Chronology of Events

Liberia

April 2018

On 19 April, the Security Council held its final briefing on Liberia following the closure of UNMIL on 30 March. At the meeting, the Council adopted a presidential statement on UNMIL’s conclusion. Briefings were provided by Alexander Zuev, Assistant Secretary-General for Rule of Law and Security Institutions in the Department of Peacekeeping Operations; Deputy Ambassador Irina Schoulgin Nyoni (Sweden) on behalf of the Peacebuilding Commission; and Chid Liberty, the chief executive officer of “Liberty & Justice”. On 30 March, the mandate of UNMIL ended after a nearly 15-year presence, having been established in September 2003 following 14 years of civil war. The Secretary-General submitted his final report on Liberia to the Council on 13 April.

January 2018

On 8 January, Security Council members issued a press statement congratulating Liberia for the peaceful conduct of the 26 December 2017 presidential runoff election. While referring to the upcoming withdrawal at the end of March of UNMIL, the statement encouraged the international community and donors to remain engaged and to assist Liberia’s continued efforts to achieve sustainable peace, including in support of the commitments made in the Liberia Peacebuilding Plan.

December 2017

On 13 December, Special Representative for Liberia and head of the UNMIL, Farid Zarif briefed Council members in consultations. As mandated by resolution 2333, Zarif provided an “oral update” following the presidential elections Liberia. In particular, Zarif briefed the Council on the latest developments regarding the organisation of the run-off elections and transition arrangements.

August 2017

On 23 August, Council members held consultations on the situation in Liberia. Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations El Ghassim Wane briefed on the preparations for the 10 October presidential and legislative elections in Liberia. Resolution 2333 requested two oral briefings, one before and the other after the elections in Liberia. 

July 2017

On 24 July, the Council adopted a presidential statement on the Liberia peacebuilding plan and upcoming presidential elections (S/PV.8010). The statement, which was drafted by both the US, the penholder on Liberia, and Sweden, which chairs the Liberia country configuration of the Peacebuilding Commission, was intended to represent a sign of continued Council support for Liberia in its peacebuilding efforts. It commended the progress made in restoring peace, security and stability in the country and the commitment of the people and government of Liberia to developing democracy.

June 2017

On 27 June, the Council held a briefing followed by the consultations on the situation in Liberia. Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of UNMIL Farid Zarif briefed on the latest Secretary-General’s report and activities related to the mission’s drawdown. Ambassador Olof Skoog (Sweden), Chair of the Liberia Configuration of the PBC, briefed on his recent visit to the country and PBC-related developments. Both briefers, as well as Council members, emphasised the importance of holding free and fair presidential elections in October and a subsequent democratic transfer of power. Furthermore, they stressed the need for a smooth drawdown of UNMIL and transition to the UN country team.

December 2016

On 2 December, the Council met on the situation in Liberia and was briefed by Hervé Ladsous, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations; Mr. Per Thöresson (Sweden), Vice-Chair of the Peacebuilding Commission; and civil society representative Victoria Wollie of the Women in Peacebuilding Network in Liberia. Ladsous presented the Secretary-General’s report of the assessment mission to Liberia which outlined options for the future of UNMIL. Liberian Ambassador Lewis Garseedah Brown II asked the Council to extend the mandate of UNMIL for another year. The Council renewed the mission’s mandate before it expired on 31 December.

September 2016

On 14 September, the Council adopted resolution 2308 which extended UNMIL’s mandate, in its current configuration, for an additional three months. The extension of the mission’s mandate will allow the Council to review the recommendations from the Secretary-General’s assessment mission, due by 15 November, before ultimately deciding on when to withdraw the mission.

August 2016

On 25 August, Farid Zarif, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of UNMIL, briefed the Council on the latest UNMIL report as well as recent developments. Joakim Vaverka (Sweden), Chair of the PBC Liberia Configuration, also briefed. Zarif devoted significant attention on the government of Liberia’s assumption of UNMIL’s security responsibilities on 30 June. While commending the successful transition, Zarif called on the Liberian government to implement pending legislative and institutional reforms. In his briefing, Vaverka said that the Commission would continue to promote national reconciliation, security sector development and the rule of law. In addition, Vaverka added that the Commission would pay special attention to the preparation of the 2017 presidential and legislative elections.

