On 17 September, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2597, which renewed UNITAD’s mandate until 17 September 2022.
On 25 August, the Security Council held a briefing and closed consultations on UNAMI. Special Representative and head of UNAMI, Jeanine Hennis-Plasschaert, briefed on the most recent developments in Iraq and the Secretary General’s latest reports concerning UNAMI (S/2021/700) and the issue of missing Kuwaiti and third-country nationals and missing Kuwaiti property, including the national archives (S/2021/689). During her briefing, Hennis-Plasschaert discussed the preparations for the 10 October elections and highlighted that a lack of trust in public authorities and institutions is long-standing and widespread.
On 19 July, a bomb attack targeted a market in Baghdad. The attack was claimed by ISIL and killed at least 30 people and injured at least 50 others. On 21 July, the Security Council issued a press statement, in which Council members condemned the attack and reaffirmed that terrorism constitutes one of the most serious threats to international peace and security (SC/14584). Council members also underlined the need to hold perpetrators accountable and bring them to justice.
On 10 May, the Security Council held an open VTC briefing, followed by closed VTC consultations, on UNITAD. Council members heard a briefing from Karim Asad Ahmad Khan, Special Adviser and Head of UNITAD. Khan briefed on his sixth report (S/2021/419) and said that UNITAD had established “clear and convincing evidence” that genocide was committed by ISIL against the Yazidi. Nadia Murad, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate and a Yazidi survivor of ISIL crimes, also briefed the Council. She urged the Council to prioritise and accelerate concrete action to address UNITAD’s findings.
On 11 May, the Security Council held an open VTC briefing on UNAMI. Special Representative and head of UNAMI, Jeanine Hennis-Plasschaert, briefed on the most recent developments in Iraq and the Secretary General’s latest reports concerning UNAMI (S/2021/426) and the issue of missing Kuwaiti and third-country nationals and missing Kuwaiti property, including the national archives (S/2021/395). During her briefing, Hennis-Plasschaert noted that many members of the protest movement that led to the 10 October elections being called continue to be persecuted with “rampant impunity”. She also reiterated her call to all Iraqi stakeholders to uphold the integrity of the electoral process.
On 27 May, the Security Council adopted resolution 2576, which renewed the mandate of UNAMI until 27 May 2022.
On 16 February, the Security Council heard an open VTC briefing, followed by closed VTC consultations, on UNAMI. Special Representative and head of UNAMI, Jeanine Hennis-Plasschaert, briefed on the most recent developments in Iraq and the Secretary General’s latest reports concerning UNAMI (S/2021/120) and the issue of missing Kuwaiti and third-country nationals and missing Kuwaiti property, including the national archives (S/2021/93). Hennis-Plasschaert said that very little progress had been made on the implementation of economic reform measures and noted that Iraq’s Independent High Electoral Commission had decided that elections will be held on 10 October. She also mentioned the Iraqi government’s request for electoral observation and emphasised the importance of ensuring that parties and candidates operate in a free and safe environment.
On 10 December, the Security Council held a briefing via VTC on the fifth report of the Special Adviser and Head of UNITAD, Karim Asad Ahmad Khan (S/2020/1107). The briefing was followed by closed VTC consultations. Khan noted that investigations in relation to crimes committed against the Christian, Kaka’i, Shabak, Sunni, and Turkmen Shia communities were progressing rapidly. He also said that he was encouraged by efforts made in the Iraq Council of Representatives to advance legislation that would allow for the prosecution of ISIL crimes under Iraqi domestic law as war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide.
On 24 November, the Security Council heard a briefing from Jeanine Hennis-Plasschaert, the Special Representative and head of UNAMI. Hennis-Plasschaert briefed on the most recent developments in Iraq and the Secretary General’s latest reports concerning UNAMI (S/2020/1099) and the issue of missing Kuwaiti and third-country nationals and missing Kuwaiti property, including the national archives (S/2020/1089). During her briefing, Hennis-Plasschaert emphasised that the best devices in any “peace and security tool-kit” are the fight against corruption, sustainable inclusive economic development, and dignified employment. Following the meeting, the Council issued a press statement (SC/14365). Among other matters, the press statement noted the repatriation of human remains, believed to be of Kuwaiti citizens, from Iraq to Kuwait on 16 September 2020 and on 8 August 2019, and welcomed the ongoing cooperation between the governments of Iraq and Kuwait in the search for missing Kuwaiti and third-country nationals.
On 18 September, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2544 renewing the mandate of UNITAD until 18 September 2021 (S/2020/920). Resolution 2544 retains UNITAD’s mandate. It also aligns the term of the Special Adviser and head of UNITAD with the term of UNITAD’s mandate, and renews the Special Adviser’s term until 18 September 202. In a 16 September letter to the Council president, the Iraqi foreign minister had requested the renewal of UNITAD’s mandate for one year.
On 15 June, Security Council members received a briefing in an open VTC (S/2020/547) from Karim Asad Ahmad Khan, the Special Adviser and head of UNITAD, based on the Special Adviser’s fourth report on the activities of UNITAD (S/2020/386). A closed VTC followed.
On 3 March, the Council received a briefing by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of UNAMI, Jeanine Hennis-Plasschaert, on the most recent developments in the situation in Iraq and on the two latest Secretary-General’s reports—on UNAMI and on the issue of missing Kuwaiti and third-country nationals and missing Kuwaiti property, including the national archives. The briefing was followed by consultations.
On 3 December, the Council received a briefing, followed by consultations, on Iraq. Special Representative and head of UNAMI Jeanine Hennis-Plasschaert briefed on the Secretary-General’s latest report on UNAMI and the issue of missing Kuwaiti and third-country nationals and missing Kuwaiti property, including the national archives and the most recent developments in the country. Roberto Mardini, Permanent Observer of the International Committee of the Red Cross to the UN, and Monsignor Bashar Matti Warda, Archbishop of Erbil, also briefed. On 13 December, Council members issued a press statement expressing grave concern at the loss of life of those demonstrating and at the killing, maiming, and arbitrary arrests of unarmed demonstrators, and welcomed efforts for an inclusive dialogue between the Government and people of Iraq.
On 20 September, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2490, renewing the mandate of the UN Investigative Team to Promote Accountability for Crimes Committed by Da’esh/ISIL (UNITAD) until 21 September 2020.
On 21 May, the Council adopted resolution 2470, unanimously renewing the mandate of UNAMI until 31 May 2020. Following the adoption, the Special Representative and head of UNAMI, Jeanine Hennis-Plasschaert, briefed the Council on the Secretary-General’s latest reports on UNAMI (S/2019/365) and the issue of missing Kuwaiti and third-country nationals and missing Kuwaiti property, including the national archives (S/2019/352).
On 13 February, the new Special Representative and head of UNAMA, Jeanine Hennis-Plasschaert, briefed the Council on the latest Secretary-General’s report and recent developments in Iraq. She expressed concern over the slow pace of completing the process of formation of the new government and called on Iraqis to focus on addressing the immediate needs of the country and refrain from factional politics. On 19 February, the Council adopted a presidential statement welcoming the cooperation between Iraq and Kuwait on the issue of missing Kuwaiti and third-country nationals and the return of missing Kuwaiti property, including national archives.
On 4 December, the Council received its first briefing by Karim Asad Ahmad Khan, the Special Adviser and head of the UN Investigative Team for Accountability of Da’esh (UNITAD) on the first report on the team’s activities.
On 13 November, the outgoing Secretary-General’s Special Representative and head of UNAMI, Ján Kubiš, briefed on the latest Secretary-General’s report on UNAMI (S/2018/975), the Secretary-General’s 20th report on the issue of missing Kuwaiti and third-country nationals and missing Kuwaiti property, including the national archives, and the most recent developments in the country (S/PV.8396). Kubiš focused his remarks on the ongoing Iraqi government formation, the elections in Kurdistan and the activities of the UN Investigative Team for Accountability of Da’esh. He also reported the return of some Kuwaiti property from Iraq to Kuwait.
On 8 August, the Council was briefed by the Secretary-General’s Special Representative and head of UNAMI, Ján Kubiš, on the latest Secretary-General’s report on UNAMI and the most recent developments in the country. Head of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) Delegation to the United Nations Philip Spoerri and Suzan Araf Maroof from the Women Empowerment Organization in Iraq also provided briefings. Kubiš updated the Council on the partial manual ballot recount following the 12 May parliamentary elections. Spoerri briefed on the issue of the missing Kuwaiti and third-country nationals and the respective activities by the Tripartite Commission chaired by the ICRC. Maroof spoke about the work of the Iraq Cross Sector Task Force for the implementation of resolution 1325. She named social protection, non-discriminatory legislation, stabilisation of the country, livelihood opportunities, and support for women’s participation on all levels as security priorities for the Council to work on with the Iraqi government. In other developments, Karim Asad Ahmad Khan, Special Adviser and head of the investigative team to support Iraqi domestic efforts to hold the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant accountable for crimes it committed in Iraq, undertook his first mission to Iraq from 6 to 14 August. In a letter dated 15 August 2018 the Secretary-General informed the Council that the investigative team will begin its work on 20 August.
