On 27 October, members of the Security Council issued a press statement strongly condemning the 24 October attack that took place near the Kawsar e Danish educational centre in Kabul (SC/14338). The attack, which was claimed by the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL/Da’esh), killed 24 people—most of whom were young students—and injured more than 50 civilians. Council members expressed concern over the high levels of civilian casualties in Afghanistan and called for sustained efforts to reduce violence.
On 3 September, Council members held an open VTC meeting on the situation in Afghanistan (S/2020/891). Deborah Lyons, Special Representative for Afghanistan and head of UNAMA, briefed on recent developments and the Secretary-General’s report on UNAMA, issued on 18 August. The Council was also briefed by Saad Mohseni, Chief Executive of MOBY GROUP, which includes Afghanistan’s largest media company. On 12 September, significant progress was made in the Afghan peace process, as the negotiation teams of the Afghan government and the Taliban met in Doha, Qatar, for the first round of intra-Afghan talks, which are aimed at achieving a political settlement to the war in Afghanistan. On 15 September, the Security Council adopted resolution 2543 which renewed the mandate of UNAMA for another year, until 17 September 2021. On 18 September, in a press statement, Council members welcomed the start of the negotiations in Doha (SC/14310).
On 25 June, Council members held an open VTC meeting, followed by a closed VTC session, on the situation in Afghanistan. Deborah Lyons, Special Representative for Afghanistan and head of UNAMA, briefed on recent developments and the Secretary-General’s 17 June report on UNAMA. Ghada Fathi Waly, Executive Director of UNODC, and Shaharzad Akbar, chairperson of the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC), also briefed the Council. On 30 June, Council members issued a press statement (SC/14237) in which they reaffirmed the UN’s role in promoting peace in Afghanistan and welcomed regional and international efforts to facilitate intra-Afghan negotiations. Council members welcomed the steps taken by the Afghan government and the Taliban to move towards negotiations, including the partial implementation of the commitments to release prisoners, and called for the swift release of remaining prisoners and a reduction of violence to facilitate the commencement of direct talks. They further called for inclusive and meaningful peace negotiations with the participation of women and youth, while emphasizing that “gains made in the last 19 years, including in the field of human rights, especially the rights of women, children and minorities, must be protected and built upon”. Members of the Security Council reaffirmed the importance of the Secretary-General’s call for a comprehensive ceasefire in Afghanistan and expressed concern over the recent increase in violence in the country, while strongly condemning the 27 June killing of two AIHRC employees in Kabul.
On 10 March, the Security Council adopted resolution 2513, which welcomed the progress towards a political settlement of the war in Afghanistan facilitated by the 29 February “Agreement for Bringing Peace to Afghanistan” signed by the US and the Taliban and the “Joint Declaration for Bringing Peace to Afghanistan” issued by the US and the Afghan government. On 26 March, Council members issued a press statement in which they condemned a terrorist attack that took place at a Sikh-Hindu temple in Kabul on 25 March 2020. The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant–Khorasan Province claimed responsibility for the attack, which resulted in the death of at least 25 people. On 31 March, Security Council members held an informal video teleconferece meeting on the situation in Afghanistan and the activities of UNAMA. Ingrid Hayden, Deputy Special Representative of UNAMA, briefed Council members on the latest Secretary-General’s report on UNAMA, issued on 17 March (S/2020/210). Council members agreed on press elements afterwards, in which they expressed concern at the impact of COVID-19 in Afghanistan and called on all Afghan parties to implement a comprehensive ceasefire and ensure access to humanitarian aid. They further called on the political leadership in Afghanistan to settle their differences and expressed hope that intra-Afghan negotiations will commence without delay, while bearing in mind the difficulties posed by the spread of COVID-19.
On 16 December, the Council held its quarterly meeting on Afghanistan. Tadamichi Yamamoto, the Special Representative for Afghanistan and head of UNAMA, briefed on the Secretary-General’s latest report on UNAMA and the most recent developments. Aisha Khurram, Afghanistan’s current Youth Representative to the UN, also briefed. Also on 16 December, the Council adopted resolution 2501, renewing for 12 months the mandate of the Monitoring Team assisting the 1988 Afghanistan Sanctions Committee.
On 2 October, Council members issued a press statement on the 28 September presidential elections. On 21 October, Council members issued a press statement condemning in the strongest terms a terrorist attack on 18 October in the Haska Mena district in Nangarhar Province. The attack resulted in the death of at least 60 people and almost 60 injured.
