On 20 August, Council members held a briefing and consultations on Somalia (S/PV.8755). James Swan, Special Representative and head of UNSOM, and Francisco Madeira, AU Special Representative, briefed. Council members reacted to recent political turmoil in Somalia surrounding electoral delays. Council members called for cooperation and compromise, but seemed divided on whether to support a one-person-one-vote electoral model or a compromise model. Council members also condemned Al-Shabaab’s deadly attacks, which have increased in recent weeks. On 28 August, the Council adopted resolution 2540, renewing UNSOM’s mandate for 12 months until 31 August 2021.
On 9 June, Ambassador Marc Pecsteen de Buytswerve (Belgium), chair of the 751 Somalia Sanctions Committee, briefed Council members in an open VTC on the committee’s activities from 28 February to 9 June (S/2020/529). He highlighted al-Shabaab’s increased use of improvised explosive devices in Somalia and their devastating effect. On 22 June, Council members renewed the mandate of UNSOM until 31 August 2020 through a technical rollover (S/2020/573). Resolution 2527 passed unanimously through the Council’s provisional 24-hour voting period.
The Council was initially set to renew the mandate of UNSOM on 25 March. Due to the difficulty of holding physical meetings, given measures taken to prevent the spread of COVID-19, members agreed on a technical rollover of the mandate. On 30 March the Council adopted resolution 2516 renewing the mandate until 30 June.
On 24 February, the Council was briefed on the situation in Somalia by James Swan, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of UNSOM; Francisco Caetano José Madeira, Special Representative of the Chairperson of the AU Commission for Somalia and head of AMISOM; and Dan Smith, Director of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Speakers stressed the numerous 2020 priorities, especially the elections, and the need for support from the international community, and urged bold action by Somali stakeholders. On 27 February, Ambassador Marc Pecsteen de Buytswerve (Belgium), chair of the 751 Somalia Sanctions Committee, briefed the Council on his recent visit to the region.
On 4 December, the Council adopted resolution 2500, renewing the counter-piracy measures off the coast of Somalia for 12 months.
On 21 August, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of UNSOM James Swan briefed the Council on the latest UNSOM report. Head of the AU Mission in Somalia Francisco Madeira, Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict Pramila Patten, and Executive Director of the Somali Women Development Centre Amina Arale also briefed.
On 26 June, the chair of the 751 Somalia Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Marc Pecsteen de Buytswerve (Belgium), briefed the Council in consultations.
On 1 March, Council members issued a press statement, condemning the terrorist attacks of 28 February along the Mukkah Almukaramah road in Mogadishu, which killed and injured innocent Somalis. On 27 March, the Council renewed the mandate of UNSOM until 31 March 2020.
On 1 February, the 751 Somalia Sanctions Committee met with its Panel of Experts to discuss their programme of work for the year. On 7 February, Under-Secretary-General for Political and Peacebuilding Affairs Rosemary DiCarlo briefed Council members on her 30-31 January visit to Somalia.
On 3 January, Special Representative and head of UNSOM Nicholas Haysom briefed the Council on the latest Secretary-General’s report on Somalia. Francisco Madeira, Special Representative of the Chairperson of the AU Commission for Somalia and head of the AU Mission in Somalia, also briefed. On 5 January, Council members issued a press statement expressing their regret at Somalia’s decision to declare Haysom persona non grata. On 16 January, Council members issued a press statement condemning a terrorist attack in Nairobi the previous day and paid tribute to Kenya’s role in the fight against terrorism, particularly its role in AMISOM, fighting against Al-Shabaab.
On 6 November, the Council adopted resolution 2442, renewing for 12 months authorisations allowing international naval forces to fight piracy in the waters off the coast of Somalia (S/PV.8391). On 10 November, Council members issued a press statement condemning a terrorist attack in Mogadishu the day before resulting in several civilian casualties (SC/13572). On 14 November, the Council adopted resolution 2444, lifting sanctions on Eritrea and extending various elements of the Somalia sanctions regime until 15 November 2019 (S/PV.8398).
On 20 July, Special Representative and head of UNSOM Michael Keating briefed the 751/1907 Somalia and Eritrea Sanctions Committee. On 23 July, Ambassador Tekeda Alemu (Ethipoia) updated Council members on the recent developments in the relationship between Ethiopia and Somalia under “any other business”. On 30 July, the Council adopted resolution 2431, renewing the mandate of AMISOM. The chair of the 751/1907 Somalia and Eritrea Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Kairat Umarov (Kazakhstan), briefed the Council on 30 July, followed by consultations (S/PV.8321).
On 15 May, the Council adopted resolution 2415, extending the mandate of AMISOM until 31 July (S/PV.8257). On the same day, Special Representative and head of UNSOM Michael Keating briefed the Council on the latest report of the Secretary-General on Somalia (S/2018/411). The head of AMISOM, Francisco Madeira, also briefed (S/PV.8259).
On 13 March, the chair of the 751/1907 Somalia and Eritrea Sanctions Committee, Kairat Umarov (Kazakhstan), delivered his regular 120-day briefing to Council members in consultations. On 27 March, the Council adopted resolution 2408, renewing the mandate of UNSOM for an additional year.
On 24 January, Special Representative of the Secretary-General Michael Keating and Special Representative of the Chairperson of the AU Commission Francisco Madeira briefed the Council on the situation in Somalia and the 26 December 2017 report of the Secretary-General. On 25 January, Council members issued a press statement that welcomed Somalia’s political commitment to the security sector, economic and political reforms and the progress made to date, and in which the members of the Security Council agreed that all parties should make 2018 a year of implementation.
On 7 November, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2383, which renewed counter-piracy measures off the coast of Somalia (S/PV.8088). On 14 November, the Council adopted resolution 2385, on Somalia and Eritrea sanctions with 11 affirmative votes and four abstentions (Bolivia, China, Egypt and Russia) (S/PV.8099).
In October the Council received the final reports of the Somalia and Eritrea Monitoring Group (SEMG), which were discussed in a meeting of the Somalia and Eritrea Sanctions Committee on 13 October. The report on Somalia noted a troubling trend toward the increased use of improvised explosive devices and other homemade explosives by Al-Shabaab, and it addresses the group’s financing through agricultural activities. The report also notes that the illicit sale of charcoal by Al-Shabaab has continued in the last year at a magnitude similar to the previous year. It is estimated that the group made $10 million last year through charcoal sales, mostly to Gulf Arab countries, which, according to the report, have offered varying degrees of cooperation with the SEMG. The report also addresses the rise of piracy incidents off the coast of Somalia and the activities of ISIL in Puntland. Concerning weapons and ammunition management, the report highlights concerns that compliance with reporting on arms shipments to regional administrations needs to improve, and that the regulations need to be clarified with regional administrations. On Eritrea, the report states that for the fourth year in a row, the SEMG has found no conclusive evidence of support by Eritrea to Al-Shabaab. It reports, however, that the Eritrean government, which has not allowed the group to visit the country since 2012, continues to block the group from visiting. On 12 October, the Secretary-General transmitted his report on the situation with respect to piracy and armed robbery off the coast of Somalia. The report found that a slight increase in piracy activities between March and June 2017 pointed to the root causes not being fully addressed.
On 13 September, the Council received a briefing on Somalia from Special Representative and head of UNSOM, Michael Keating, on the Secretary-General’s 5 September report on Somalia and from Special Representative of the AU Commission Chairperson for Somalia and head of AMISOM, Francisco Caetano José Madeira. Both Keating and Madeira briefed via video teleconference.
On 9 August, the Council adopted a presidential statement expressing its grave concern about the threat of famine presently facing more than 20 million people in Yemen, Somalia, South Sudan, and north-east Nigeria. The statement was negotiated following the Council’s 16 June Arria-formula meeting on the risk of famine in these four conflict-affected countries. The statement requested the Secretary-General to provide an oral briefing during the month of October on country-specific impediments to an effective response to the risk of famine in Yemen, South Sudan, Somalia, and north-east Nigeria, and to make specific recommendations on how to address these impediments. On 30 August, the Council adopted resolution 2372, which renewed the authorisation of AMISOM. It also authorised a reduction of AMISOM personnel by 31 December to a maximum of 21,626 (a reduction of 500 uniformed personnel).
On 24 July, the Chair of the 751/1907 Somalia and Eritrea Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Kairat Umarov (Kazakhstan), delivered his 120-day briefing to Council members in consultations, covering the period from April to July 2017.