On 14 June, the Council voted unanimously to renew the mandate of UNAMI through resolution 2421 until 31 May 2019. Set to expire on 31 July, UNAMI’s mandate was renewed for ten months in order to align it with the UN’s budget cycle. For the first time since UNAMI’s role was expanded in 2007, its mandate was changed and the text streamlined by cutting the preambulatory portion from several pages to just three paragraphs. UNAMI’s role in advancing an inclusive political dialogue and reconciliation was prioritized. Language was added on UNAMI’s role in advising, supporting and assisting Iraq in facilitating regional dialogue and cooperation on issues of environment and water; promoting accountability; supporting the work of the investigative team; assisting Iraq and the UN Country Team in strengthening child protection; approaching gender as a cross-cutting issue; and advising and assisting Iraq in ensuring the participation, involvement and representation of women at all levels. The resolution encourages all relevant UN actors to implement the recommendations of the independent external assessment of UNAMI, and requests that the Secretary-General report on the relevant actions taken in his quarterly reports.
On 30 May, the Council received a briefing by Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of UNAMI Ján Kubiš on the latest report of the Secretary-General and on recent developments in Iraq. According to Kubiš, the parliamentary elections held on 12 May were conducted in a mostly peaceful and orderly manner. He added that they were also marked by a significantly decreased voter turnout of 44.5 percent in comparison to the last elections. He also briefed on the eighteenth report of the Secretary-General on the issue of missing Kuwaiti and third-country nationals and missing Kuwaiti property, including the national archives. According to the report, the lack of tangible results in 13 years requires the adoption of new and innovative ways to take the file forward. Additionally, Under-Secretary-General of the UN Office of Counter-Terrorism Vladimir Voronkov and Assistant Secretary-General and Executive Director of the Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate Michèle Coninsx briefed on their joint visit to Iraq in March. They elaborated on their support to the Iraqi government on a more comprehensive approach to countering terrorism and violent extremism, including addressing root causes. On 31 May, the Secretary-General appointed Karim Asad Ahmad Khan of the UK as the Special Adviser and head of the investigative team established according to resolution 2379 to support Iraqi domestic efforts to hold ISIL accountable for crimes it committed in the country.
On 13 February, the Council formally approved the terms of reference for the investigative team to support Iraq’s domestic efforts to hold ISIL accountable as mandated by resolution 2379. On 20 February, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of UNAMI Ján Kubiš briefed the Council on the latest report on UNAMI and on recent developments. Kubiš’s briefing focused on the Iraqi donor conference hosted by Kuwait, preparations for parliamentary elections, and relations between Baghdad and Erbil among other topics.
On 22 November, Ján Kubiš, Special Representative and head of UNAMI briefed the Council on the most recent developments regarding the fight against ISIL and ongoing tensions between the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) and central government in Baghdad (S/PV.8112). In his briefing, Kubiš commended the government of Iraq and coalition forces on their victories against ISIL while also calling on return of the internally displaced population, stabilisation, reconstruction, and rehabilitation of the country. Furthermore, he called on the KRG and Iraqi central government to deescalate tensions and resolve all outstanding issues through dialogue and with the respect for the Constitution of Iraq.
On 21 September, Council members issued a press statement expressing concern regarding destabilising effects of the referendum on independence organised by the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) for the following week. Council members urged both the federal Government and the KRG to resolve all outstanding issues in accordance with the Iraqi Constitution and through dialogue. On 21 September, the Council adopted resolution 2379 on accountability for crimes committed by ISIL in Iraq. The resolution established an investigative team tasked with collecting, storing and preserving evidence of ISIL crimes in Iraq which could later be used in criminal proceedings in Iraqi national-level courts.
On 13 July, Council members issued a press statement in which they welcomed the announcement by the Iraqi authorities on the liberation of Mosul. The statement also called on the government of Iraq to stabilise liberated areas across the country and called on all Iraqis to work towards national reconciliation. On 14 July, the Council adopted resolution 2367, extending the mandate of UNAMI for another year (S/PV.8003). The resolution also requested the Secretary-General to conduct an independent external assessment of the structure and staffing of UNAMI and related resources in an effort to ensure that the UN mission and the UN country team fulfil their mandated tasks more efficiently. On 17 July, Special Representative and head of UNAMI Ján Kubiš briefed the Council on the latest developments in Iraq and on the situation in Mosul.
On 14 June, the Council adopted a press statement on Iraq-Kuwait issue. The statement welcomed strong bilateral relations between the countries and encouraged them to collaborate closely through the tripartite mechanism on the file of missing Kuwaiti persons and third-country nationals to achieve further concrete results. The statement also noted a limited progress on this issue recently and a regret that no cases of missing Kuwaiti persons have been solved and no human remains exhumed over the past 12 years.
On 22 May, the Special Representative and head of UNAMI, Ján Kubiš, briefed the Council on the latest Secretary-General’s report and provided an update on the government’s efforts to retake Mosul from ISIL.
On 10 March, Council members met in consultations on the situation in and around Mosul, Iraq. The meeting had been requested by Russia in order to discuss the deteriorating humanitarian situation in Mosul and the alleged use of chemical weapons in eastern Mosul. Head of OCHA Stephen O’Brien and High Representative for Disarmament Affairs Kim Won-soo briefed Council members on the humanitarian situation and alleged chemical weapons use, respectively. On 24 March, Russia requested the meeting under “any other business” on the situation in Mosul in light of the reports of the alleged use of chemical weapons by ISIL. During the meeting China and Russia circulated a draft resolution which sought to extend the mandate of OPCW-UN Joint Investigative Mechanism to Iraq.
On 2 February, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of UNAMI, Ján Kubiš, briefed the Council on the latest UNAMI report. A main focus of his briefing was the Mosul military operation and its humanitarian impact. On the political front, Kubiš informed the Council of the latest national reconciliation efforts in Iraq.
On 4 January, OCHA head Stephen O’Brien briefed Council members in consultations under “any other business” on the humanitarian situation in and around Mosul. The meeting was initiated by Russia in light of the deteriorating humanitarian situation following the start of the second phase of the offensive by Iraqi forces to retake Mosul from ISIL. O’Brien updated Council members on the increased humanitarian needs in Mosul, including the rising number of displaced persons as a result of the offensive.
On 2 November, Assistant Secretary-General for Human Rights Andrew Gilmour and the head of OCHA, Stephen O’Brien, briefed Council members in consultations under “any other business” on the human rights and humanitarian implications of the offensive to liberate Mosul from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. On 9 November, Special Representative Ján Kubiš briefed the Council and presented the Secretary-General’s reports on UNAMI and on Iraq/Kuwait missing persons and property. The security and humanitarian impact of the Mosul offensive was highlighted during the briefing.
On 5 July, Council members issued a press statement condemning a 3 July car bombing, claimed by ISIL, that killed hundreds in a largely Shi’a neighbourhood of Baghdad. On 15 July, Special Representative Ján Kubiš briefed the Council and presented the Secretary-General’s reports on UNAMI (S/2016/592) and on Iraq/Kuwait missing persons and property (S/2016/590). On 25 July, the Council adopted resolution 2299 renewing UNAMI for a year. On 29 July, Council members issued a press statement calling on Iraq to continue in its efforts to achieve tangible progress with respect to returning all missing Kuwaiti and third-country nationals or their remains, noting the limited progress made on this issue over the past 11 years.
On 21 June, the head of UNAMI, Special Representative Jan Kubiš, briefed Council members under “any other business” via video teleconference from Baghdad on the situation in and around Fallujah, particularly on the human rights situation and humanitarian needs. Iraq was discussed again on 23 June when Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs Miroslav Jenča briefed Council members in consultations under “any other business” on cross-border issues involving Turkey, Iraq and Syria. The Turkish presence in the Ba’shiqa region near Mosul, which Turkey maintains to counter the activities of ISIL and the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) in northern Iraq, was raised.