May 2016

On 13 May, Ambassador Volodymyr Yelchenko (Ukraine), chair of the 1521 Liberia Sanctions Committee, briefed Council members in consultations on the committee’s activities and the final report of the Panel of Experts. On 25 May, the Council adopted resolution 2288 that terminated the Liberia sanctions regime, including remaining arms measures, the mandate of the Panel of Experts and the 1521 Sanctions Committee.

April 2016

On 11 April, the 1521 Liberia Sanctions Committee held informal consultations. The meeting was primarily focused on the final report of the Panel of Experts. Issues that were discussed included the failure of Liberia to adopt arms and ammunition control legislation as well as risk factors posed by the surge in terrorism in the region and Liberia’s lack of capacity to deal with this phenomenon. Council members took note of the adoption of the police and immigration act.

March 2016

On 17 March, the Council was briefed by Special Representative and head of UNMIL Farid Zarif on the most recent Secretary-General’s UNMIL report. The head of UN Women, Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, also briefed along with Ambassador Olof Skoog (Sweden), Chair of the Liberia configuration of the Peacebuilding Commission. The main focus of the discussion was the upcoming transfer of security responsibilities from UNMIL to the government of Liberia.

September 2015

On 2 September, the Council adopted resolution 2237, which renewed the arms embargo on non-state actors for nine months but terminated the asset freeze and travel ban (S/PV.7517). Resolution 2237 also renewed the mandate of the Panel of Experts for ten months, but reduced the Panel from two members to one member. On 10 September, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous briefed the Council on the most recent UNMIL report. Ambassador Olof Skoog (Sweden), chair of the Liberia country-specific configuration in the Peacebuilding Commission, and Benedict Sannoh, Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Liberia, also addressed the Council. On 17 September, the Council adopted resolution 2239 renewing the mandate of UNMIL until 30 September 2016 and continuing the drawdown of UNMIL, to 1,240 military personnel and 606 police personnel by 30 June.

August 2015

On 12 August, Council members were briefed in consultations by Ambassador Dina Kawar (Jordan), chair of the 1521 Liberia Sanctions Committee. The briefing mainly concerned the final report of the Panel of Experts and a letter from the Secretary-General with an update that had been requested by the Council in resolution 2188 regarding progress made by the government of Liberia toward regulation of arms and ammunition and management of the border with Côte d’Ivoire.  

May 2015

On 5 May, the Special Representative and head of the UN Mission in Liberia, Karin Landgren, briefed the Council, presenting the latest UNMIL report. Ambassador Olof Skoog (Sweden), Chair of the Peacebuilding Commission and its country-specific configuration on Liberia, and Liberia’s Minister of Justice Benedict Sannoh also addressed the Council.

April 2015

On 2 April, the Council adopted resolution 2215 authorising a reduction of UNMIL’s military personnel from 4,811 to 3,590 and police from 1,795 to 1,515 by September 2015. The Peacebuilding Commission’s country-specific configuration on Liberia met on 29 April.

March 2015

On 16 March, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous updated Council members on the political and security situation in Liberia following the Ebola outbreak. Ladsous recommended that the drawdown, which had been postponed due to the Ebola outbreak, should resume during the remainder of UNMIL’s current mandate, which expires 30 September. It seems likely the Council will consider a resolution taking up this recommendation in the near future.

December 2014

Council members held consultations on Liberia sanctions on 8 December 2014, where the final report of the Panel of Experts was discussed (S/2014/831). The following day, the Council adopted resolution 2188, which renews the arms embargo on non-state actors, targeted travel ban and the mandate of the Panel of Experts. Resolution 2188 also reaffirms the asset freeze on Charles Taylor, his family and associates (imposed in 2004 and not time-limited). On 15 December 2014, the Council adopted resolution 2190, extending the mandate of UNMIL until 30 September 2015. It adds a good offices role for the Special Representative and a mandate for UNMIL to provide electoral assistance. The force structure of UNMIL remains unchanged for now, but the Council did reiterate its intent to withdraw the peacekeeping operation by 30 June 2016. Resolution 2190 also requests, in addition to the regular UNMIL reports, for the Secretary-General to update the Council by 15 March 2015 regarding the impact of the Ebola outbreak on security and to provide options for resuming UNMIL’s phased drawdown.