On 14 June, the Council adopted a resolution renewing the mandate of UNSOM until 31 March 2018. On 16 June, Council members held an Arria-formula open meeting on the risk of famine in the conflict-affected areas of north-east Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan and Yemen, which was chaired by the African members of the Council—Egypt, Ethiopia and Senegal. On 22 June, Council members held an Arria-formula meeting on “preventing terrorism and violent extremism in the Horn of Africa: Enhancing partnership for regional efforts,” which was chaired by Ethiopia and Italy with IGAD and UNODC. On 15 June, The members of the Council issued a press statement (SC/12874), which condemned in the strongest terms the terrorist attack that targeted civilians in Mogadishu and killed several people.
On 26 May, the Council adopted resolution 2355, which rolled over the mandate of AMISOM until 31 August to allow Council members time to consider the forthcoming recommendations of the joint AU-UN review of the mission, which is expected to be received in July. On 17 May, Deputy Special Representative Raisedon Zenenga and AU Special Representative for Somalia Francisco Madeira briefed the Council on the situation in Somalia. Also that day, Council members met in consultations to begin the review of sanctions measures on Eritrea requested by resolution 2317.
On 13 April, the Chair of the 751/1907 Somalia and Eritrea Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Kairat Umarov (Kazakhstan), briefed the Council on the work of the Somalia Eritrea Monitoring Group over the past four months. The Somalia and Eritrea Sanctions Committee met on 21 April to receive the midterm report of the Monitoring Group.
On 23 March, the Security Council held a high-level meeting on the situation in Somalia. UK Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson chaired the meeting, while Special Representative Michael Keating, AU Special Representative for Somalia Francisco Madeira, and newly-elected Somali President Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed “Farmajo” briefed. That day the Council adopted resolution 2346, which extended UNSOM’s mandate until 16 June 2017.
On 27 January, Special Representative of the Secretary-General Michael Keating briefed the Council on the latest Secretary-General’s report on Somalia and the activities of UNSOM, while AU’s Special Representative to Somalia Francisco Madeira briefed on AMISOM. Asha Gelle Dirie, the Chair of Goodwill Ambassadors for the 30 percent reserved seats for women in the Somali elections, also addressed the Council. On 20 January, the 751/1907 Somalia and Eritrea Sanctions Committee met with members of the newly appointed Monitoring Group assisting the Committee.
On 8 November, Council members met for a briefing by the Chair of the 751/1907 Somalia and Eritrea Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Rafael Darío Ramírez Carreño (Venezuela), on the final reports of the Somalia and Eritrea Monitoring Group (S/2016/919 and S/2016/920). On 9 November, the Council adopted resolution 2316 reauthorising Somalia anti-piracy measures. On 10 November, the Council adopted resolution 2317 on Somalia and Eritrea sanctions with ten votes in favour. Angola, China, Egypt, Russia and Venezuela had hoped to include a request for the SEMG to report within 120 days on recommendations for lifting sanctions measures imposed on Eritrea; however, this proposal was rejected and the five countries abstained.
On 10 October, the 751/1907 Somalia and Eritrea Sanctions Committee met in informal consultations.
On 27 September, Special Representative Michael Keating briefed the Council on the latest report of the Secretary-General on Somalia. A representative from the AU also briefed on the activities of AMISOM. On 28 September, the Council issued a press statement that expressed regret at the 26 September announcement by the Federal Indirect Election Implementation Team that the timetable for the 2016 electoral process required a further extension.
On 7 July, the Council adopted resolution 2297, which extended AMISOM’s authorisation until 31 May 2017 with no major changes. On 20 July, the Chair of the 751/1907 Somalia-Eritrea Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Rafael Darío Ramírez Carreño (Venezuela), briefed in closed consultations on the regular 120-day update on the work of the Committee.
On 23 May, Council members issued a press statement that welcomed the electoral process set out in the decree issued by President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud on 22 May 2016, which they noted should enable necessary technical preparation and implementation without further delay. On 27 May, the Council adopted resolution 2289 authorising a short technical rollover of AMISOM until 8 July. This short rollover will allow Council members time to assess the results of their 17-22 May Somalia-focused visiting mission to the Horn of Africa and the possible implications for the AMISOM mandate.
The Council adopted resolution 2275 on 24 March, extending the mandate of UNSOM. The resolution emphasises the importance of UNSOM’s support to the political process, particularly support to the government for the completion of the state formation and constitutional review processes, as well as for preparation of the electoral process.
On 18 February, the chair of the 751/1907 Somalia/Eritrea Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Rafael Darío Ramírez Carreño (Venezuela), briefed the Council on the work of the Committee. In the past, briefings on the work of the Committee have always taken place in consultations, but at the initiative of Venezuela, which has held the chairmanship since 1 January 2015, the briefing was held in public for the first time. The Committee had not met since 9 October 2015, when it discussed the final reports of its Monitoring Group under resolution 2244 (S/2015/801 and S/2015/802). In the February briefing, Ramírez focused on the Monitoring Group’s findings and also said that the Committee was considering a draft implementation note on the arms embargo, with publication expected in March.
In a 15 January press statement, Council members condemned the attack by Al-Shaabab against the AU Mission in Somalia (AMISOM). In a 22 January press statement, they condemned another Al-Shabaab attack in Mogadishu in which at least 14 people were reported to have been killed. On 28 January the new head of UNSOM, Michael Keating, and the new head of AMISOM, Francisco Caetano José Madeira, briefed the Council via video teleconference. Keating presented the latest Secretary-General’s report on Somalia. On 28 January, Council members issued a press statement welcoming the agreement on an electoral model announced on 27 January while stressing the importance of further progress in the electoral, federal and constitutional review processes and also condemning recent attacks by the Islamist rebel group Al-Shabaab. In addition, Somalia was briefly discussed at a meeting held in Addis Ababa with the AU on 23 January during the Council’s 21-23 January visiting mission to Africa.
On 1 November, Council members issued a press statement condemning Al-Shabaab’s attack in Mogadishu (SC/12103). On 9 November, the Council held a ministerial-level briefing on Somalia, presided over by UK Foreign Minister Philip Hammond. Special Representative Nicholas Kay presented the Secretary-General’s report on UNSOM (S/2015/702). Chef de Cabinet of the Secretary-General Susana Malcorra, Permanent Observer of the AU to the UN Tété Antonio and the Somali prime minister also addressed the Council. Preceding the briefing, the Council adoptedresolution 2245 regarding the successor to the UN Support Office for AMISOM, the UN Support Office in Somalia. On 10 November, the Council adopted resolution 2246, renewing counter-piracy measures for Somalia after considering the Secretary-General’s report on piracy off the coast of Somalia (S/2015/776).
On 9 October, the 751/1907 Somalia-Eritrea Sanctions Committee held informal consultations to discuss the Monitoring Group’s final reports on Somalia (S/2015/801) and Eritrea (S/2015/802). On 14 October, Under-Secretary-General for Field Support Atul Khare briefed the Council on the Secretary-General’s letter of 7 October concerning the strategic review of the UN Support Office for the AU Mission in Somalia and a possible extension of the support package for the Somali National Army to Puntland troops and Somali police. On 23 October, the Council adopted resolution 2244, which renewed the partial lifting of the arms embargo, maritime interdiction of illegal arms imports and illicit charcoal exports, the humanitarian exemption and the mandate of the Monitoring Group. Venezuela abstained, objecting to the conduct of negotiations by the penholder and certain provisions in the resolution on Eritrea (S/PV.7541).
On 2 September, the Council issued a press statement condemning the 1 September Al-Shabaab attack on an AMISOM base in Janaale. On 18 September, the 751/1907 Somalia-Eritrea Sanctions Committee held informal consultations. The meeting concerned the annual report of the Emergency Relief Coordinator regarding the humanitarian exemption to Somalia sanctions. On 28 September, a high-level meeting on Somalia was held in New York, co-chaired by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, AU Commission Chairperson Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma, Organization of Islamic Cooperation Secretary-General Iyad Ameen Madani, and Secretary-General of the League of Arab States Nabil Elaraby. The high-level meeting issued a communiqué.
On 16 July, Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Edmond Mulet briefed the Council regarding the Secretary-General’s 2 July letter transmitting the 30 June joint AU-UN report regarding benchmarks for AMISOM and security strategy. Ambassador Awale Ali Kullane (Somalia) also participated. The briefing was followed by consultations with Mulet and Ambassador Rafael Ramírez (Venezuela), chair of the 751/1907 Somalia-Eritrea Sanctions Committee. On 27 July, Council members issued a press statement condemning Al-Shabaab’s attack on the Jazeera Hotel in Mogadishu (SC/11981). On 28 July, the Council adopted resolution 2232 extending the mandate of UNSOM until 30 March 2016 and reauthorising AMISOM through 30 May 2016.