On 10 September, the Council held a debate on Afghanistan, considering the latest Secretary-General’s report on UNAMA. Tadamichi Yamamoto, the Special Representative for Afghanistan and head of UNAMA; Ambassador Dian Triansyah Djani (Indonesia), chair of the 1988 Afghanistan Sanctions Committee; and Yuri Fedotov, head of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime, briefed. On 11 September, the 1988 Afghanistan Sanctions Committee met in informal consultations and heard briefings by Special Representative Yamamoto, along with Afghanistan’s permanent representative to the UN, Ambassador Adela Raz. On 17 September, Council members unanimously adopted resolution 2489, renewing the mandate of UNAMA until 17 September 2020. On 19 September, Council members issued a press statement condemning in the strongest terms the “continuing high number of attacks” in Afghanistan. Those attacks included several claimed by the Taliban: in Qalat, Zabul Province, on 19 September, resulting in at least 20 people killed and more than 95 people injured; in Kabul; and in Charikar, Parwan Province, on 17 September, resulting in at least 38 civilians killed and more than 80 civilians injured.
On 3 July, Council members issued a press statement condemning in the strongest terms a terrorist attack claimed by the Taliban on 1 July in Kabul. The attack resulted in the death of at least 35 people and more than 70 injured. On 26 July, the Council had a meeting following a recent trip to Afghanistan by a high-level UN delegation with a focus on women, peace and security. The delegation, which was in Afghanistan from 20-21 July, was led by Deputy Secretary-General Amina Mohammed and included Under-Secretary-General for Political and Peacebuilding Affairs Rosemary DiCarlo, Executive Director of the UN Population Fund Natalia Kanem, and the Executive Director of UN Women, Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka. Briefings were given by Mohammed, DiCarlo and women’s rights activist Jamila Afghani who participated at the 7-8 July intra-Afghan talks in Doha.
On 19 June, the Council held its quarterly meeting on Afghanistan in the format of a debate. Briefings were given by the Special Representative and head of UNAMA, Tadamichi Yamamoto, and Sima Samar, a women’s rights activist, chairperson of the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission and member of the Secretary-General’s High-Level Advisory Board on Mediation.
On 15 April, Council members issued a press statement condemning the announcement by the Taliban of a spring offensive, underscoring that calls for more fighting will not contribute to making a sustainable peace, and calling on all conflict parties to seize the opportunity to begin an inclusive intra-Afghan dialogue and negotiations that result in a political settlement.
On 15 March, the Council unanimously adopted as a “technical rollover” resolution 2460 extending the mandate UNAMA for six months. Although Council members held several rounds of negotiations and bilateral meetings, no agreement could be reached on the original draft resolution after which the decision was made to pursue a technical rollover. The US and China were deadlocked on whether to maintain a reference to the Belt and Road Initiative in the context of welcoming regional economic cooperation. Ahead of the adoption, on 11 March, the Council held a briefing followed by consultations on the situation in Afghanistan. Briefers included Special Representative and head of UNAMA, Tadamichi Yamamoto; Afghanistan’s National Security Adviser Hamdullah Mohib; and Deputy Executive Director of the Afghan Women’s Network Storai Tapesh. The discussion during the meeting centred on, among other things, the political situation including the preparations for the 2019 presidential elections, ongoing negotiations on reaching a political solution, and security and humanitarian situation in the country.
On 3 January, Council members issued a press statement condemning the terrorist attack in northern Sar-e-Pul Province and Balkh Province on 31 December 2018, targeted at the Afghan National Defence and Security Forces, resulting in at least 27 security forces killed and 20 injured. On 30 January, the 1988 Taliban Sanctions Committee held joint informal consultations with the 1267/1989/2253 Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) (Da’esh) and Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee, receiving a briefing on their Monitoring Teams’ December 2018 visit to Afghanistan. The meeting was followed by informal consultations of the 1988 Committee also focusing on the visit.
On 3 December, the 1988 Taliban Sanctions Committee held informal consultations and was briefed by a representative from UNODC on opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan. On 10 December, Council members issued press statement welcoming the outcome of the Geneva Afghanistan Conference that took place on 27-28 November 2018. On 17 December, the Council held its quarterly debate on UNAMA. Briefers were: Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of UNAMA Tadamichi Yamamoto; UNODC Executive Director Yuri Fedotov; Ambassador Kairat Umarov (Kazakhstan), chair of the 1988 Taliban Sanctions Committee; and Ghizaal Haress, member of Afghanistan’s Independent Commission for Overseeing the Implementation of the Constitution. On 26 December 2018, Council members issued a press statement condemning, in the strongest terms, the 24 December terrorist attack in Kabul that resulted in at least 43 people killed and 27 injured.
On 18 October, ahead of the parliamentary and district council elections scheduled for 20 October, Security Council members issued a press statement condemning recent attacks and underscoring the importance of a secure environment for the elections. On 23 October, after the elections took place, Council members issued a press statement welcoming the holding of the elections while noting the difficult security environment and that voting in Kandahar, which was postponed, needs to take place.