November 2014

On 12 November, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous and Ambassador Per Thöresson (Sweden), representative of the chair of the Liberia PBC configuration, briefed the Council. Ambassador Marjon Kamara (Liberia) also participated (S/PV.7310). As resolution 2176 was a rollover resolution renewing UNMIL’s authorisation for an interim period of three months, the purpose of the briefing was to provide analysis to the Council prior to another resolution renewing (and potentially modifying) UNMIL’s mandate. At the initiative of the US, the Council held a debate on Ebola on 21 November (S/PV.7318), where a presidential statement was adopted that reiterated grave concern over the epidemic, that Ebola constitutes a threat to international peace and security, recognised progress in scaling-up international assistance and called for further strengthening of response efforts.

September 2014

On 4 September, the troop-contributing countries for the UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) held a meeting chaired by US Ambassador Samantha Power (S/PV.7258).  Special Representative Karin Landgren briefed via video teleconference and Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous was present. The principal topic was the measures being taken to protect the health of peacekeepers from being infected with ebola.  On 9 September, Landgren briefed the Council on the UNMIL report (S/2014/598), as well as on the rapid escalation of the ebola outbreak (S/PV.7260).  Also briefing were Mårten Grunditz, Permanent Representative of Sweden in his capacity as Chair of the Liberia PBC configuration, and Liberia’s National Defense Minister Brownie J. Samukai. The briefing was followed by consultations where Council members discussed the Secretary-General’s recommendation to adopt a technical rollover of the mission in light of the ebola outbreak (S/2014/644). On 15 September, the Council adopted resolution 2176, which requested an update on the situation by 15 November and renewed the mandate of UNMIL for a period of three months.

June 2014

In consultations on 16 June, the chair of the 1521 Liberia Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Zeid Ra’ad Zeid Al-Hussein (Jordan), briefed Council members on the Panel of Experts’ midterm report (S/2014/363) as well as the recent sanctions review that had been conducted with a view towards scaling back or ending the regime as mandated in resolution 2128.

March 2014

On 20 March, the Council had a briefing and consultations on Liberia. For the public briefing, Karin Landgren, the Special Representative to Liberia presented the Secretary-General’s latest report and Ambassador Staffan Tillander (Sweden), the PBC Liberia configuration chair, addressed the Council. Council members then heard from Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Edmond Mulet, who had recently participated in a strategic review that the Department of Peacekeeping Operations conducted in February of the UN Mission in Liberia and the UN Operation in Côte d’Ivoire.

December 2013

On 10 December, the Council adopted resolution 2128, modifying the Liberian sanctions regime. This included changes to the notification requirements on arms transfers and military assistance to the 1521 Liberia Sanctions Committee, as well as directing the Committee to review remaining designated individuals and entities over the next three months and delist those that no longer meet the listing criteria. The resolution also reduced the Panel of Experts from three to two members, and no longer mandates the Panel to monitor Liberia’s natural resources. Earlier in the month, on 5 December, Council members held consultations on the Panel’s final report.

November 2013

The1521 Liberia Sanctions Committee was briefed on 19 November on the final report of the Panel of Experts. The report investigated weapons flows and the presence of armed groups in border areas, particularly the border with Côte d’Ivoire. Concerns were also expressed regarding unregulated and illegal exploitation of natural resources as a potential threat to Liberia’s stability.

September 2013

On 10 September, the Council was briefed by Karin Landgren, the Special Representative and head of UNMIL, on the most recent UNMIL report. Ambassador Staffan Tillander (Sweden), the chair of the Liberia configuration of the Peacebuilding Commission, also briefed the Council, as well as Defense Minister Brownie Samukai of Liberia. The briefing was followed by consultations. On 18 September, the Council adopted resolution 2116 renewing the UNMIL mandate for a year and authorising the second phase of the drawdown plan to further reduce the military component by September 2014.

June 2013

On 13 June, Council members received a briefing in consultations from the chair of the 1521 Liberia Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Masood Khan (Pakistan), on the 23 May midterm report of the Panel of Experts on Liberia.