On 8 June, Council members held an informal interactive dialogue with Nicholas Kay, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of UNSOM, and Maman Sidikou, Special Representative of the Chairperson of the AU Commission and head of AMISOM. Under-Secretary-General for Field Support Atul Khare also participated in the meeting. The meeting focused on the findings and recommendations of an upcoming AU-UN report on AMISOM, including with respect to the potential implications for UNSOM’s mandate. On 25 June and 27 June, Council members issued press statements condemning Al-Shabaab attacks on a humanitarian convoy (SC/11945) and an AMISOM base camp (SC/11949).
On 19 May, Special Representative and head of UNSOM Nicholas Kay and Special Representative of the AU for Somalia and head of AMISOM Maman Sidikou briefed the Council via video teleconference from Addis Ababa. Kay presented the most recent UNSOM report. On 26 May, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2221, renewing the mandate of UNSOM until 7 August. The brief mandate renewal—for a period of just over ten weeks—will enable Council members to consider an upcoming joint AU-UN report on AMISOM, particularly the provisions related to UNSOM’s mandate.
On 3 April, the Council condemned an attack by Al-Shabaab on the Central Hotel in Mogadishu. On 8 April, the 751/1907 Somalia-Eritrea Sanctions Committee met in informal consultations to consider the mid-term report of the Monitoring Group. On 15 April, the Council condemned the Al-Shabaab attack on the Ministry of Higher Education in Mogadishu. On 20 April, the Council condemned the attack by Al-Shabaab on a UNICEF vehicle in Garowe.
On 28 March, the members of the Security Council issued a press statement strongly condemning the attack by Al-Shabaab on a hotel in Mogadishu the previous day, which resulted in the deaths of numerous Somalis (SC/11844). The members of the Council expressed their deep sympathy and condolences to the families of the victims, who included Somalia’s ambassador to the UN in Geneva, Yusuf Bari-Bari.
On 4 February, the Council was briefed by Special Representative Nicholas Kay, the head of UNSOM, on the latest report of the Secretary-General (S/2015/51) (S/PV.7375). Maman Sidikou, Special Representative of the Chairperson of the AU Commission for Somalia and head of AMISOM, briefed the Council via video teleconference from Mogadishu. The briefing was followed by consultations with Kay. Council members issued three press statements during the month. The 5 February statement expressed concern at the ongoing political crisis in Somalia, particularly delays in the formation of a government. On 10 February, Council members welcomed the approval of the cabinet by the federal parliament of Somalia. On 20 February, Council members strongly condemned the terrorist attack by Al-Shabaab on the Central Hotel in Mogadishu, which caused the death of dozens of people, including members of government. Council members held consultations on 26 February with Ambassador Rafael Darío Ramírez Carreño (Venezuela), chair of the 751/1907 Somalia-Eritrea Sanctions Committee. They discussed recommendations due on 27 February from the Monitoring Group regarding exemptions to the arms embargo for commercial ships in Somali ports.
On 3 December 2014, Council members issued a press statement condemning the attack on a UN convoy in Mogadishu by Al-Shabaab (SC/11681). On 10 December, Council members issued a press statement taking note of the no-confidence vote in the Prime Minister of the Federal Government of Somalia and welcoming the resolution of the crisis through proper parliamentary channels (SC/11691). On 26 December, Council members issued a press statement condemning the attack on 25 December against the AMISOM Halane Base Camp, perpetrated by Al Shabaab, which has caused numerous deaths including of three AMISOM soldiers and a civilian contractor (SC/11721).
On 12 November, the Council adopted resolution 2184 renewing for one year measures to fight piracy and armed robbery at sea off the coast of Somalia. The counter-piracy measures have been renewed on an annual basis since they were initially authorised in resolutions 1846 and 1851. On 24 November, Council members issued a press statement condemning the 22 November attack in Kenya for which Al‑Shabaab has claimed responsibility and paid tribute to the role of Kenya in AMISOM as part of the fight against Al‑Shabaab (SC/11668).
On 14 October, the Special Representative and head of the UN Assistance Mission in Somalia, Nicholas Kay, and the AU Special Representative for Somalia and head of AMISOM, Maman Sidikou, briefed the Council via video teleconference. On 15 October, Ambassador Oh Joon (Republic of Korea), chair of the 751/1907 Somalia-Eritrea Sanctions Committee, briefed Council members in consultations about sanctions developments during the most recent 120-day period and the final reports of the Somalia and Eritrea Monitoring Group. Under “any other business” on 22 October, Emergency Relief Coordinator Valerie Amos briefed Council members in consultations on the deteriorating humanitarian situation in Somalia. On 22 October, Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs Jeffrey Feltman briefed the Council on the latest Secretary-General’s report on piracy and armed robbery off the coast of Somalia and other recent developments. On 24 October, the Council adopted resolution 2182 reauthorising AMISOM for one year. The resolution also included several sanctions-related measures: authorising naval deployments to interdict charcoal exports and arms imports violating the 751/1907 Somalia-Eritrea sanctions regime, reauthorising the mandate of the Somalia and Eritrea Monitoring Group, reauthorising the humanitarian exemption, and reauthorising a partial lifting of the arms embargo for Somali government security forces.
On 23 and 24 September, the 751/1907 Somalia-Eritrea Sanctions Committee added two names to the consolidated 1844 sanctions list (resolution 1844 imposed targeted sanctions in the form of a travel ban, asset freeze and targeted arms embargo). The first person added, Maalim Salman, is the head of foreign fighters for Al-Shabaab. The second person added was Ahmed Diriye (aka Sheikh Ahmed Umar Abu Ubaidah) and is the new head of Al-Shabaab following the death of Godane.
On 3 July, Council members issued a press statement condemning the assassination of parliamentarian Ahmed Mohamud Hayd. On 11 July, Ambassador Oh Joon (Republic of Korea), chair of the 751/1907 Somalia-Eritrea Sanctions Committee, briefed Council members in consultations. Among other issues, the discussion focused on implementation of the ban on charcoal exports from Somalia. Council members also received a briefing via video teleconference from Nicholas Kay, Special Representative and head of the UN Assistance Mission in Somalia, regarding the security situation in Mogadishu. Following the meeting, Council members issued a press statement condemning recent attacks by Al-Shabaab on Villa Somalia, the parliament building and members of parliament.
On 4 June, Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator Valerie Amos briefed Council members in consultations regarding the critical humanitarian situation in Somalia. Poor weather, conflict-related factors and a lack of funding for humanitarian assistance have caused early-warning indicators of an impending famine similar to three years ago. On 6 June, members of the Security Council and the AU Peace and Security Council (PSC) issued a joint communiqué following their eighth annual consultative meeting which highlighted the need for the FGS to adhere to the terms of the partial lifting of the arms embargo, such as reporting obligations (S/2014/400).
On 4 May, Council members issued a press statement condemning a terrorist attack by Al-Shabaab in Mogadishu. Nicholas Kay, Special Representative and head of UNSOM, briefed the Council on 22 May on the latest UNSOM report, followed by consultations. A presidential statement regarding arms and ammunition management by the Federal Government of Somalia was also adopted on 22 May. On 24 May Council members issued a press statement condemning the attack on parliament by Al-Shabaab, which caused numerous deaths and injuries. On 29 May, the Council adopted resolution 2158 renewing the mandate of UNSOM for one year.
Concerned about the vulnerability of the mission, the Secretary-General sent a letter to the President of the Council on 1 April, providing information on the establishment of a UN guard unit to provide the security needed for UNSOM to carry out its work (S/2014/239). The Council issued a press statement after two staff members of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime were killed on 7 April in Galkayo, Puntland (SC/11348). On 23 April, Council members held an informal interactive dialogue with Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of the UN Assistance Mission in Somalia Nicholas Kay, AU Special Representative for Somalia Mahamat Saleh Annadif and National Security Advisor Abdirahman Sheikh Issa. The meeting principally focused on the joint AMISOM and SNA military offensives against Al-Shabaab, including issues such as the stabilisation of captured territory, command and control within AMISOM, the integration of militias into the SNA and the need for equipment.
