia Herzegovina (EUFOR) was launched on 2 December.
On 1 January, The EU Police Mission took over from the UN Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (UNMIBH) which was terminated on 31 December 2002.
On 21 December the UN Stabilisation Force (SFOR) succeeded IFOR.
The Council established the UN International Police Task Force and the UN Mission in Bosnia Herzegovina (UNMIBH) on 21 December. On 20 December, UNPROFOR withdrew, and the NATO-led Implementation Force (IFOR) was deployed. The Dayton Accords were signed on 14 December.
General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina with its annexes was agreed in the US city of Dayton on 21 November.
Fighting in Bosnia and Herzegovina ended on 11 October.
Srebrenica massacre took place.
The Council established the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) through resolution 743.
25 May 1993
The Council established the ICTY.
War broke out in the former Yugoslavia.