May 2013

The 1521 Liberia Sanctions Committee met on 23 May to receive the midterm report of the Panel of Experts monitoring the sanctions. The report apparently highlights several areas, including: violations of the arms embargo and Liberia’s progress in developing the capacity to monitor and track the flow of arms; continued activities by individuals targeted by sanctions that risk destabilising the Government of Liberia as well as the identification of individuals who could potentially be delisted; continuing tensions related to land tenure issues; and progress made by Liberia in regulating its natural resources industries, especially diamond mining (including Kimberley Process compliance), gold mining and the forestry sector.

March 2013

On 25 March, the Council was briefed by Karin Landgren, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of UNMIL, on the situation in Liberia. Ambassador Staffan Tillander (Sweden), chair of the Liberia configuration of the PBC, also briefed the Council following the recent PBC visit to the country. No outcome followed the briefing and consultations. Landgren’s briefing was largely guided by the Secretary-General’s latest report, with discussions around UNMIL’s continuing reconfiguration, progress towards achieving the transition benchmarks, and the development of a transition plan with the Government of Liberia during and beyond UNMIL’s drawdown. Tillander focused on key findings of the PBC mission related to progress on security sector reform, rule of law and national reconciliation.

February 2013

From 11-15 February, a PBC mission visited Liberia.

December 2012

Pakistan, as chair of the 1521 Liberia Sanctions Committee, briefed Council members in consultations on 6 December on the final report of its Panel of Experts.  On 12 December, the Council adopted resolution 2079 renewing for a year both the sanctions regime on Liberia and the mandate of the Panel. The resolution mandated the Panel to conduct two follow-up assessment missions to Liberia and neighbouring states “to investigate and compile” a midterm and final report on the implementation, and any violations, of the measures on arms, including the various sources of financing, such as from natural resources, for the illicit trade of arms.

September 2012

On 17 September, the Council adopted resolution 2066 extending the mandate of UNMIL for one year. The resolution authorised the reduction of the mission’s military strength in three phases, with the first phase of that reduction—1,900 personnel—to happen between October 2012 and September 2013. The resolution was adopted after the Council received a briefing from the head of UNMIL, Karin Landgren (Sweden) on the latest report.

June 2012

On 8 June the Council issued a press statement condemning the attack by unknown militia fighters which killed seven peacekeepers from Niger and eleven others in southwest Côte d’Ivoire near the Liberian border. On 29 June, the Council held consultations on Liberia after a briefing by DPKO focusing on the Secretary-General’s special UNMIL report of 16 April 2012 requested by resolution 2008. The Council also discussedthe midterm report of the Panel of Experts supporting the sanctions regime, which had been submitted on 15 June.

May 2012

On 19-20 May, Council members visited Liberia as part of a three-country visit to West Africa. The Liberia leg—led by Council members Morocco and the US—was intended to focus on post-conflict challenges. Reporting on the trip to the Council on 31 May, the US ambassador said that Council members focused on security and rule-of-law institutions, reconciliation and positioning for the drawdown of UNMIL. Council members were concerned by the security challenges on the Liberian-Ivorian border, which they visited.

April 2012

On 26 April, The Special Court for Sierra Leone sitting in The Hague found Charles Taylor, Liberia’s former President, guilty of aiding and abetting war crimes and crimes against humanity for his support of Sierra Leone’s Revolutionary United Front rebels in the 1990s.

December 2011

The Council adopted resolution 2025 on 14 December, renewing for a period of 12 months a sanctions regime including asset freezes and arms embargo on non-state actors, and travel ban on selected individuals, as well as the mandate of the Panel of Experts appointed to monitor implementation of the sanctions regime. Previously, on 9 December, the Council discussed the 30 November Panel of Experts report, which dealt with the impact of the return of an estimated 4,500 Liberian mercenaries who had been hired and deployed by former Ivorian President Laurent Gbagbo.

November 2011

On 18 November, the Council issued a statement praising the 8 November run-off election as “free, fair and transparent”. The statement, however, deplored the electoral violence of 7 November, in which at least one protestor was killed, and welcomed the creation of a Special Independent Commission of Inquiry to investigate the incident. Turnout was predictably low on 8 November, due to the opposition boycott and the pre-election violence. Sirleaf received 607,618 votes (or 90.7 percent of the total cast) and was declared re-elected for another six-year term.