On 6 May, Special Representative Ján Kubiš presented the Secretary-General’s reports on UNAMI and on Iraq/Kuwait missing persons and property to the Council. He reported on Iraq’s deepening political crisis and challenges to Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi’s reform efforts; the financial crisis resulting from corruption, plunging oil prices and the high cost of fighting ISIL; and the deteriorating humanitarian situation with needs expected to increase in 2016 in the context of counter-ISIL operations. Separately, on 12 May, Council members issued a press statement condemning the ISIL terrorist attacks in Baghdad.
On 29 April, the Security Council’s 2242 Informal Expert Group on Women, Peace and Security considered the situation in Iraq. Several UN officials briefed, including Special Representative and head of UNAMI Ján Kubiš, the deputy head of UNAMI, Lise Grande, and Deputy High Commissioner for Human Rights Kate Gilmore.
On 12 January, Council members issued a press statement condemning ISIS attacks against Shi’a areas of Baghdad and Muqdadiya that left at least 50 people dead.
On 18 December, Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs Jeffrey Feltman briefed the Council on Iraq’s complaint regarding the Turkish deployment of an armoured battalion to the Ba’shiqa region near Mosul (S/2015/963). On 8 December, at the request of Russia, Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs Miroslav Jenča briefed Council members on the same issue in consultations under “any other business”.
On 11 November, Special Representative Ján Kubiš briefed the Council (S/PV.7556) and presented the Secretary-General’s reports on UNAMI (S/2015/819) and on Iraq/Kuwait missing persons and property (S/2015/826). Kubiš discussed the prime minister’s set of reforms that had been barred by the Council of Representatives. These reforms included attempts to abate the influence of former Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki. Kubiš said the prime minister has struggled to exercise his authority while his opponents grow bolder.
On 24 August, Chile and the US organised an Arria-formula meeting on ISIS’s targeting of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered persons, as part of ISIS’s ongoing track record of deliberately targeting minorities and vulnerable populations in Iraq and Syria. Angola and Chad did not attend but the majority of Council members heard first-hand accounts from affected individuals from both Iraq and Syria and were briefed by Deputy Secretary-General Jan Eliasson and Jessica Stern, Executive Director of the International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. On 25 August, Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict Zainab Bangura briefed Council members in consultations on her 16-29 April visit to the Middle East (Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey) where sexual violence is being committed strategically, in a widespread and systematic manner, and with a high-degree of sophistication by most parties to the conflicts in Iraq and Syria—both state and non-state actors. On 28 August, Council members issued a press statement that condemned the use of sexual violence committed, including as a method or tactic of warfare, in Syria and Iraq.
On 22 July, Special Representative Ján Kubiš briefed the Council (S/PV.7489) and presented the Secretary-General’s reports on UNAMI (S/2015/530) and on Iraq/Kuwait missing persons and property (S/2015/518). On 29 July, the Council adopted resolution 2233 renewing UNAMI for a year and requesting the Secretary-General to report back to the Council in 90 days with a full set of recommendations emanating from the Secretariat’s strategic assessment mission that was carried out in April.
On 14 May, newly appointed Special Representative Ján Kubiš briefed the Council, presenting the most recent UNAMI report and the report on Iraq/Kuwait missing persons and property. Kubiš said that for military gains against ISIS to hold, the government would have to restore civilian authority in areas liberated from ISIS—a reference to the Sunni western provinces which have a strained relationship with the Shi’a-led government in Baghdad. (Three days later Ramadi fell to ISIS as government forces fled. There have been subsequent reports of Iraqi authorities blocking civilians fleeing Ramadi from entering Baghdad.) OCHA head Valerie Amos also briefed on the humanitarian situation, reporting that 8.2 million people required assistance, an increase of three million in five months.
On 27 April, Jordan and France presided over an Arria-formula meeting where UNESCO and INTERPOL briefed UN member states on how they could implement the cultural heritage provisions of resolution 2199, i.e., the prevention of illicit trade in Iraqi and Syrian cultural property .
On 27 March, French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius chaired a ministerial-level open debate on the situation of persecuted ethnic or religious minorities in the Middle East (S/2015/176), there was a particular focus on Iraq and Syria (S/PV.7419). The Secretary-General and High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra’ad Zeid Al Hussein briefed. An Iraqi parliamentarian of the Yazidi faith and the head of the Chaldean Catholic Patriarch of Babylon also addressed the Council.
On 17 February, the Council held its regular quarterly briefing and consultations on Iraq. Special Representative Nickolay Mladenov presented the most recent UNAMI report and the report on Iraq/Kuwait missing persons and property. It was Mladenov’s last briefing as the head of UNAMI, and he delivered several messages to the Iraqi government. He said it was important to reign in fighters acting outside the constitution (a reference to Shi’a militias carrying out revenge attacks on Sunnis); rebuild the security forces on a truly national basis; revise the laws related to de-Baathification and finalise national guard legislation to empower provinces to be responsible for their own security and bring arms under the control of the government. Separately, on counter-terrorism, the Council adopted resolution 2199 on 12 February which addressed the funding of ISIS via illegal oil exports, traffic of cultural heritage, ransom payments and external donations.
On 18 November, the Council held its regular quarterly briefing and consultations on Iraq (S/PV.7314). Special Representative Nickolay Mladenov presented the most recent UNAMI report (S/2014/774) and the report on Iraq/Kuwait missing persons and property (S/2014/776). He focused his comments on the newly formed Shi’a-led government and Baghdad’s relationship with Iraq’s Sunni and Kurdish population. The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra’ad Zeid Al Hussein briefed on the human rights dimension of the conflict in Iraq. Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs Valerie Amos briefed on the deteriorating humanitarian situation.
On 17 October, the Council issued a press statement condemning ISIS attacks in Baghdad (SC/11605). On 31 October, the Council issued a press statement condemning the murder by ISIS of Sunni tribesmen in Anbar Province whose bodies were found in a mass grave, these tribesmen had been cooperating with the government in the fight against ISIS and welcoming the completion of the formation of an inclusive government representing all segments of the Iraqi population (SC/11625).
On 19 September, US Secretary of State John Kerry chaired a ministerial-level Council debate on Iraq—the culmination of US coalition-building that resulted in some 50 countries, including ten Arab countries, agreeing to back the US-led action against ISIS in military, humanitarian and support capacities (S/PV.7271). Special Representative for Iraq Nickolay Mladenov briefed along with the new Iraqi Foreign Minister Ibrahim al-Jaafari. In addition to Council members, 24 other member states participated, largely representing the “coalition countries”. Iran and Syria also participated. Council members adopted a presidential statement that day, urging the international community to strengthen and expand support for Iraq as it fights ISIS (S/PRST/2014/20).
On 4 August, under “any other business”, Council members were briefed by Deputy Special Representative György Busztin via video-teleconference on the deteriorating humanitarian and security situation in Iraq due to the offensive by the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS). Council members issued a press statement the next day deploring ISIS attacks, condemning the persecution of minorities, recalling that such widespread and systematic attacks could constitute a crime against humanity and calling for accountability and an inclusive political process. On 7 August, Council members were briefed again by Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs Tayé-Brook Zerihoun in emergency consultations on the ongoing ISIS offensive that had begun to threaten the peshmerga forces of the Kurdistan Regional Government in Nineveh province, where a large number of minorities live. Council members issued a press statement later that day, strongly reiterating its messages from 5 August. On 13 August, Council members issued another press statement welcoming the nomination of Prime Minister-designate Haider al-Abadi and urged the swift formation of the Iraqi government. Finally, on 15 August the Council adopted resolution 2170 listing six individuals affiliated with ISIS (operating in Iraq and Syria) and al-Nusra (operating in Syria) under the 1267/1989 Al-Qaida sanctions regime in an attempt to cut off funding to these groups (SC/11521).
On 23 July, Special Representative Nickolay Mladenov briefed the Council on prospects of forming a government given the election of a prime minister was still outstanding following 30 April elections, the security implications of the seizure of north-western Iraq by the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), the fact that over a third of Iraq was outside government control, territorial consolidation of Kurdistan and the ongoing impasse between Irbil and Baghdad. He presented the Secretary-General’s reports on UNAMI and on Iraq/Kuwait missing persons and property. He also discussed the humanitarian impact of the current crisis, reporting 1.2 million were displaced and that minorities were under attack as a result of the spread of ISIS. On 21 July, Council members issued a press statement expressing deep concern over reports of threats against religious and ethnic minorities in Mosul and other parts of Iraq controlled ISIS. Mladenov also reported that ISIS had taken control of oil fields and pipelines, increasing its access to financial resources. On 28 July, the Council adopted a presidential statement prohibiting illicit oil trade as a source of revenue for terrorists in Iraq and Syria. On 30 July, the Council adopted resolution 2169 renewing UNAMI for a year and increasing the reporting period to every three months versus every four months. There were significant changes to the preambular paragraphs of the resolution to reflect the current situation, however there were no substantive changes in the operational paragraphs which form the mission’s mandate.