On 5 March, the Council adopted resolution 2142 extending the partial lifting of the arms embargo on Somalia until 25 October 2014. Resolution 2142 reauthorises measures (first authorised in resolution 2093 and then reiterated in resolution 2111) allowing the delivery of small arms and ammunition and the provision of assistance and training to the security forces of the Federal Government of Somalia. On 11 March, the Council was briefed via video-teleconference by Nicholas Kay, Special Representative and head of UNSOM and the Secretary-General’s report. Ambassador Elmi Ahmed Duale (Somalia) also addressed the Council. Following the briefing, Council members held consultations with Kay and Ambassador Oh Joon (Republic of Korea), chair of the 751/1907 Somalia-Eritrea Sanctions Committee, regarding UNSOM and sanctions respectively. On 19 March, the Council issued a press statement condemning an attack by Al-Shabaab in Bula Burde, which caused numerous deaths and injuries to civilians as well as troops from the Somali National Army and the AU Mission in Somalia.
The Council issued press statements condemning terrorist attacks (SC/11277 and SC/11291), one on 13 February targeting a UN convoy near the airport in Mogadishu, killing at least seven people (none of the casualties were UN staff and one on 21 February against Villa Somalia, the presidential palace, in which two senior government officials, one SNSF soldier and nine attackers were killed.
On 2 January, the Council issued a press statement condemning the terrorist attacks on 1 January in Mogadishu by Al-Shabaab. The Council also reiterated its resolve to continue supporting efforts by the AU Mission in Somalia and the Somali National Security Forces to reduce the threat posed by Al-Shabaab.
On 10 December, Special Representative Nicholas Kay briefed the Council on the most recent UNSOM report. In addition to discussing immediate security issues in Somalia, Kay emphasised some of the long-term challenges facing the country, including the need for national reconciliation, creating a system of federal states, revising the constitution and holding national elections. Council members held consultations with Kay following the briefing.
On 8 November, the rebel group Al-Shabaab exploded a car bomb in Mogadishu, killing at least six people (including four policemen) and injuring 15 others. The Council issued a press statement the next day condemning the attack. On 12 November, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2124, which extended the authorisation of AMISOM until 31 October 2014 and increased its troop ceiling. On 18 November, the Council also unanimously adopted resolution 2125, which reauthorised anti-piracy measures in Somalia and its territorial waters for another year. On 26 November, Council members held consultations with the chair of the 751/1907 Somalia/Eritrea Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Oh Joon (Republic of Korea).
On 30 October, Deputy Secretary-General Jan Eliasson briefed the Council on the joint AU-UN assessment mission of AMISOM and benchmarks for a UN peacekeeping operation. He also briefed on the the 21 October report on anti-piracy measures in Somalia.
On 12 September, the Council was briefed by Special Representative and head of UNSOM Nicholas Kay and Special Representative of the AU and head of AMISOM Mahamat Salah Annadif. The briefing discussed the first report of the Secretary-General on UNSOM and was followed by consultations. Council members issued a press statement on 13 September expressing support for the recent agreement between the Federal Government of Somalia and Jubba leader Ahmed Madobe. On 21 September, Council members issued a press statement condemning an Al-Shabaab terrorist attack on a shopping mall in Nairobi, Kenya. Al-Shabaab stated the attack in Nairobi is in retribution for Kenya’s involvement in AMISOM.
On 24 July, the Council adopted resolution 2111 reauthorising the mandate of the Somalia and Eritrea Monitoring Group until 25 November 2014. Resolution 2111 also renewed the humanitarian exemption in Somalia until 25 October 2014, reminded the Government of Somalia regarding its reporting obligations for arms imports, added UNSOM and the EU Training Mission in Somalia to the list of entities exempted from the arms embargo, expressed concern about continued violations of the charcoal export ban, and covered issues of mismanagement of public finances and corruption. Previously, Ambassador Kim Sook (Republic of Korea), chair of the 751/1907 Somalia and Eritrea Sanctions Committee, addressed Council members in consultations on 18 July. The Monitoring Group’s report on Somalia and the report of the Emergency Relief Coordinator were transmitted to the Council on 12 July, while the Monitoring Group’s report on Eritrea was not transmitted to the Council until 24 July (after an objection by Russia had delayed its publication). Council members also received the latest AMISOM report on 21 June, though it was not discussed in any of the Somalia-related meetings in June. The Council issued a press statement on 29 July condemning the suicide car bomb attack against the Turkish embassy in Mogadishu.
On 6 June, Deputy Secretary-General Jan Eliasson briefed the Council on the Secretary-General’s latest report on Somalia. Somali Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs Fowsiyo Yusuf Haji Adan addressed the Council as did Ambassador Tekeda Alemu (Ethiopia) on behalf of IGAD. After the briefing, the Council adopted a presidential statement welcoming the international conference on Somalia held in London on 7 May and the deployment of UNSOM on 3 June. On 13 June, Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs Tayé-Brook Zerihoun briefed Council members in consultations under “any other business” regarding the situation in the Juba regions of Somalia. The Council issued a press statement welcoming the commitment of the government to take the lead in reconciliation and supporting the offer of assistance made by IGAD. On 19 June, the Council issued a press statement condemning the attack on a UN compound in Mogadishu.
On 2 May, the Council adopted resolution 2102, creating the UN Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM) to be deployed as of 3 June for an initial period of one year. UNSOM’s mandate has five components: “good offices” functions; providing advice to the government and the AU Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) on peacebuilding and statebuilding; assisting the government with donor coordination; capacity-building in the areas of human rights and protection of civilians; and human rights monitoring and reporting. On 7 May, the UK hosted an international conference on Somalia in London.
On 15 April, the Security Council issued a press statement condemning a terrorist attack in Mogadishu for which Al Shabaab claimed responsibility. On 25 April, the Department of Political Affairs briefed the Council on the findings of a technical assessment mission that visited Somalia, Nairobi and Addis Ababa from 17-29 March to consult on the setting up of a new UN political mission in Somalia. Also on 25 April, Nicholas Kay (UK) was appointed as the new Special Representative for Somalia.
On 6 March, the Council adopted resolution 2093 extending the authorisation of AMISOM until 28 February 2014 while specifying that its mandate includes the provision of assistance to the government in extending state authority in areas recovered from the Islamist rebel group Al-Shabaab. The Council also authorised a partial lifting of the arms embargo for a period of 12 months for weapons and training solely intended for the Somali National Security Forces. It asked the Secretary-General to deploy a technical assistance mission prior to formally mandating a new political mission to be deployed by 3 June. On 12 March, Ambassador Kim Sook (Republic of Korea), chair of the 751/1907 Sanctions Committee on Somalia and Eritrea, briefed Council members in consultations on the work of the Committee.
On 14 February, the Council was briefed by Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs Tayé Brook Zerihoun on the Secretary-General’s 31 January report on recommendations for the future UN presence in Somalia. Zerihoun also addressed Somalia’s request for lifting the arms embargo. Somali Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Fauzia Yusuf Haji Adan also spoke. On 15 February, the Monitoring Group presented its mid-term briefing to the Sanctions Committee. It confirmed, reportedly for the first time, that there was a link between Al-Shabaab and piracy activities.
On 18 January, Leila Zerrougui, the Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict, expressed deep concern about the killing of several children during military operations conducted by AMISOM near the southern town of Leggo on 15 January and urged the AU to further strengthen its efforts to minimise child casualties in its operations. AMISOM said it would conduct an investigation.
On 7 November, the Council renewed AMISOM for another four months and expanded the UN logistical support package for the mission to include funding for an additional 50 civilian personnel. While the adoption was unanimous, several Council members gave explanations of vote, expressing disappointment that the resolution did not fully address issues of concern to them. (The UK, as the penholder, decided after protracted negotiations to withdraw an earlier, more comprehensive draft, replacing it with the much shorter text.) On 8 November, the Chair of the Sanctions Committee for Somalia and Eritrea, Ambassador Hardeep Singh Puri (India), briefed Council members in informal consultations. The Committee met on 13 November to receive a briefing by the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs on the latest report from the Humanitarian Coordinator for Somalia on implementation of relevant provisions of resolution 2060. Also on 13 November, the Council President informed the Secretary-General that Council members agreed to his request for an extension from 31 December until 31 January of the deadline set by the Council for him to report on the conclusions of the strategic review process for Somalia (S/2012/827 and S/2012/828 contain the exchange of letters). On 21 November, the Council renewed for 12 months the authorisation, in place since 2008, for international counter-piracy action to be carried out within Somali territorial waters and on land in Somalia. In explanations of vote following the adoption, South Africa and Togo called for a more thorough investigation of allegations of illegal fishing and dumping of toxic waste in the waters off the coast of Somalia.