October 2011

The Council issued a press statement on 26 October praising the peaceful and orderly conduct of the first round of presidential elections on 11 October.

September 2011

On 16 September, the Council adopted resolution resolution 2008 renewing the mandate of UNMIL for 12 months. Following a briefing from Special Representative Ellen Løj on the latest developments in Liberia on 13 September.

August 2011

On 4 August, the Liberia Sanctions Committee updated its travel ban and assets freeze lists to better reflect the current passport information of those on the lists.

June 2011

The Council held consultations on the mid-term report of the Panel of Experts  of the Liberia Sanctions Committee (submitted on 15 June) on 23 June.

March 2011

The head of UNMIL, Ellen Margrethe Løj, briefed the Council on 16 March. On 3 March, the Council adopts resolution 1971 discontinuing the authorisation for UNMIL military personnel to provide security and evacuation assistance to the Special Court of Sierra Leone in Freetown.

February 2011

The Council extended the redeployment of troops and helicopters from UNMIL to the UN Mission in Côte d’Ivoire on 16 February. On 11 February, the Secretary-General informed the Council that the UNMIL guard force at the Special Court of Sierra Leone premises in Freetown was withdrawing in early March.

December 2010

On 17 December, the Council renewed for a further 12 months the arms embargo on Liberia and the travel ban on persons seen as threatening peace and stability in the country.  The Council also extended the mandate of the Panel of Experts until 16 December 2011. 

October 2010

On 13 October, the registrar of the Special Court of Sierra Leone advised that as sensitive archives had been relocated to The Hague and international staff had been reduced the UNMIL guard force would no longer be required in Freetown.

16 September 2010

The Peacebuilding Commission established a country configuration for Liberia.

15 September 2010

The Council extended the mandate of UNMIL for another year.

8 September 2010

The Council was briefed on developments in Liberia by Ellen Løj, the Head of UNMIL.

29 July 2010

Liberia’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) concluded its work.

14 July 2010

The Council decided to accept the request of Liberian government for the country to be placed on the PBC’s agenda and formally took action pursuant to paragraph 12 of resolution 1645 (2005) adding Liberia to the PBC agenda by requesting the Commission’s advice.

13 July 2010

Council members were briefed during private consultations by the chairman of the Liberia Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Ivan Barbalić of Bosnia and Herzegovina, on the Panel’s midterm report and the Committee’s deliberations on it.

19 June 2010

The Liberian government’s request for placement of the country on the PBC’s agenda was brought to the attention of the Council.

16 June 2010

The sanctions committee met to consider the Panel’s report and, while welcoming the progress made regarding the implementation of the arms embargo and the travel ban, supported the recommendations made by the panel

27 May 2010

The Government of Liberia wrote to the Secretary-General conveying the interest of Liberia in being placed on the agenda of the Peacebuilding Commission (PBC).

13 May 2010

The Panel of Experts on Liberia submitted its midterm report to the Council’s Sanctions Committee on Liberia covering the period from 15 February to 10 May.

10 March 2010

Ellen Margrethe Løj, the Secretary-General’s Special Representative in Liberia, briefed Council members in private consultations on UNMIL’s work and developments in the country over the preceding five months

26 February 2010

Four people were killed and 25 wounded in the northern Liberian region of Lofa County and churches and mosques damaged in inter-communal clashes

25 January 2010

Liberian President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf announced that she would be a candidate in the 2011 elections.

22 February 2010

George Boley, former leader of the Liberian Peace Council, an insurgent group implicated in numerous abuses during the 14 years of civil war, was arrested in the US. 

17 December 2009

The Council renewed for 12 months targeted sanctions on persons seen as a threat to Liberia. and adjusted the arms embargo so that it would not apply to arms and related materiel used by the UNMIL for training. The Council also extended the mandate of the Panel of Experts monitoring the implementation of the sanctions until 20 December 2010.

16 November 2009

The chairman of Liberia’s National Elections Commission, James Fromayan said supporters of the opposition Congress for Democratic Change (CDC) party had threatened to burn down his house and kill him. The CDC denied that its members had made such threats against him.

1 November 2009

Police officers serving with UNMIL helped Liberian police and prison officers foil an attempted mass escape by about fifty prisoners from a prison in Monrovia.