On 20 May, Council members issued a press statement that welcomed the provisional results of the parliamentary election and looked forward to the results being finalised.
On 30 April, Council members issued a press statement welcoming parliamentary elections in Iraq (SC/11376).
On 27 March, Special Representative Nickolay Mladenov briefed the Council to present the Secretary-General’s UNAMI report and the Iraq/Kuwait missing persons and property report. He reported that the Syrian conflict added a regional dimension to sectarian tensions in Iraq and is affording terrorist networks the occasion to forge links across the border and expand their support base. He added that the three months of fighting in Iraq’s Anbar province posed a serious challenge to Iraq’s security. Finally, he said that the 30 April polls are likely to be the country’s most contested election to date.
On 9 January, Special Representative and head of UNAMI, Nickolay Mladenov, briefed Council members in consultations on the deteriorating security situation in Fallujah and Ramadi. The Council adopted a presidential statement the next day supporting government efforts to address the security situation and condemning attacks perpetrated by Al-Qaida affiliate ISIL. The Council also stressed the critical importance of an inclusive political process, the holding of free and fair elections in April 2014 and the right to peaceful protest as guaranteed under the constitution.
On 25 November, Special Representative Nickolay Mladenov briefed the Council on the UNAMI report and on the Iraq/Kuwait missing persons and property report. He said Iraq was facing serious challenges in maintaining political stability in a deteriorating security situation, adding that there had been almost daily attacks by terrorist and armed groups against civilians and Iraqi security forces. He noted the adverse impact of the Syrian crisis on Iraq. He also reported improving relations between Iraq and Kuwait, reiterating UNAMI’s determination to facilitate the repatriation or return of Kuwaiti missing persons and property. Following the briefing and consultations, the Council issued a press statement condemning the recent spate of terrorist attacks in Iraq and expressing support to the government in addressing the country’s security needs.
The Council received its final briefing from Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Iraq Martin Kobler on 16 July. In the briefing, Kobler detailed many of the findings of the most recent UNAMI report and emphasised four key issues for the future of Iraq: the full implementation of the constitution; the equitable distribution of the country’s resources; the protection of Iraq’s environment; and the importance of providing opportunities to Iraq’s women and youth. Kobler concluded his service as Special Representative on 22 July, and at press time no replacement had been announced. On 24 July, the Council adopted resolution 2110, extending the mandate of UNAMI until 31 July 2014.
On 27 June, the Council adopted resolution 2107 transferring Iraq/Kuwait issues to the UNAMI mandate. Following the adoption, the Department of Political Affairs briefed Council members in consultations on the Secretary-General’s latest Iraq/Kuwait missing persons and property report. Earlier in the month, Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs Oscar Fernández-Taranco had reported that progress had been made in the normalization of Iraq/Kuwait relations during the 4 June horizon-scanning consultations.
In May, Iraq formally requested that the compensation funds (originally provided by Kuwait) be transferred to it from the UN for distribution to identified beneficiaries. On 17 May the Council approved the transfer via an exchange of letters (S/2013/295 of 15 May and S/2013/296 of 17 May).
On 21 March, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of UNAMI, Martin Kobler, briefed the Council on the most recent report of the Secretary-General on UNAMI. Kobler highlighted progress towards the normalisation of Iraq’s relations with Kuwait, spillover from the Syrian conflict in Iraqi territory, significant political demonstrations that have gripped Iraq since late December, acts of terrorism that killed approximately 1,300 people between November 2012 and February 2013, and ongoing efforts to relocate the more than 3,000 Iranian exiles currently living in Camp Hurriya. Ambassador T. Hamid Al Bayati (Iraq) also spoke.
On 1 December, the Security Council issued a press statement welcoming the joint request of Iraq and Kuwait to reactivate the Iraq-Kuwait Boundary Maintenance Project, and calling on Iraq to complete field maintenance work on the project in a timely manner. On 18 December, Council members were briefed in consultations by the current High-Level Coordinator, Gennady Tarasov, on the Secretary General’s most recent report on Iraq/Kuwait missing persons and property. On 31 December, the funding for the High-Level Coordinator expired.
On 29 November, the Council received a briefing from UNAMI head Martin Kobler on the Secretary-General’s report which found that although there had been some efforts to address the political stalemate in Iraq, “no tangible progress” had been made.
On 11 September, Council members issued a press statement condemning the wave of terrorist attacks across Iraq on 8 and 9 September. In other developments, on 27 September, on the margins of the General Assembly, the Iraqi and Kuwaiti delegations met to discuss Iraq’s remaining obligations towards Kuwait under Chapter VII.
On 7 August the head of the Department of Political Affairs Jeffrey Feltman briefed Council members in consultations on emerging issues, including the transfer of the remaining residents of Camp New Iraq (formerly Camp Ashraf). Also in August, the Security Council received the 2011 audit of the Iraq Oil-For-Food programme and the audit of the UN Compensation Commission. Both audits found that the financial statements of the various accounts were fair and accurate.
On 25 July, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2061 renewing UNAMI for a further year. On 19 July, the head of UNAMI briefed the Council on the Secretary-General’s report. The briefing was followed by closed consultations.
The High-Level Coordinator for Iraq-Kuwait missing persons and property, briefed Council members in consultations on the latest report of the Secretary-General on 19 June. Council members released a press statement the next day stating they were “encouraged by the recent positive developments in Iraqi-Kuwaiti bilateral relations.”
On 10 April the head of UNAMI briefed the Council and stated that “Iraq’s political situation is heightening communal tensions in the country.”
On 6 March the head of the UN Department of Political Affairs, briefed Council members on the situation in Camp Ashraf. From 27 to 29 March Iraq hosted its first Arab League summit since Saddam Hussein’s invasion of Kuwait, in Baghdad.
Council members met in consultations on 17 January to discuss Iraq’s progress towards ratification of the Additional Protocol to the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in accordance with resolution 1957. On 10 January the head of the Department of Political Affairs briefed the Council on the worsening security situation in Iraq.
The head of UNAMI briefed the Council for the first time on 6 December on the latest report of the Secretary-General on UNAMI. On 15 December the high-level coordinator for Iraq/Kuwait missing persons and property, briefed Council members. The members of the Council released a press statement welcoming the commitment to full implementation of all Iraqi obligations to Kuwait. The following day the head of the Department of Political Affairs, briefed Council members on the situation in Camp Ashraf. On 25 December UNAMI and the Government of Iraq signed a memorandum of understanding to relocate residents of Camp Ashraf, and postponed the deadline to close the camp from 31 December to 30 April 2012.
The 34th session of the Tripartite Commission was held in Geneva on 17 November.
On 21 October the US President announced that all US troops would be withdrawn by the end of the year, as established by the Status of Forces Agreement approved by the Iraqi parliament and the Bush Administration in late 2008.
The Council issued a press statement on 18 August strongly condemning the series of terrorist attacks that occurred on 15 August in Iraq which killed scores of people.
On 28 July the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2001 extending UNAMI’s mandate for another year and calling on Iraq to continue its ongoing cooperation with Kuwait and meet its outstanding international obligations on that issue. On 19 July the Special Representative of the Secretary-General briefed the Council.
The Council released a press statement on 30 June welcoming the Iraqi government’s establishment of a successor arrangement to the DFI consisting of an account held by the Central Bank of Iraq at the Federal Reserve Bank. The high-level coordinator for Iraq/Kuwait missing persons and property briefed the Council on 22 June. That same day, the members of the Council released a press statement welcoming the commitment to full implementation of all Iraqi obligations to Kuwait.
On 21 December the Secretary-General notified the Council of his intention to adjust the security arrangements for UNAMI, in light of the upcoming withdrawal of US forces, to include using UN guards to provide close-protection security for UN personnel. On 17 December the Council supported the Secretary-General’s recommendation to extend the high-level coordinator on Kuwait missing persons and property for another six months. In a press statement Council members welcomed the commitment of the new Iraqi government to improving relations with Kuwait. A high-level Council meeting on Iraq was held on 15 December. The Council adopted resolutions 1956, 1957 and 1958 and a presidential statement. It extended the DFI for a final six months, concluded the Oil-for-Food programme and removed Chapter 7 restrictions related to WMD.
12 November 2010
The president of the Governing Council of the UN Compensation Commission (UNCC) reported to the Council on its 9-11 November meeting
12 November 2010
The Council adopted a presidential statement welcoming the Iraqi agreement to form a national partnership government.
11 November 2010
The Iraqi parliament re-elected Jalal Talabani as president.