On 16 October, the Council held a debate on Somalia featuring a briefing by Special Representative Augustine Mahiga, who stressed the importance of taking into account the views of the new Somali authorities with regard to the ongoing strategic review of the future UN presence in Somalia. (On 17 October, the Somali parliament endorsed Abdi Farah Shirdon Saaid as Prime Minister.) On 31 October, the Council adopted resolution 2072, a week-long technical rollover of the AMISOM authorisation.
On 10 September, Hassan Sheikh Mohamud was elected president of Somalia. This election was the final step required for the completion of the transitional period in Somalia, which was supposed to end on 20 August. On 18 September the Council adopted resolution 2067 to welcome the end of the transition and lay out the Council’s expectations for the next phase in Somalia. On 21 September, Council members issued a press statement condemning the 20 September suicide bombing in Mogadishu. On 26 September, the Secretary-General convened a “mini summit” on Somalia on the margins of the General Assembly with President Mohamud participating by video link from Mogadishu.
On 7 August Council members were briefed on the approval of the constitution and selection of parliamentarians in Somalia during the DPA briefing. (On 20 August a new parliament was inaugurated marking the end of the transitional period.) On 9 August, individuals dressed as government forces fired upon supporters of presidential candidate and former Prime Minister Mohamed Abdullahi Farmajo, killing two people. The next day the Council issued a press statement reiterating that those selecting new parliamentarians be able to do so without fear of violence or intimidation. On 28 August the Security Council was briefed in consultations by Special Representative Augustine Mahiga on the political situation in Somalia and the Secretary-General’s most recent report. In a 29 August press statement, Council members welcomed recent landmark events in Somalia, condemned instances of intimidation and corruption and underlined that the parliament should elect a president without further delays.
On 25 July, the Council adopted resolution 2060, renewing the mandate of the Monitoring Group on Eritrea and Somalia for a period of 13 months and extending the humanitarian exemption to the sanctions regime for a period of 12 months. Council members received a briefing in consultations on 24 July from the Special Representative of the Secretary-General who addressed current political developments in Somalia, as well as from the Somalia/Eritrea Sanctions Committee chair on the work of the Committee and the two separate reports of the sanctions Monitoring Group. Meanwhile on 5 July the Human Right Council adopted a resolution on human rights assistance to Somalia strongly condemning grave and systematic human rights abuses committed against the population and calling for all parties to take immediate steps to protect women and children. From 2 to 3 July, the International Contact Group on Somalia met in Rome.
On15 May the Council was briefed by the Somali President and the Secretary-General’s Special Representative for Somalia on the Secretary-General’s latest report and more recent developments. Following the meeting, Council members issued a press statement expressing concern that some of the roadmap’s deadlines had been missed and calling on all the signatories to “redouble their efforts to complete the roadmap tasks.” Meanwhile, on 31 May and 1 June, Turkey hosted an international conference on Somalia in Istanbul.
On 5 April the Security Council issued a press statement condemning a suicide bombing on 4 April, for which Al Shabaab claimed responsibility, that killed at least ten people during a ceremony at Mogadishu’s recently reopened national theatre.
The Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia met at UN Headquarters in New York on 29 March. On 28 March the chair of the Somalia/Eritrea Sanctions Committee briefed Council members in informal consultations on the work of the Committee. On 23 March the Council of the European Union extended the mandate of the EU Naval Force counter-piracy mission (Operation Atalanta) until December 2014. On 5 March the Council held an open debate on Somalia and adopted a presidential statement welcoming the 23 February London conference on Somalia and expressing support for its communiqué. Meanwhile the Human Rights Council adopted a resolution on 22 March in which it expressed its continued serious concern about the human rights and humanitarian situation in Somalia.
The Security Council adopted resolution 2036 on 22 February authorising an increase in the troop ceiling for the AU Mission in Somalia from 12,000 to 17,731 uniformed personnel and an extension of its presence to three sectors outside Mogadishu. The following day the UK hosted an international conference in London with the aim of delivering a new international approach to Somalia. On 17 February the Somalia and Eritrea Sanctions Committee listed one more individual, Ali Ahmed Nur Jim’ale identified as a chief financier for Al Shabaab, as subject to the targeted sanctions. Earlier that month the Under-Secretary-General for Field Support briefed Council members in informal consultations on the Secretary-General’s special report on Somalia.
On 11 January the Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs and the AU Commissioner for Peace and Security briefed the Council in an open meeting. In a press statement following the meeting, Council members noted the AU’s 5 January communiqué and underlined their intention to keep the situation under review. On 5 January the AU Peace and Security Council endorsed the new strategic concept for AMISOM and urged the Security Council “to expeditiously consider and authorize the support required” for its immediate implementation. It also extended AMISOM’s mandate for another 12 months until 16 January 2013.
On 13 December the Secretary-General briefed the Council on his visit to Mogadishu. In a press statement, Council members welcomed the Secretary-General’s visit and supported his call for faster implementation of the road map to end the transional period in Somalia. The Secretary-General had visited Mogadishu together with the President of the UN General Assembly on 9 December. On 5 December the Council adopted resolution 2023 condemning Eritrea’s violations of resolution 1907, 1862 and 1844, calling on it to cease all efforts to destabilise other states, including through support for the Islamist rebel group Al Shabaab, and imposing new measures to prevent Eritrea from using the diaspora tax or revenues from its mining sector to commit further violations. Earlier that month the AU Peace and Security Council had issued a communiqué urging the UN Security Council to “review and consider thoroughly the need to adjust the mandated troop levels of AMISOM” in light of recent developments.
On 22 November the Council adopted resolution 2020 extending for another 12 months the authorisation to take action against piracy off the coast of Somalia first established in 2008. The chair of the Sanctions Committee for Somalia and Eritrea briefed Council members on 16 November in informal consultations on the work of the Committee. On 9 November he Sanctions Committee for Somalia and Eritrea met to discuss the latest report of the Humanitarian Coordinator for Somalia and was briefed by the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.
On 24 October the Council adopted resolution 2015 calling for additional measures to strengthen prosecution of Somali pirates. The Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs briefed the Council on 14 October on recent developments in Somalia as part of his monthly horizon- scanning briefing. On 4 October the Council issued a press statement condemning in the strongest terms the 4 October attack in Mogadishu.
On 30 September the Council adopted resolution 2010 renewing the authorisation of AMISOM until 31 October 2012. The International Contact Group on Somalia met in Copenhagen on 29-30 September and issued a communiqué. On 23 September the Secretary-General convened a mini-summit on Somalia on the margins of the General Assembly. On 14 September the Special Representative briefed the Council on the Secretary-General’s latest report. On 13 September the AU Peace and Security Council issued a communiqué on Somalia requesting the Council to authorise an expanded support package for AMISOM from UN assessed contributions and to support the deployment of formed police units and the creation of a guard force of 850 troops under AMISOM command to protect civilian personnel. At a consultative meeting on 6 September in Mogadishu of all major Somali stakeholders agreement was reached on a road map for ending the transition in Somalia before August 2012.
In a press statement issued on 15 August, Council members expressed their strong support for the Special Representative and emphasised the importance of the consultative meeting in Mogadishu and the need to agree on a road map. The Special Representative for Somalia and the Assistant Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs briefed the Council on recent developments in Somalia on 10 August.
On 29 July the Council adopted resolution 2002, renewing the mandate of the Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea for 12 months. It expanded the criteria for targeted sanctions to include recruitment or use of children in armed conflict, as well as violations involving the targeting of civilians. The Somalia/Eritrea Sanctions Committee announced the addition of two individuals to the sanctions list under the Somalia sanctions regime. On 25 July Council members were briefed in informal consultations by the Assistant Secretary-General in the Office of the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs on the humanitarian situation in Somalia and subsequently issued a press statement that called on all UN member states to contribute to the humanitarian effort, “urged all parties to ensure full, safe and unhindered access for the timely delivery of humanitarian aid” and “urged all parties and armed groups to take appropriate steps to ensure the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and supplies.”
28 June 2011
The Somali parliament approved the appointment of Abdiweli Mohamed Ali to succeed Mohammed Abdullahi Mohammed as prime minister,
24 June 2011
The Council adopted a presidential statement welcoming the signing of the Kampala Accord.
21 June 2011
Under-Secretary-General for Legal Affairs Patricia O’Brien briefed the Council on the Secretary-General’s 14 June report on modalities for the establishment of Somali anti-piracy courts.
17 June 2011
The Human Rights Council renewed the mandate of the UN independent expert on the situation of human rights in Somalia for a period of one year, from September 2011.
9 June 2011
Somali President Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed and Speaker of Parliament Sharif Hassan Sheikh Aden signed the Kampala Accord, effectively extending the transitional period for one year until August 2012.