Late October 2009

Lieutenant General Sikander Afzal from Pakistan was appointed as the new Force Commander of UNMIL, replacing Lieutenant General Zahirul Alam from Bangladesh, whose tour of duty ended.

15 September 2009

The Council extended UNMIL’s mandate till 30 September 2010 and endorsed the Secretary-General’s recommendation to implement the third phase of the mission’s drawdown (S/RES/1885).

13 August 2009

 US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visited Liberia as part of a seven-nation African tour.

10 August 2009

 the Secretary-General’s latest report on UNMIL was circulated to Council members.

28 July 2009

Johnson-Sirleaf apologised in a nationwide radio address for her past support of former Liberian President Charles Taylor,

July 2009

Liberian President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf officially ended the national Disarmament, Demobilisation, Rehabilitation and Reintegration programme.

13 July 2009

The trial of former Liberian President Charles Taylor before the UN Special Court for Sierra Leone resumed in The Hague with the opening of the defence case.

1 July 2009

The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Liberia released its final report.

25 June 2009

The Council met in closed consultations to discuss the Secretary-General’s special report on UNMIL of 10 June and heard a briefing by Alain Le Roy, the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, who had just visited Liberia. There was also a briefing by the chairman of the Liberia Sanctions Committee, Libyan Ambassador Abdurrahman Mohamed Shalgham.

19 and 20 May 2009

The Council visited Liberia as part of its five-day, four-country mission to Africa.

4 May 2009

The Special Court for Sierra Leone’s Trial Chamber at The Hague dismissed a request by the defence counsel for former Liberian President Charles Taylor to drop the charges against him (11 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity) on the grounds of insufficient evidence. Taylor’s trial was scheduled to resume on 29 June.

12 February 2009

Liberian President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf testified before the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Liberia, apologising for having supported Taylor’s rebellion against President Samuel Doe before she went into exile.

30 January 2009

In the trial in the Special Court for Sierra Leone of former Liberian president Charles Taylor the prosecution concluded testimony, having called 91 witnesses.

9 January 2009

The son of Charles Taylor, the US national Charles “Chuckie” Taylor Jr., was sentenced by a US court to 97 years in prison for torture committed in Liberia.

19 December 2008

The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Liberia presented the first of several volumes of its final report.

30 October 2008

The son of Charles Taylor, the US national Charles “Chuckie” Taylor Jr., was convicted by a Miami jury for torture committed when he was head of a notorious anti-terrorist unit in Liberia during his father’s presidency.

1 September 2008

The Special Court for Sierra Leone received a request from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Liberia for an audience with Taylor, but he refused, as was his right.

11 and 12 August 2008

Alhaji G.V. Kromah, former head of the disbanded United Liberation Movement (ULIMO), appeared before the Liberian Truth and Reconciliation Commission. 

1 July 2008

Liberian President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, on the sidelines of the AU summit, reportedly asked the UN to extend the timeline for the drawdown of UNMIL put forward in the Secretary-General’s August 2007 report.

9 June 2008

The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Liberia held public hearings in Minnesota, US, focusing on the experience of Liberians in the diaspora.

14 May 2008

The Special Court forSierra Leone trying former Liberian President Charles Taylor at The Hague began hearing the testimony of its most prominent witness to date, former Liberian Vice-President Moses Blah.

21 to 22 April 2008

UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon visited Liberia and pledged the UN’s continued support.

17 January 2008

Ellen Loj arrived in Monrovia to take up her post as Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Liberia.

8 January 2008

Public hearings began at the Truth and Reconciiation Commission in Monrovia to inquire into human rights violations during the country’s 14-year civil war.

7 January 2008

Special Court for Sierra Leone resumed trial of former Liberian President Charles Taylor at the Hague after a six-month delay to allow him to prepare his defense.

November 2007

The International Monetary Fund indicated that it was ready to commence cancelling Liberia’s debt after sufficient funds had been secured from pledges made by donor nations for that process. The Liberia Sanctions Committee removed Grace Minor from its list of individuals subject to its travel ban.

4 October  2007

The UN Secretary-General declared Liberia as  the fifth country to become eligible for the UN Peacebuilding Fund.

8 August 2007

The war crimes trial of former President Charles Taylor was postponed by the Special Court for Sierra Leone until 7 January.