10 November 2010
The Council issued a press statement condemning terrorist attacks targeting civilians
10 November 2010
UN Controller Jun Yamazaki briefed the Council on the Development Fund for Iraq (DFI.). Also, Abdul Basit Turky Saed, head of Iraq’s Committee of Financial Experts, presented Iraq’s quarterly report to the Council.
19 October 2010
A UN convoy transporting Special Representative for Iraq Ad Melkert was attacked with a roadside bomb in Najaf after a meeting between Melkert and Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani. Melkert and UN staff were not injured but one member of the Iraqi security forces was killed.
Maliki visited a number of countries in the region (including Iran on 18 October) to reportedly discuss aspects of government formation in Iraq, including the possible inclusion of the Iraqiya coalition led by Iyad Allawi.
1 October 2010
The State of Law coalition led by Maliki, supporters of Moqtada al-Sadr and some smaller factions agreed to nominate Nuri al-Maliki for prime minister (however the groups remained short of a majority in the Iraqi parliament).
23 September 2010
Iraqi President Jalal Talabani told the General Assembly that the security situation in Iraq was much improved. He called for the removal of Chapter 7 restrictions placed on Iraq with regard to disarmament and the DFI, including remnants of the Oil-for-Food programme.
31 August 2010
The US completed withdrawal of its combat forces from Iraq, leaving 50,000 US troops in the country.
27 July 2010
A planned session of the Iraqi parliament was cancelled due to the continuing disagreement over the formation of a new Iraqi government. According to the Iraqi constitution, a new president should be chosen within thirty days of parliament’s first session; Iraq’s parliament first convened briefly on 14 June.
15 July 2010
The US transferred control of the last prison under its control to Iraqi authorities, though US personnel continued to guard about 200 detainees who include Al-Qaida militants and some former associates of Saddam Hussein.
3 to 5 July 2010
US Vice President Joseph Biden visited Baghdad for meetings with leaders of the main political parties to urge progress on forming a new Iraqi government.
21 June 2010
Iraq’s electricity minister resigned following several days of protests over lack of electricity and chronic power outages in which a protestor was killed.
20 June 2010
One week after 26 people were killed in coordinated bombings targeting the Iraqi Central Bank, 27 people were killed and dozens injured when two vehicle bombs apparently targeting the Iraqi Commercial Bank in Baghdad exploded.
15 June 2010
The Council confirmed a decision to finance the activities of the High-Level Coordinator for Iraq/Kuwait missing persons and property for another six months after being briefed by Ambassador Gennady Tarasov.
12-14 June 2010
Maliki and Allawi met to discuss the political situation in Iraq. Subsequently Iraq’s parliament met briefly for the first time since national elections, but was adjourned with a new government yet to be formed.
7-8 June 2010
An Iraqi official said Iraq had protested to Iran over that country’s shelling of Kurdish rebels in the northern Kurdistan region of Iraq. Kurdish officials said Iranian troops had also begun constructing a small fortification on Iraqi territory to facilitate their activities. In Baghdad and other parts of the country, attacks targeting police and members of the Awakening movement killed 11 people and wounded dozens more.
1-2 June 2010
Iraq’s supreme court certified the results of the 7 March national elections. The Security Council congratulated the people and government of Iraq the next day on the election certification and called on all political entities to respect the certified results.
17 May 2010
An Iraqi court overturned a ban on nine newly elected members of parliament who had been barred from holding office for alleged Baathist ties. (The court decision followed a government statement the week before that action to bar electoral candidates on the basis of ties to the Baath Party had been halted.)
16 May 2010
A recount of votes cast in the Baghdad area was completed and confirmed the earlier results that indicated
a narrow plurality for the list of candidates led by Ayad Allawi.
11 May 2010
Iraq and UNAMI launched a UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) for 2011-2014 meant to support Iraq’s five-year National Development Plan.
10 May 2010
Over a hundred people were killed across Iraq in a series of bombings and shootings.
4 May 2010
Iraq’s presidential council urged that a new government be formed quickly and warned that delays could result in a resurgence of violence, and the State of Law coalition and the Iraqi National Alliance coalition agreed to ally themselves in the Iraqi parliament.
19 April 2010
The IHEC ordered a recount of votes cast in the Baghdad area in the 7 March national election.
6 April 2010
The Council was briefed for the first time on Iraq’s plans for a transition to a post-DFI mechanism by the end of 2010. The UN Controller also briefed on the DFI and the IAMB.
Several series of bombings occurred in Baghdad, with two apparently targeting Shiite areas of the capital and another aimed at foreign embassies killing well over a hundred people.
31 March 2010
The Council welcomed the provisional results of the Iraqi election in a press statement and noted that observers had affirmed the overall integrity of the process.
26 March 2010
Final preliminary election results were released, though the final results still required the certification of the Federal Supreme Court. The preliminary results indicated a narrow plurality for the list of candidates led by Ayad Allawi.
22 March 2010
The Council was informed by the Secretary-General that the IAEA had verified it was receiving excellent cooperation from Iraq when conducting its safeguards activities.
7 March 2010
National elections were held in Iraq. The Council issued a press statement the following day expressing appreciation to the government of Iraq and UNAMI for assisting with the elections.
26 February 2010
The Council responded in a presidential statement to a 18 January letter from Iraq regarding its compliance with non-proliferation and disarmament obligations.
4 February 2010
The Council informed the Secretary-General that it had earmarked funds to finance the mandate of the High-Level Coordinator until 30 June 2010, and requested a comprehensive progress report by 30 June 2010 (S/2010/72).
23 January 2010
US Vice President Joe Biden travelled to Iraq to discuss the IHEC decision to ban many individuals, including some Sunni leaders, from running in the 7 March national elections.
14 January 2010
The IHEC upheld a decision to prohibit more than 500 individuals from running in national elections on 7 March because of their past links to the Ba’ath party of Saddam Hussein. The IHEC subsequently stated that a roughly equal number of Shi’a and Sunni were included in the ban.
18 January 2010
Speaking at a conference on the International Compact with Iraq, Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Iraq Christine McNab stated that the Compact had accomplished much but Iraq was now ready to transition to a longer-term development agenda.
14 January 2010
An Iraqi court sentenced 11 Iraqis to death for the coordinated bombings that took place on 19 August 2009.
21 December 2009
The Council adopted resolution 1905 that extended the arrangements for the Development Fund for Iraq (DFI) and its auditing entity, the International Advisory and Monitoring Board (IAMB), until 31 December 2010. The resolution called on Iraq to establish an action plan and timeline for transitioning to a post-DFI mechanism by 1 April.
8 December 2009
Coordinated vehicle bombings in Baghdad killed 112 people, and the Council issued a press statement condemning the bombings. The same day, the Iraqi Presidency Council set 7 March as the date for national elections after amendments to the election law were finalised.
18 November 2009
Iraqi Vice President Tariq al-Hashemi announced a veto of Iraq’s new election law, objecting to the allocation of only 5 percent of parliamentary seats to Iraqis living abroad.
16 November 2009
Ad Melkert, the Secretary-General’s Special Representative for Iraq, briefed the Council on the UN Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI). The Council approved a presidential statement after the briefing which reaffirmed Council support for UNAMI, and endorsed UNAMI’s continued assistance in preparing for national elections.
8 November 2009
The Iraqi Council of Representatives passed amendments to the electoral laws to enable elections. Previous attempts to adopt the revisions had stalled due largely to disagreement over voter lists and representation of the ethnically mixed city of Kirkuk.
1 to 4 November 2009
Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs Oscar Fernández-Taranco visited Iraq to consult the government on security issues.
29 October 2009
The UN Compensation Commission, which settles damage claims resulting from Iraq’s 1990 invasion of Kuwait, dispensed $610 million to ten successful claimants, bringing the total amount disbursed by the Commission to over $28 billion.
28 October 2009
The Secretary-General announced that he would dispatch Assistant Secretary-General Oscar Fernandez-Taranco to Iraq to consult the government on security issues.
26 October 2009
Iraq reiterated its call for a high-level envoy to be dispatched to Iraq and for an investigation into attacks in Iraq. Senior Iraqi officials put forward a proposal on a revised legal framework for the national elections to be held in January 2010.
25 October 2009
Coordinated bombings in Baghdad killed over 150 people and wounded hundreds more.
22 October 2009
The mandate of the High-Level Coordinator advising the Security Council on Kuwaiti missing persons and property was extended until June 2010.
21 October 2009
UNAMI expressed concern over the delay in passing needed amendments to Iraq’s election law, warning that if the revisions are not approved soon, there is a danger that the elections might need to be postponed.