25 May 2011
Council members met with TFI representatives, including the president, the prime minister and the speaker of parliament during a two-day visit to Nairobi as part of the Council mission to Africa.
23 May 2011
The Secretary-General’s Special Representative on Children and Armed Conflict Radhika Coomaraswamy briefed the Sanctions Committee on Somalia and Eritrea and proposed that violations against children should be added to the listing criteria under the Somalia sanctions regime.
11 May 2011
The Secretary-General’s Special Representative for Somalia briefed the Council in an open meeting. The Somali Prime Minister also spoke.The Council adopted a presidential statement regretting the TFG’s failure to attend the consultative meeting in Nairobi on 12 and 13 April and calling on it to participate constructively in the consultative process.
14 April 2011
The International Maritime Bureau reported that there had been a steep rise in piracy off the coast of Somalia in the first three months of this year.
12 – 13 April 2011
SRSG Mahiga convened a high-level consultative meeting in Nairobi with key stakeholder to discuss post-transitional arrangements. TFG refused to attend.
11 April 2011
The Council adopted resolution 1976 on piracy. It called for strengthening efforts on the ground on rule of law, governance and economic development, as well as continued focus on enhancing the legal framework for prosecution of pirates. It also requested a report from the Secretary-General within two months on the modalities of establishing specialised courts to try suspected pirates and also asked the Secretary-General to report within six months on the protection of Somali natural resources and waters and on allegations of illegal fishing and illegal dumping of toxic substance off the coast of Somalia.
17 March 2011
15 March 2011
The Chair of the Sanctions Committee, Indian Ambassador Hardeep Singh Puri, provided the regular 120-day briefing to Council members on the work of the Committee.
11 March 2011
OCHA briefed the Sanctions Committee as requested by resolution 1916.
10 March 2011
23 February 2011
AMISOM, IGAD and the UN Political Office for Somalia announced in a joint communiqué that they had adopted a joint regional strategy to support the TFG in the management of the transitional period.
9 February 2011
The Sanctions Committee on Eritrea and Somalia met for the first time under its new chair, Indian ambassador Hardeep Singh Puri, and heard the mid-term briefing by the coordinator of the Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea, Matt Bryden
3 February 2011
The Somali parliament voted to extend its mandate for another three years. The vote was widely criticised by the international community.
31 January 2011
The AU called on the Council to provide greater support to AMISOM and “fully assume its responsibilities towards Somalia and its people,” including through increased funding from UN-assessed contributions. It also emphasised the need to broaden the reconciliation process and complete all remaining transitional tasks.
30 January 2011
IGAD said it was important “to extend the term of the current Transitional Federal Parliament while the remaining political dispensation be handled by the people of Somalia.” It also expressed disappointment that the Council in resolution 1964 had ignored the AU Peace and Security Council’s earlier requests to the UN Security Council relating to Somalia.
25 January 2011
The Secretary-General’s Special Adviser on Legal Issues related to Piracy off the Coast of Somalia, Jack Lang, briefed the Council on his recommendations to the Secretary-General as contained in his report transmitted to Council members on 24 January. Lang described the situation with regard to piracy as serious and even worsening and said it had to be addressed with “extreme urgency”. He called for a strengthening of existing measures as well as implementation of new initiatives, including the establishment of specialised domestic courts in Somaliland and Puntland, as well as an extraterritorial Somali specialised court to be established somewhere in the region, possibly in Arusha.
14 January 2011
The Secretary-General’s Special Representative for Somalia briefed the Council on new developments since the Secretary-General’s 30 December 2010 report on the situation in the country. Mahiga focused on the remaining transitional tasks before the end of the transitional period in August, as well as the UN strategy, the difficult humanitarian situation and the need for a comprehensive anti-piracy approach. He appealed for enhanced support—both financial and material—to AMISOM. Following informal consultations, Council members, in a press statement (SC/10154), called on the Somali government to “redouble its efforts” to complete the remaining transitional tasks, expressed their intention to monitor the situation closely and called on the international community to provide additional resources and support to AMISOM. They also condemned attacks against civilians and called on all parties to abide by their obligations under international humanitarian law.
22 December 2010
The Council adopted resolution 1964 extending the authorisation of the AMISOM until 30 September 2011 and increased the mission’s troop strength from 8,000 to 12,000.
1 December 2010
The 2011 humanitarian appeal for Somalia, amounting to approximately $530 million, was launched in Nairobi.
30 November 2010
Special Representative for Somalia, Augustine Mahiga (by videolink from Nairobi) and Under-Secretary-General for Field Support Susana Malcorra briefed Council members in informal consultations. Discussions focused on support for AMISOM.
29 November 2010
The chair of the Eritrea/Somalia Sanctions Committee, Mexican Ambassador Claude Heller, briefed Council members in informal consultations on the work of the Committee. In a press statement after the meeting, the Council reaffirmed that the humanitarian exemption established by resolution 1916 in regards to the assets freeze provision of the Somalia sanctions regime remained necessary.
27 November 2010
The Somali parliament approved the cabinet proposed by prime minister Farmajo.
23 November 2010
The Council adopted resolution 1950, renewing for another 12 months the anti-piracy provisions of resolution 1897. IGAD expressed “deep concern” that the Council had yet to respond to the AU Peace and Security Council’s 15 October requests regarding Somalia.
9 November 2010
Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs B. Lynn Pascoe briefed the Council on the Secretary-General’s latest report on piracy off the coast of Somalia in an open meeting. The meeting also featured a briefing by the Executive Director of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Yury Fedotov, on its counter-piracy programme to assist countries in the region.
31 October 2010
The Somali parliament approved the appointment of Mohamed Abdullahi Farmajo as prime minister.
21 October 2010
In a Council meeting on Somalia featuring briefings by the Secretary-General and Somali Foreign Minister Yusuf Hasan Ibrahim, AU Commissioner for Peace and Security Ramtane Lamamra presented the decisions adopted at the AU Peace and Security Council meeting of 15 October.
15 October 2010
The AU Peace and Security Council urged the Security Council to endorse an increase in the authorised troop strength of AMISOM from 8,000 to 20,000, as well as an expansion of its funding from UN-assessed contributions. It also asked the Council to impose a naval blockade and no-fly zone over Somalia and to consider requesting the naval operations off the coast of Somalia to provide “more direct and tangible operational support to AMISOM”.
14 October 2010
The Somali president announced the appointment of Somali-American Mohamed Abdullahi Farmajo as the new prime minister.
1 October 2010
Kenya ended its agreement with the EU to prosecute suspected Somali pirates.
28 September 2010
The International Contact Group on Somalia met in Madrid under the chairmanship of the Secretary-General’s Special Representative Augustine Mahiga and issued a communiqué.
23 September 2010
The Secretary-General convened a mini-summit on Somalia in New York.
21 September 2010
The Somali prime minister, Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke resigned.
16 September 2010
The Secretary-General’s new Special Representative for Somalia, Augustine Mahiga, gave his first briefing to the Council and presented the Secretary-General’s most recent regular Somalia report issued on 9 September.
26 August 2010
The Secretary-General appointed Jack Lang as his Special Adviser on legal issues related to piracy off the coast of Somalia.
25 August 2010
The Council held a debate on Somali piracy and adopted a presidential statement, on further steps to ensure accountability for those responsible for piracy.
24 August 2010
More than 30 people, including six members of the Somali parliament, were reported to have been killed in an attack by gunmen disguised as government soldiers against a hotel in Mogadishu for which the Islamist rebel group Al-Shabaab claimed responsibility. The Council issued a press statement that same day, condemning the attack.
12 August 2010
The Sanctions Committee for Somalia/Eritrea was briefed by Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs John Holmes and met with members of the new Monitoring Group for Somalia/Eritrea which was reestablished in July.
25-27 July 2010
The AU summit held in Kampala endorsed IGAD’s 5 July decisions and mandated the AU Commission to start planning for the deployment of additional AMISOM troops. It also requested the Commission to appoint a “High Level Personality to galvanise international support and attention for Somalia and the engagement of the population in governance processes in order to enhance the legitimacy of the TFG.”
23 July 2010
The Secretary-General presented seven options for ensuring prosecution and imprisonment of persons responsible for piracy off the coast of Somalia, in line with the Council’s request in resolution 1918
20 July 2010
The Council was briefed by Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs, B. Lynn Pascoe, on Eritrea’s compliance with resolution 1907. In informal consultations after the briefing Mexican ambassador Claude Heller, in his capacity as chair of the Somalia/Eritrea Sanctions Committee, briefed Council members on the work of the Committee. (Resolution 1844 of 20 November 2008 calls for the Committee to report to the Council every 120 days.) The Council issued a press statement which confirmed that the humanitarian assets-freeze exemption in paragraph 5 of resolution 1916 remained necessary to address the situation in Somalia.