19 July 2007

The government of Liberia announced the arrest of five people in connection with an alleged coup attempt, including former Speaker of the Parliament George Koukou and General Charles July, the former head of the presidential guard during the regime of ex-President Samuel Doe and leader of a 1994 coup attempt. 

12 July 2007

The government submitted a bill to parliament regarding the seizure of the property of former President Charles Taylor, his relatives and associates.

4 June 2007

The trial of former Liberian president Charles Taylor began at the Special Court for Sierra Leone outpost in The Hague.

January-February 2007

Violent clashes between police and civilian protesters led to a declaration of martial law in neighboring Guinea, heightening the risk of regional instability. UNMIL strengthened its border presence with Guinea. 

October 2006

The Council decided not to reinstate timber sanctions.

June 2006

The Council lifted the timber embargo for 90 days.

6 February 2006

The Council authorised the deployment of UNMIL troops in Côte d’Ivoire.

16 January 2006

Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf was sworn in as Liberia’s new president.

8 November 2005

Second ballot in presidential elections.

October 2005

Presidential and legislative elections were held; Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf and George Weah qualified for a second presidential ballot.

19 September 2005

The Council increased UNMIL to provide security for the Special Court for Sierra Leone.

October 2004

Disarmament and demobilization process formally completed.

June 2004

The second Council mission to West Africa traveled to Liberia, Sierra Leone and Côte d’Ivoire.

March 2004

 The Council imposed sanctions on Charles Taylor and his associates.

December 2003

The Council re-imposed an arms embargo, a travel ban and sanctions on the export of diamonds and timber from Liberia. UNMIL announced the launching of a countrywide DDR programme.

October 2003

The National Transitional Government of Liberia (NTGL) was inaugurated.

September 2003

The Council established UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL); US forces withdrew.

August 2003

The Council approved the establishment of a multinational force in Liberia. The ECOWAS Mission in Liberia (ECOMIL) and US troops arrived; Taylor exiled to Nigeria. Interim administration established. Liberian parties signed a Comprehensive Peace Agreement in Accra and asked for UN peacekeepers.

July 2003

Anti-Taylor insurgents intensify fighting for the control of Monrovia against the Government of Liberia.

June 2003

Charles Taylor was indicted by the Special Court for Sierra Leone. The first Council mission to West Africa traveled to Liberia, Sierra Leone and Côte d’Ivoire.

2002

Conflict erupted in Côte d’Ivoire, fueled from spill-over from Liberia; France intervened. President Kabbah declared the Sierra Leonean conflict over.

2001

In a major offensive led by Guinea, anti-Taylor insurgents pushed the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) back into Liberia and Sierra Leone. The RUF retreated into Liberia.  An arms embargo was re-imposed to further pressure Taylor. The UN Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) was established.

2000

Anti-Taylor insurgents invaded Liberia; Taylor and the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) counterattacked by taking the fighting into Guinea. The Sierra Leonean Lomé peace accord collapsed, as the RUF took 500 UN peacekeepers hostage; UK troops sent to Sierra Leone. The Special Court for Sierra Leone was established.

1999

The Revolutionary United Front (RUF) captured Freetown, securing the Sierra Leonean vice-presidency for Foday Sankoh. Major human rights violations, including widespread murder, rapes and arson committed by the RUF. Lomé peace accord signed, ending the fighting in Sierra Leone. The Sankoh-Taylor alliance began to erode over disputes for diamond fields. Economic Community of West Africa Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) left Liberia.

1998

In Sierra Leone, President Kabbah was reinstated.

1997

President Kabbah was toppled, leading Nigerian forces to focus on the crisis in Sierra Leone. Taylor elected President; the UN Peacebuilding Support Office in Liberia (UNOL) was established.

1995

Abuja Accord signed; transitional Council of State established.

1993

Cotonou Peace Agreement signed; the Council established UN Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL).

1992

The Council imposed an arms embargo on Liberia.

1991

The Revolutionary United Front (RUF) entered Sierra Leone with Taylor’s support. Yamoussoukro Agreements signed.

1990

Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) established ECOWAS Monitoring Group (ECOMOG).

1989

The National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) entered Liberia with support from Côte D’Ivoire and Burkina Faso.