19 October 2009
Iraq and the US agreed to establish a bilateral coordinating committee to discuss outstanding issues related to historical Council resolutions on Iraq.
18 October 2009
UNAMI announced that talks on disputed internal boundaries in the north of the country have made progress in addressing concerns of local residents
16 October 2009
The Secretary-General submitted to the Council a regular report on missing Kuwaiti persons and property and missing third-country nationals.
16 October 2009
A gunman opened fire on worshippers at a mosque in northern Iraq before detonating a bomb, killing himself and 15 people.
15 October 2009
Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki warned Turkey to cease cross-border military operations in northern Iraq.
14 October 2009
In central Iraq, an attack in Karbala on 14 October killed at least three people and wounded forty when three explosions rocked the city, which is one of the holiest for Shiite Muslims.
13 October 2009
The Iraq Human Rights Ministry released its first official report on the number of Iraqis killed from 2004 to 2008. The report estimates that over 85,000 people were killed and over 147,000 were wounded.
12 October 2009
The US military stated that it will have 120,000 troops in Iraq by the end of October, a decrease of 23,000 since the beginning of the year.
11 October 2009
A series of bombings targeting a meeting for national reconciliation in Ramadi killed 26 people and wounded 65.
2 October 2009
The Secretary-General announced his appointment of Christine McNab (Sweden) to replace David Shearer (New Zealand) as his Deputy Special Representative for Iraq.
24 September 2009
In his address to the General Assembly Iraqi President Jalal Talabani rerequested an investigation into foreign involvment in attacks in Iraq, as well as the appointment of a senior official to evaluate the extent of foreign involvement in attacks in Iraq.
15 to 17 September 2009
US Vice President Joe Biden visited Iraq for meetings with a range of Iraqi leaders as well as the Secretary-General’s Special Representative in Iraq, Ad Melkert.
10 September 2009
A large explosion in a Kurdish village outside Mosul in northern Iraq left dozens of casualties, highlighting concerns that insurgents continue to try to exploit ethnic tensions that exist in the area.
4 September 2009
The Iraqi government said it had evidence that linked Iraqis in Syria with bombings in Iraq.
30 August 2009
In a letter to the Secretary-General subsequently distributed to Council members, Iraq requested a UN investigation into foreign involvement in attacks carried out in the country. (This request came in the wake of the 19 August bombings.)
27 August 2009
UN Controller Jun Yamazaki briefed the Council on the Development Fund for Iraq (DFI) and the International Advisory and Monitoring Board (IAMB).
24 August 2009
The Secretary-General issued a regular report on the DFI and the IAMB.
19 August 2009
Truck bombings in Baghdad killed nearly one hundred people and wounded over 1,000 on the sixth anniversary of the bombing of the UN offices in the capital.
7 August 2009
The Council unanimously extended the mandate of the UN Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) for another year.
25 July 2009
Provincial elections were held in Kurdistan.
22 July 2009
Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki met with Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and representatives of the P5 in New York.
30 June 2009
The Multinational Force-Iraq (MNF-I), led by the US, withdrew from Iraqi cities and towns.
5 May 2009
OHCHR and UNAMI expressed concern over the resumption of the death penalty and the subsequent public executions .
29 April 2009
UNAMI released its 14th Human Rights report covering the period from 1 July to 31 December 2008.
23 – 24 April 2009
Bomb attacks in Baghdad and Diyala caused numerous deaths and injuries.
10 March 2009
Iraq wrote to the Council calling for an end to the mandate of the high-level coordinator and transfer of responsibility for the issue to the Tripartite Commission.
26 February 2009
The Special Representative for Iraq, Staffan de Mistura, briefed the Council.
20 February 2009
The Secretary-General released his quarterly report on Iraq (S/2009/102).
31 January 2009
Provincial elections are held in 14 of Iraq’s 18 Provinces.
1 January 2009
The US/Iraq SOFA took affect.
28 December 2008
Iraq’s presidency council approved a resolution allowing non-US foreign troops to remain in Iraq after their UN mandate expires on 31 December.
26 December 2008
The Turkish military said the PKK had suffered heavy losses in northern Iraq in Turkish Armed Forces airstrikes since 16 December and were deserting the organisation.
23 December 2008
Under heavy pressure from Shiite and Kurdish lawmakers, Sunni speaker of parliament, Mahmoud al-Mashhadani resigned.
22 December 2008
The Council unanimously adopted S/RES/1859 extending the arrangements for the Development Fund for Iraq (DFI) and the International Advisory and Monitoring Board (IAMB) until 31 December 2009 with a review by 15 June.
22 December 2008
The Paris Club of creditor nations cancelled $7.8 billion of Iraq’s Saddam-era debt owed to members. Creditors agreed in 2004 to waive about $32 billion or 80 percent of Iraq’s total debt over four years.
12 December 2008
The Secretary-General informed the Council of his intention to conclude a detailed agreement with the US government to ensure US forces in Iraq continue to provide security support to the UN in Iraq (S/2008/783).
4 December 2008
Iraq’s presidency council approves the draft security pact between the US and Iraq to govern the presence of US forces in Iraq after 31 December and defining longer-term cultural, economic and security ties between the two countries.
27 November 2008
Iraq’s parliament approves (149 votes to 35) the draft security pact between the US and Iraq to govern the presence of US forces in Iraq after 31 December after agreeing to put the pact to a public referendum next year.
19 November 2008
Iraq, Turkey and the US agreed to form a joint committee to combat the Kurdistan Workers’ Party, or PKK, a guerrilla movement based along the mountainous Iraq-Turkey border.
16 November 2008
Iraq’s cabinet approves the draft security pact between the US and Iraq to govern the presence of US forces in Iraq after 31 December.
3 November 2008
The new Provincial Election Law was amended to include provisions for minority representation in Baghdad, Basra and Ninewa. The six seats reserved for minorities were divided among Christians (three seats) and Yazidis, Shabaks and Sabian (one each).
23 October 2008
Authority for security in Babil Province was transferred to Iraqi security forces. Iraq now bears the primary security responsibility in 12 of its 18 provinces.
7 October 2008
Iraq’s Presidency Council ratified the elections law.
1 October 2008
MNF-I began transferring responsibility for approximately 100,000 members of the Awakening movement to the Iraqi government.
24 September 2008
Iraq’s Parliament passed the governorate elections law.
1 September 2008
Authority for security in Anbar Province, the former cradle of the Sunni insurgency was transferred to Iraqi security forces.
13 August 2008
The UN and Iraq Government signed a cooperation agreement, defining how the UN will support Iraq’s reconstruction, development and humanitarian needs over the next three years; The UN Assistance Strategy for Iraq 2008-2010.
7 August 2008
The Council unanimously adopted resolution 1830, renewing the mandate of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) for a period of 12 months.
23 July 2008
The Presidency Council, headed by President Jalal Talabani, rejected the governorate election law.
22 July 2008
Iraq’s parliament passed the governorate election law. The Kurdish bloc boycotted the vote after objecting to how the law dealt with Kirkuk.
21 July 2008
The Head of the Constitutional Review Committee announced its final report had been drafted and would be passed to the Executive Council for comment.
19 July 2008
After nearly a year-long boycott of the government by the main Sunni political bloc (Tawafiq), six Sunni cabinet ministers were appointed. Parliament also approved four members of the Shiite Unified Iraqi Alliance to fill cabinet posts vacated by Sadrists and Iraqi National List members of parliament.
16 July 2008
Qadisiyah province was transferred to Iraqi control (becoming the tenth out of 18 provinces under Iraqi control).
10 July 2008
The Kuwaiti government announced it would refer the cancellation of Iraq’s debts to parliament and meet with UN officials to confer about the possibility of cancelling war compensation.
6 July 2008
The United Arab Emirates announced it had cancelled Iraq’s debt of almost $7 billion.
27 June 2008
In a letter (S/2008/423), the Council expressed its support for the Secretary-General’s actions and recommendations regarding the disposal of UNMOVIC’s archives, contained in his last report (S/2008/372) on UNMOVIC’s final activities.
13 June 2008
The Council conducted a review of the mandate of the MNF-I, as requested in resolution 1790. It heard a briefing from the US on behalf of the MNF-I, from Ibrahim Gambari, Special Adviser on the International Compact with Iraq, on recent UNAMI activities, and from Warren Sach, Assistant Secretary-General, Controller, on the International Advisory and Monitoring Board (IAMB), which has audit oversight of the Development Fund for Iraq (DFI).
9 June 2008
The Secretary-General presented a final account of the activities of UNMOVIC, in particular progress achieved regarding the future of UNMOVIC’s archives and other property, and financial issues related to its closure (S/2008/372).