15 July 2010
International Maritime Bureau reported that pirate attacks had declined globally by nearly a fifth in the first half of 2010 from the same period in 2009 due to the strong international naval presence in the Gulf of Aden.
12 July 2010
The Council condemned the Kampala bombings in a press statement .
11 July 2010
About eighty people were killed in two separate, almost simultaneous bombing attacks in the Ugandan capital Kampala targeting locations where crowds had gathered to watch the televised football world cup final. The Islamist rebel group Al-Shabaab claimed responsibility for the bombings and said they had been carried out in retaliation for Uganda’s participation in AMISOM. The group also threatened similar attacks against AMISOM’s other main troop contributor, Burundi.
5 July 2010
The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) decided to deploy an additional 2,000 troops to AMISOM to reach the authorised strength of 8,000 and called on the AU Commission “to mobilise the necessary resources, logistics and equipment for the deployment.” IGAD also decided “to work with all parties, including AMISOM and the UN Security Council to raise 20,000 troops to be deployed throughout the country.”
24 June 2010
A special court to try suspected pirates operating in the Gulf of Aden opened in Mombasa, Kenya.
10 June 2010
The the Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia held its sixth meeting under the chairmanship of Greece. The meeting expressed concern about continued piracy off the coast of Somalia.
27 April 2010
The Council adopted resolution 1918 calling on all states to criminalise piracy under their domestic law and requesting a report from the Secretary-General within three months on options to ensure prosecution and imprisonment of persons responsible for piracy off the coast of Somalia.
21-22 April 2010
The International Contact Group on Somalia held a meeting in Cairo hosted by the Arab League and issued a communiqué.
15 April 2010
The Chair of the Somalia/Eritrea Sanctions Committee, Mexican Ambassador Claude Heller accompanied by Council experts from Turkey, Uganda and the US, left on a mission to the Horn of Africa region to raise awareness about the sanctions regime and discuss some of the recommendations of the Monitoring Group’s report. It included stops in Eritrea, Kenya and Yemen.
12 April 2010
The Sanctions Committee for Somalia and Eritrea announced its first designations for targeted sanctions under resolution 1844. The TFG signed a memorandum of understanding with Puntland on counter-piracy cooperation.
7 April 2010
Hizbul Islam reportedly claimed loyalty to Al-Qaida for the first time and invited Osama bin Laden to Somalia.
3 April 2010
Hizbul Islam ordered all radio stations in Mogadishu to stop broadcasting music and said they would be closed if they did not comply within ten days.
19 March 2010
The Council adopted resolution 1916 extending the mandate of the Somalia/Eritrea Monitoring Group for another 12 months with the addition of three new members. It also decided that the assets freeze provisions of resolution 1844 would not apply to funds “necessary to ensure the timely delivery of urgently needed humanitarian assistance in Somalia” and requested the UN humanitarian aid coordinator for Somalia to report to the Council every 120 days.
16 March 2010
Following informal consultations among Council members, the Chair of the Sanctions Committee, Mexican ambssador Claude Heller, said there was considerable support among Council members for the idea to establish an independent investigation of the allegations regarding diversion of WFP aid.
15 March 2010
The TFG and Ahlu Suna Wal Jamma (ASWJ), the pro-government Islamist group that controls parts of central Somalia, formally signed a cooperation framework agreement in Addis Ababa.
10 March 2010
The Somalia Monitoring Group presented its final report to the Somalia Sanctions Committee.
29 January 2010
Al-Shabaab confirmed officially for the first time that it had joined Al Qaida’s “international jihad”.
28 January 2010
The Council renewed the authorisation of AMISOM for another 12 months until 31 January 2011 in resolution 1910 .
28 January 2010
The International Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia met in New York under the chairmanship of Norway.
14 January 2010
In a briefing to the Council (S/PV.6259) Ould-Abdallah called for better international coordination, enhanced assistance to the TFG, vigorous action against spoilers, a more integrated UN presence, as well as early relocation to Mogadishu by the international community.
8 January 2010
The AU Peace and Security Council renewed AMISOM’s mandate for another 12 months
23 December 2009
The Council decided to impose an arms embargo and targeted sanctions on Eritrea in resolution 1907.
21 December 2009
The Somali parliament convened in Mogadishu for the first time since August 2009.
17 December 2009
The International Contact Group on Somalia met in Jedda, Saudi Arabia.
8 December 2009
The Somalia Monitoring Group’s experts received threats and warnings by unknown sources.
3 December 2009
An attack by a suicide bomber during a medical school graduation ceremony in Mogadishu killed at least 22 people, including three TFG ministers.
30 November 2009
21 October 2009
The International Maritime Bureau concluded in its latest quarterly report on piracy that there had been a significant increase in the number of global piracy attacks in 2009 compared with 2008, mostly due to piracy activity off the coast of Somalia.
1 October 2009
Fighting broke out in Kismayo for the first time between the two rebel groups Al-Shabaab and Hizbul Islam.
23 September 2009
The International Contact Group on Somalia held a meeting in New York.
17 September 2009
Seventeen African peacekeepers, including the deputy force commander, were killed in suicide bombings against AMISOM.
14 September 2009
US Special Operations forces entered southern Somalia in a daytime helicopter raid and killed Saleh Ali Saleh Nabhan, believed to be one of the most senior Al-Qaida leaders in East Africa and one of many foreigners in Al-Shabaab’s insurgency against the TFG.
10 September 2009
The Contact Group on Piracy Off the Coast of Somalia held its fourth meeting on 10 September in New York under the chairmanship of Japan, with 45 countries participating.
25 June 2009
The General Assembly’s Fifth Committee approved funding for the continuation of the logistical support package for AMISOM for the period 1 July to 31 December in the amount of approximately $138.8 million.
18 June 2009
A suicide bomber killed Somalia’s minister of national security, Omar Hashi Aden. Al-Shabaab claimed responsibility. At least 25 others also died.
9-10 June 2009
The International Contact Group on Somalia met in Rome under the chairmanship of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General, Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah.
26 May 2009
In resolution 1872 the Council renewed authorisation of AMISOM until 31 January 2010, approved continued funding of the logistical support package from assessed UN contributions and requested the Secretary-General to implement the phased approach recommended in his 16 April report.
22 May 2009
The AU supported IGAD’s 20 May decision and requested the Council to impose sanctions on all foreign actors providing support to armed opposition groups in Somalia.
20 May 2009
The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), in a communiqué, called on the Council to impose a no-fly zone and a blockade of seaports in Somalia to prevent further arms supplies. It also called on the Council to impose sanctions on the government of Eritrea.
15 May 2009
The Council expressed concern (S/PRST/2009/15) over reports of Eritrean arms supplies and called on the Sanctions Monitoring Group on Somalia to investigate.
23 April 2009
An international donors’ conference in Brussels raised $213 million to strengthen AMISOM and help rebuild Somali security institutions over a period of 12 months, exceeding the initial request.
18 April 2009
The Somali parliament unanimously voted to institute Islamic law, thus ratifying the 10 March cabinet decision.
16 April 2009
The Secretary-General advised against the establishment of a UN peacekeeping operation in a report to the Council (S/2009/210), recommending instead an incremental approach, maintaining the strategy of strengthening AMISOM until further improvement in the security situation.
7 April 2009
The General Assembly approved $71 million in UN assessed contributions for the logistical support package for AMISOM authorised by the Council.
12 March 2009
The Somali parliament held its first meeting in Mogadishu after relocating from Djibouti.
11 March 2009
The AU Peace and Security Council extended AMISOM’s mandate for three months from 17 March.
10 March 2009
The Somali cabinet voted to introduce Islamic law.
9 March 2009
The Secretary-General issued his regular report on Somalia, which concluded that “there remains uncertainty about whether peacekeeping is the right tool to back the political process in Somalia”.
26-27 February 2009
The International Contact Group on Somalia met in Brussels.
22 February 2009
11 Burundian peacekeepers were killed in an attack against AMISOM.
13 February 2009
President Ahmed appointed Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmake as the new prime minister.
4 February 2009
Four insurgent groups, including the Eritrea-based faction of ARS but not Al-Shabaab, announced plans to merge into a new group called Hisbul Islam (Islamic party) to fight the newly elected president and the anticipated unity government.