5 June 2008
The Secretary-General’s Special Representative in Iraq, Staffan de Mistura, presented to the Iraq government UNAMI’s initial analysis on possible processes to resolve disputed internal boundaries.
29 May 2008
The first Iraq Compact annual review conference was held in Stockholm at the foreign ministers’ level, and chaired by the Secretary-General and the Iraqi prime minister.
US and Iraqi forces intensified military pressure against Shi’a insurgents of the Mahdi Army in Baghdad’s Sadr City—seemingly a continuation of the campaign in April in Basra to establish government authority over Shi’a extremist controlled areas. Violence spread to other Shi’a neighbourhoods of Baghdad. A truce reached on 12 May did not hold.
21-22 April 2008
The third expanded ministerial conference of Iraq and its neighbours took place in Kuwait.
4 April 2008
Under Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs John Holmes said that the humanitarian situation continued to deteriorate and that humanitarian access to Iraq was hindered by hostilities and restrictions on freedom of movement.
25 March 2008
Heavy fighting broke out in Basra between the Shi’a Mahdi army and the Iraqi forces, supported by British and American air strikes. The Iraqi government sent troops to Basra in an attempt to force the militia into submission. Eventually government forces gained the upper hand and fighting ended after Moktada al-Sadr called for a ceasefire.
15 March 2008
UN Assistance Mission in Iraq (UNAMI) issued a human rights report covering 1 July to 31 December 2007.
11 March 2008
At a US Senate hearing in Washington, the top official at the US Government Accountability Office, David Walker, said that although the number of insurgent attacks against the US military had dropped from an average of 180 a day in June 2007 to 60 in September 2007, the number of attacks has since remained unchanged.
27 February 2008
The Presidential Council sent the governorates law back to parliament for amendment. At issue are two provisions said to be contrary to the constitution: the right of the Iraqi parliament to dismiss a local governor by absolute majority and the timing of provincial elections, set in the legislation for 1 October 2008.
22 February 2008
Moqtada al-Sadr extended for another six months a ceasefire on his Mahdi Army militia. However, the truce quickly came under strain and heavy fighting broke out in Basra between the Mahdi army and the Iraqi forces—supported by air strikes by British forces—after the Iraqi authorities in Basra imposed a new curfew to reestablish law and order.
22 Feburary 2008
Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon called for utmost restraint from Turkey and insurgents from the Kurdistan Workers Party in border actions in response to the deteriorating situation along the Turkey/Iraq border.
13 February 2008
A package of three pieces of legislation was adopted by the Iraqi parliament: the 2008 budget ($48 billion); an amnesty law for some of the 50,000 prisoners detained without trial by Iraqi and coalition forces (although it includes many exceptions); and a law on the power of Iraq’s governorates.
12 January 2008
The Iraqi parliament approved the Accountability and Justice Law, permitting former Ba’athist officials to hold government jobs again.
27 December 2007
Funds associated with letters of credit that had no claims of delivery and had been cancelled (as part of oil-for-food programme) were transferred to the Development Fund for Iraq.
18 December 2007
The Council renewed the MNF-I mandate for one year, following a request by the Iraqi government and by the US.
16 December 2007
There was the transfer of security responsibility from the UK forces to Iraqi authorities in Basra.
7 December 2007
There were 215 outstanding letters of credit issued in the framework of the oil-for-food programme that had already expired or were expiring on 31 December 2007. In 179 of those letters, there were claims of delivery of goods from suppliers, but no authentication documents from the Iraqi government necessary to release the corresponding funds from the UN Iraq account (approximately $206 million).
7 December 2007
The Iraqi government sent a letter to the Council that insisted that the process of building constitutional and legal institutions was complete. It emphasised that the mandate of MNF-I should be renewed for one year.
27 November 2007
US Lieutenant General James Dubik said that by the end of the year Iraqi forces would not be ready to take control of as many provinces as the US military had hoped. The new Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd also said in November that 550 of the 1,500 Australian troops in Iraq would be withdrawn by mid-2008.
late November 2007
The Iraqi cabinet decided to provide $25 million to support Iraqi refugees in Jordan, Lebanon and Syria.
26 November 2007
The US and Iraq issued a declaration of principles for a long-term relationship of cooperation and friendship.
20-21 November 2007
A joint Iraqi-UN working group met in Amman to resolve issues relating to the unpaid letters of credit issued in the framework of the oil-for-food programme.
21 November 2007
The Council approved the archiving procedure for UNMOVIC files as proposed by the Secretary-General in his latest report and responded to the Secretary-General’s request for guidance on access to confidential information.
12 November 2007
Special Representative of the Secretary-General De Mistura arrived in Baghdad. He said he would ensure maximum UN engagement with Iraq’s government and people.
8 November 2007
The Council affirmed that the oil-for-food programme would be terminated on 31 December, and asked the Iraqi government to expedite processing of remaining letters of credit, and to provide answers to problems of authentication.
5 November 2007
The Iraqi Red Crescent Society said that 2.3 million Iraqis were internally displaced, a 16 percent increase since August.
2-3 November 2007
The last expanded meeting of foreign ministers of Iraq’s neighbouring countries, aimed at promoting regional dialogue and reinforcing the government’s efforts at national reconciliation, took place in Istanbul.
19 October 2007
The US briefed the Council on MNF activities in Iraq, and the Under Secretary-General for Political Affairs Lynn Pascoe presented the latest report on the UN Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) to the Council.
17 October 2007
Turkey’s parliament gave permission for the government to launch military operations into Iraq to fight Kurdish rebels of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) with bases in Iraqi Kurdistan.
8 October 2007
British Prime Minister Gordon Brown announced that the UK would start cutting its 5,000-strong military presence in Iraq before the end of the year, reducing to 2,500 in early 2008.
5 October 2007
The Council condemned the 3 October attack in a presidential statement (S/PRST/2007/36).
3 October 2007
A terrorist attack in Baghdad wounded the Polish ambassador to Iraq and killed his driver and at least one Iraqi civilian.
29 September 2007
Iraqi Foreign Minister Hoshyar Zebari said that the next extension of the UN mandate for the MNF would be the last.
27 September 2007
The Secretary-General reported on steps taken to dispose of the UNMOVIC archives (S/2007/568).
25 September 2007
The UN Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries expressed concern over the incident with Blackwater on 16 September and denounced the immunity of private security companies.
22 September 2007
A high-level meeting on Iraq took place in New York to promote a stronger partnership between the international community and Iraq. Participants supported the UN’s key role in national reconciliation.
16 September 2007
In Baghdad, the private US security firm Blackwater was involved in an incident in which it shot dead at least eight civilians and wounded many others. Blackwater claimed an attack on a diplomatic convoy, the Iraqi investigation produced no such evidence and the US also launched an investigation.
10 September 2007
US General David Petraeus, Commander of the MNF, and Ryan Crocker, US Ambassador to Iraq, presented testimony on the war and political developments in Iraq to the US Congress.
2 September 2007
British forces completed withdrawal from their last base in Basra, handing over control to Iraqi security forces.
The Secretary-General sent a note on arrangements for terminating operations relating to the letters of credit issued in the oil-for-food programme against the UN Iraq escrow account.
30 August 2007
Concerns were raised that potentially hazardous chemical materials had been discovered at the UN in New York, apparently having been removed by UNMOVIC from Iraq in 1996.
10 August 2007
The Council adopted resolution 1770 extending UNAMI’s mandate for twelve months and delinking UNAMI from the resolution authorising the Multinational Forces in Iraq. The resolution also gave UNAMI an expanded.
24 July 2007
Ambassadors of US and Iran met in Baghdad at meetings attended by Iraqi Prime Minister to discuss security situation in Iraq. The first meeting of this type was on 28 May 2007.
13 June 2007
Council reviewed the mandate of the MNF.
29 June 2007
Resolution 1762 was adopted terminating the mandate of UNMOVIC.
27 June 2007
The comprehensive UMOVIC compendium of the former Iraqi regime’s WMD programmes, including observations and lessons learned from UN inspections, was published after the removal of sensitive information.
5 June 2007
The parliament approved a law that the Iraqi cabinet should consult parliament before any extension of the MNF mandate.
3 and 4 May 2007
The International Compact with Iraq (ICI) was formally launched during a conference in Sharm el-Sheik.
17 and 18 April 2007
At a ministerial-level conference, organised by the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Iraq promised $25 million to help Syria and Jordan, which were hosting about 2 million refugees. The US agreed to accept 20,000 Iraqi refugees.
16 April 2007
Six Shi’a Sadrist ministers withdrew from the government protesting the prime minister’s refusal to set a timetable for a MNF troop withdrawal.