30 January 2009
Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed was elected president of Somalia by the newly expanded parliament
28 January 2009
The Somali parliament voted to extend its mandate until August 2011. The last Ethiopian soldiers reportedly left Somalia.
16 January 2009
The Council, in resolution 1863, renewed the authorisation of AMISOM for six months, expressed its intention to establish a UN peacekeeping operation by 1 June 2009 and authorised a UN funded logistical support package for AMISOM.
15 January 2009
The last Ethiopian forces left Mogadishu.
14 January 2009
The US convened the first meeting of the International Contact Group on Piracy off the coast of Somalia.
29 December 2008
President Yusuf resigned.
22 December 2008
AU extended AMISOM’s mandate until 16 March 2009.
16 December 2008
The Council expanded the anti-piracy authorisation to include operations on land, deciding that states may take “all necessary measures that are appropriate in Somalia” to counter piracy (S/RES/1851).
25 November 2008
The TFG and the Alliance for the Reliberation of Somalia (ARS), agreed on a power sharing proposal envisaging establishment of a national unity government within two months, enlargement of parliament, and presidential elections in January. The transitional period (defined by the Transitional Federal Charter) was extended by two years.
20 November 2008
The Council, after nearly two months of discussions, adopted resolution 1844 on targeted sanctions, expanding the current Somalia sanctions regime.
29 October 2008
Suicide bombings in Hargeysa and Bosasso killed 28 people, including two UN employees.
25 – 26 October 2008
A third round of meetings of the Joint Security Committee and the High Level Committee established under the Djibouti Agreement was held in Djibouti. The Transitional Federal Government and the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia agreed on a ceasefire, to become effective on 5 November.
4 September 2008
The Security Council requested the Secretary-General provide a detailed and consolidated description of a feasible multinational force for Somalia (S/PRST/2008/33 )
18 August 2008
The Djibouti Agreement was formally signed.
16-18 August 2008
Parties to the Djibouti Agreement held the first meetings of the two committees mandated by the Agreement: the High Level Committee (which deals with political cooperation, justice and reconciliation) and the Joint Security Committee (which is tasked with implementing security arrangements). The parties adopted the terms of reference for both committees and discussed implementation of the Djibouti Agreement.
6 July 2008
The head of the UN Development Programme (UNDP)’s office in Somalia, Ali Osman Ahmed, was killed.
9 June 2008
The TFG and a wing of the opposition Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia (ARS) reached agreement (the Djibouti Agreement) on cessation of hostilities and other measures.
2 June 2008
The Council adopted resolution 1816 authorising states cooperating with the TFG to take action against piracy and robbery in Somali territorial waters after notification to the Secretary-General by the TFG.
31 May – 10 June 2008
The Council undertook a mission to Djibouti to discuss the situation in Somalia as part of a broader visit to a number of African countries.
Peace talks commenced in Djibouti between the TFG and a wing of the opposition Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia (ARS) under Sheikh Sharif Ahmed, mediated by the Secretary-General’s Special Representative, Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah.
1 May 2008
Al-Shabaab leader Aden Hashi Farah Ayrow was killed in a US air strike.
15 February 2008
Somali and AU representatives made an urgent plea to the Council at an open meeting, calling for future UN takeover of peacekeeping responsibilities in Somalia. AU Permanent Observer Lila H. Ratsifandrihamanana also called for UN assistance to AMISOM.
24 November 2007
The transitional parliament confirmed the appointment of Nur Hassan Hussein as prime minister.
29 October 2007
Prime Minister Ali Mohamed Gedi resigned.
17 September 2007
TFG officials and many clan leaders met in Jeddah under Saudi Arabian auspices to sign the National Reconciliation Conference’ outcome document. The meeting also called for the deployment of an Arab-African force under UN aegis to replace Ethiopian troops and reinforce peacekeeping in Somalia.
Early September 2007
At an opposition meeting in Asmara, under Eritrean facilitation, the “Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia” was established, vowing to fight TFG and Ethiopian troops in Somalia, and criticised the AMISOM for taking sides.
15 July-August 2007
A National Reconciliation Conference was held in Mogadishu with 1,000 delegates attending. After weeks of negotiation under persistent insurgent attacks it reached agreement on an outcome document that included provisions for reconciliation and the preparation of a roadmap to elections in 2009, in fulfilment of the Transitional Federal Charter.
The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) Council requested that the issue of piracy be brought to the attention of the Security Council.
28 June 2007
In a private Council debate, Somali Prime Minister Ali Mohamed Gedi reiterated calls from the TFG for a transition from AMISOM to a UN operation. Gedi renewed TFG pledges for an all-inclusive reconciliation conference.
The Council authorised the AU Mission to Somalia (AMISOM).
December 2006-January 2007
Ethiopian and Transitional Federal Government (TFG) forces overran the Union of Islamic Courts (UIC).
late December 2006
Ethiopian troops intervened without UN authorisation (and in apparent breach of the embargo).
October- November 2006
The Union of Islamic Courts encircled the TFGat its sole outpost, Baidoa. Ethiopian troops began amassing along the border.
13 September 2006
The AU Peace and Security Council formally endorsed IGASOM’s mission plan.
5 September 2006
The TFG and the UIC reached an agreement on joint security forces. IGAD adopted a revised IGAD Peace Support Mission to Somalia (IGASOM) mission plan.
29 August 2006
The Contact Group met in Stockholm.
21 July 2006
The International Contact Group called on the TFG and UIC to resume talks and to make them more inclusive.
22 June 2006
The first round of talks between the TFG and Union of Islamic Courts (UIC), faciliated by the Arab League, took place in Khartoum.
15 June 2006
At its first meeting, the International Contact Group on Somalia expressed support for the Transitional Federal Institutions (TFI) framework and dialogue.
13 June 2006
IGAD decided to make a list of individuals “involved in illegal use of arms” and to apply individual sanctions (such as assets freeze and travel bans) against “all warlords.”
early June 2006
The Union of Islamic Courts (UIC) seized control of Mogadishu and Jowhar from the coalition of warlords known as the Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism.
Somaliland held internationally monitored elections.
The Transitional Federal Government (TFG) moved to Jowhar.
The AU authorised IGAD Peace Support Mission to Somalia (IGASOM).
The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) decided to send troops to Somalia.
10 October 2004
Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed was elected president of Somalia and the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) was established.
16 December 2003
The Council in resolution 1519 replaced the Panel of Experts with a four-member Monitoring Group with a similar mandate to that of its predecessor.
The chairman of the Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Stefan Tafrov of Bulgaria, led a delegation to the region.
8 April 2003
The mandate of the Panel of Experts was expanded to investigate violations of the arms embargo via land, air and sea; to pursue information related to violations; and to make recommendations to give effect to and strengthen the embargo.
The Council redefined the arms embargo to prohibit “the direct or indirect supply to Somalia of technical advice, financial and other assistance, and training related to military activities,” and established the Panel of Experts to assist the Sanctions Committee with the following mandate: to investigate all forms of violations, to assess the capacity of the states in the region to implement the arms embargo, and to provide recommendations to the Council on ways to strengthen enforcement of the arms embargo.
3 May 2002
The Council in resolution 1407 established a two-member Team of Experts to examine the feasibility and prospects for an arms embargo monitoring mechanism.
A Transitional National Assembly was formed and elected an interim president.
UN Political Office for Somalia (UNPOS) was established.
The Council decided to terminate the UN Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) by March 1995.
The US withdrew from Somalia.
3 October 1993
Troops from a separate US force, deployed in Mogadishu (outside UNOSOM and thus not under UN command and control), launched an operation to capture General Aidid without the knowledge or consent of the UN. Hundreds of Somalis died. Two US Black Hawk helicopters were shot down and 18 American soldiers were killed, some dragged though the streets. 75 US troops were wounded. The US announced its withdrawal from Somalia by March 1994.
5 June 1993
Pakistani UN troops were attacked by General Aidid’s faction after leaving an authorised weapons storage site: 24 were killed, 57 injured, 6 missing (1 of whom died in captivity) and 5 later released.
1 May to 4 June 1993
General Aidid’s Radio Mogadishu accused UNOSOM II and the US of being aggressors trying to colonise Somalia.
UN Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) was established. The Council approved a transition from UNITAF to a new peacekeeping operation, UNOSOM II, in resolution 814.
The Council authorised United Nations Task Force (UNITAF) to guard and distribute relief supplies.
UN Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I) and a Sanctions Committee were established.
The Council imposed an arms embargo in resolution 733.
Civil war broke out; Somaliland declared independence.