22 March 2007
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon met Prime Minister Nouri Al-Maliki in Baghdad.
12 March 2007
The US Assistant Secretary of State for Population, Refugees, and Migration, Ellen Sauerbrey, visited Syria to assess the refugee situation.
10 March 2007
A ministerial meeting was held in Baghdad involving foreign ministers of the P5, the UN, regional organisations and Iraq’s neighbouring countries.
26 February 2007
A draft law allowing the central government to distribute oil revenues to provinces and granting regional oil companies or governments the power to sign contracts with foreign companies could not be adopted because of Kurdish and Sunni opposition.
Special Representative of the Secretary-General Ashraf Jehangir Qazi sought to secure regional support for peace efforts in Iraq through visits to Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Syria and Iran.
US President George Bush decided to increase the number of American troops in Baghdad by 21,500.
6 December 2006
The Iraq Study Group recommended a new policy approach for the US in Iraq.
Iraqi President Jalal Talabani was invited by his Iranian counterpart to discuss ways of addressing the violence in Iraq.
Iraq renewed diplomatic relations with Syria.
The Iraqi Constitutional Review Committee was formed.
US military leaders confirmed that sectarian violence in Iraq had been worsening.
27 July 2006
The International Compact for Iraq was launched.
25 June 2006
Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki announced a national reconciliation plan.
25 June 2006
Four Russian diplomats, who had been abducted on 3 June, were killed by a terrorist group.
5 and 6 July 2006
Deputy Secretary-General Malloch-Brown met Iraq’s President, Prime Minister and Deputy Prime Minister in Baghdad to discuss the international compact.
16 June 2006
Secretary-General Kofi Annan agreed to provide support in developing the International Compact for Iraq.
Italy started to withdraw troops from Iraq. Japan withdrew its forces.
7 June 2006
Insurgent Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, believed to be the leader of Al-Qaida in Iraq, was killed in a US air strike.
3 June 2006
Four Russian diplomats were abducted.
Prime Minister Ibrahim Al-Jaafari was reappointed by the new parliament.
10 February 2006
The Independent Electoral Commission of Iraq certified the results of the 15 December 2005 parliamentary elections, confirming the Shi’a conservative United Iraqi Alliance (UIA) as the winner.
20 January 2006
The Shi’a conservative United Iraqi Alliance emerged as the winner of December’s parliamentary elections, but failed to gain an absolute majority.
15 December 2005
Iraqi parliamentary elections.
8 December 2005
The Secretary-General’s report on Kuwait re-stated that to date, the mortal remains of 227 Kuwaitis and other countries’ nationals (six Saudi, two Lebanese, one Egyptian, one Omani, three Iranian and 12 stateless) taken from mass graves had been identified.
Iraqis approved the new constitution of an Islamic federal democracy in a referendum.
After intense negotiations, the draft constitution was finally put to a referendum.
The draft constitution was endorsed by Shi’a and Kurdish negotiators, but not by Sunni representatives.
The parliament nominated Jalal Talabani, a Kurdish leader, as president, and Ibrahim Jaafari, a Shi’a, as prime minister.
10 March 2005
The Governing Council of the UN Compensation Commission (UNCC) approved $161 million as compensation to family members of 602 former detainees in Iraq determined to be deceased. The Kuwaiti government later confirmed distribution to claimants.
30 January 2005
About eight million people voted to elect a Transitional National Assembly. The United Iraqi Alliance, a Shi’a coalition, won the majority of the seats and Kurdish parties came in second.
The US handed sovereignty to an interim government headed by Prime Minister Iyad Allawi.
18 December 2003
The Council issued a presidential statement expressing the Council’s continued support for High-Level Coordinatorfor Iraq’s compliance with its obligations regarding Iraq/Kuwait missing persons Yuli M.Vorontsov’s work, while announcing its intention to keep his mandate under review.
24 November 2003
Kuwait sent a letter to the members of the Council conveying its strong desire for the Council to extend Vorontsov’s mandate.
21 November 2003
The oil-for-food programme was officially terminated.
19 August 2003
A bomb exploded outside the UN headquarters in Baghdad killing 22 people, including the Special Representative of the Secretary-General Sergio Vieira de Mello (who was also the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights).
13 August 2003
While strongly encouraging the continued collaboration between Iraq and Kuwait within the framework of the Tripartite Commission and ICRC, the Secretary-General suggested that the Council may wish to consider bringing High-Level Coordinator Yuli Vorontsov’s mandate to a close by the end of 2003.
13 July 2003
The US-appointed Governing Council of Iraq was established.
1 July 2003
The Secretary-General appointed Dr. Demetrius Perricos as acting Executive Chairman of UNMOVIC.
30 June 2003
Dr. Hans Blix concluded his appointment as Executive Chairman of UNMOVIC.
1 June 2003
The Tripartite Commission held its meeting at the ICRC office in Baghdad. Representatives of Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, France, the UK, the US and the Coalition Provisional Authority representing Iraq attended the meeting under the auspices of the ICRC.
22 May 2003
The Council in resolution 1483 reaffirmed Iraq’s disarmament obligations, encouraged the UK and the US to keep the Council informed of their activities in this regard and underlined its intention to revisit the mandates of UNMOVIC and the IAEA.
The Council endorsed the US-led administration in Iraq and lifted economic sanctions. The US administrator abolished the Baath Party and the former regime’s institutions.
9 April 2003
US forces took over Baghdad.
20 March 2003
The US-led military campaign to topple Saddam Hussein began.
17 March 2003
The diplomatic process on Iraq ended. US President George W. Bush gave Saddam Hussein 48 hours to leave Iraq or face war, UN arms inspectors were evacuated.
The UN chief weapons inspector, Hans Blix, reported to the Council that Iraq had accelerated its cooperation but that inspectors needed more time to verify the country’s compliance.
5 February 2003
US Secretary of State Colin Powell addressed the Council claiming that Iraq possessed WMDs.
27 January 2003
UNMOVIC Chairman Hans Blix provided the Council with an update, as required by resolution 1441, sixty days after the resumption of inspections in Iraq.
18 December 2002
Iraq participated on the sidelines of the Tripartite Commission’s meeting in Geneva for first time since its decision to boycott the Commission in 1998.
7 December 2002
Iraq provided UNMOVIC and the IAEA in Baghdad with a declaration of its weapons programmes, required by Council resolution 1441.
December 2002-March 2003
The Council met 12 times to hear briefs by the weapons inspectors and to discuss a possible intervention. France, Germany, Russia, China, Chile, Mexico and Syria opposed the US, while the UK, Spain and Bulgaria were willing to proceed with a military intervention.
27 November 2002
Inspections resumed in Iraq.
8 November 2002
The Council adopted resolution 1441, which gave Iraq a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations and established an enhanced inspections regime.
16 September 2002
Iraq allowed the return of weapons inspectors without conditions.
23 – 24 May 2000
UNMOVIC’s College of Commissioners held its first session.
14 February 2000
The Secretary-General appointed Ambassador Yuli M. Vorontsov of the Russian Federation as the High-Level Coordinator for compliance by Iraq with its obligations regarding the repatriation or return of all Kuwaiti and third country nationals or their remains, as well as the return of all Kuwaiti property.
27 January 2000
After rejecting the Secretary-General’s nomination of Rolf Ekeus to be the Executive Chairman of UNMOVIC, the Council approved Hans Blix’s appointment.
17 December 1999
UNMOVIC was created to replace the UN Special Commission to Oversee the Destruction of Iraq’s Weapons of Mass Destruction (UNSCOM).
Iraq withdrew from the Tripartite Commission.
Bahrain, at the time a Council member, presented an informal note to the Council, emphasising the need for an assessment of the situation of Kuwaiti prisoners of war, properties and archives.
14 April 1995
The Council established the oil-for-food program, which allowed the partial resumption of Iraq’s oil exports to buy food and medicine.
A special commission was created to ascertain the fate of missing military personnel and civilians. The commission has later been referred to as the Tripartite Commission because it consists of the UN-endorsed, US-led allied Coalition on one side and Iraq on the other, under ICRC auspices and chairmanship as a third party.
28 February 1991
Kuwait City was liberated and all Iraqi armed forces vacated the territory of Kuwait.
16 January 1991
A coalition force led by the US and authorised by the UN began air attacks against Iraq, followed by a ground offensive on 24 February.
29 November 1991
After the Council had adopted various resolutions condemning the Iraqi invasion, it adopted resolution 678, specifying that if Iraq had not fully implemented by 15 January 1991 all of the Council’s resolutions, member states were authorised to use “all necessary means” to compel Iraq to do so and restore international peace and security in the area.
2 August 1990
Iraq invaded Kuwait.