On 11 September, Council members issued a press statement condemning the 5 September terrorist attack in Kabul claimed by ISIL and the 11 September attack in Nangarhar. On 17 September, the Council held the quarterly debate on UNAMA. Briefings were provided by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of UNAMA, Tadamichi Yamamoto, and Ramiz Bakhtiar, the newly-elected Youth Representative of Afghanistan to the UN for 2018.
On 2 July, Council members issued a press statement condemning, “in the strongest terms the heinous and cowardly terrorist attack that took place in Jalalabad, Afghanistan, on 1 July”. On 23 July, the Council adopted a presidential statement on the electoral process in Afghanistan, following the conclusion of the voter registration process on 18 July for this year’s parliamentary and district council elections and for the 2019 presidential elections.
On 26 June, the Council held its quarterly debate on UNAMA. Special Representative of the Secretary-General Tadamichi Yamamoto, Executive Director of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime Yury Fedotov; and Under-Secretary-General of the UN Office of Counter-Terrorism Vladimir Voronkov briefed. The Council issued press statements in relation to terrorist attacks (SC/13386) and the temporary ceasefire announced by the Afghan government and the three-day partial ceasefire announced by the Taliban (SC/13376 and SC/13385).
On 23 April, Council members issued a press statement condemning the ISIL terrorist attack on a voter registration center in Kabul that resulted in the deaths of at least 50 and injury to about 100 people.
On 8 March, the Council held a debate on the situation in Afghanistan with a briefing by Special Representative of the Secretary‑General for Afghanistan Tadamichi Yamamoto, Deputy Chairperson of the High Peace Council Habibi Sarabi, and Executive Director of the Organization for Policy Research and Development Studies Mariam Safi. Yamamoto briefed on the latest UNAMA report, the security situation, the preparation for the elections, and the conference of the Kabul Process for Peace and Security Cooperation, which endorsed the call for direct talks between the Government and the Taliban. Sarabi and Safi centered their briefings on women’s rights and the role of women in the Afghan peace process. Ahead of the debate, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2405 which extended the mandate of UNAMA for another year, while also welcoming the strategic review of the mission and calling for implementation of its recommendations. On 15 March, Council members issued a press statement welcoming the convening of the Kabul Process conference and calling on the Taliban to accept the offer of direct talks with the government. On 21 March, Council members condemned the terrorist attack in Kabul, claimed by ISIL, which resulted in at least 33 people killed and 65 injured.
On 5 January, Council members issued a press statement condemning the ISIL terrorist attack on Kabul the day before in which at least 15 people were killed and 25 injured. From 13 to 15 January, the Council conducted a visiting mission to Afghanistan. The main purpose of the mission was to reiterate the Council’s support for Afghanistan and its government’s efforts to restore peace and stability, and to provide the Council with better understanding of the situation on the ground. During the visit, the Council met with a wide range of stakeholders in the country. These included the President of Afghanistan, Ashraf Ghani; Chief Executive Abdullah Abdullah; and other senior government officials, including Minister of Foreign Affairs Salahuddin Rabbani, Chairman of the High Peace Council Mohammad Khalili, and several other ministers. The Council also held meetings with representatives of women’s NGOs, civil society, electoral management bodies, UNAMA and NATO’s Resolute Support Mission. The Council held a briefing on the mission on 17 January. On 19 January, Kazakhstan’s Minister of Foreign Affairs, Kairat Abdrakhmanov, chaired a ministerial-level debate on “Building Regional Partnership in Afghanistan and Central Asia as a Model to Link Security and Development”. Rabbani and representatives of the Central Asian countries also addressed the Council. During the debate the Council adopted a presidential statement which emphasised the importance of advancing regional, interregional and international cooperation to achieve stability and sustainable development in Afghanistan and the Central Asian region. On 22 January, council members issued a press statement condemning the terrorist attack at the Intercontinental Hotel in Kabul, which resulted in 22 people killed and nine injured. On 25 January, Council members issued a press statement condemning the terrorist attack in Jalalabad targeting international humanitarian organisation which resulted in at least five people killed and numerous injured.
On 17 October, members of the Security Council issued a press statement, condemning terrorist attacks that took place in Paktia, Ghazni and Kabul on that day, which resulted in more than 70 people killed and over 200 wounded, for which the Taliban has claimed responsibility (SC/13034).
On 25 September, the Council held its quarterly debate on Afghanistan which focused on the most recent UNAMA report . Special Representative Tadamichi Yamamoto briefed the Council on the report and most recent developments. In his briefing Yamamoto noted that there is a renewed interest in Afghanistan in political engagements for peace. However, he also stressed that the security situation as well as the impact of violence on the civilian population remain the major concerns for the mission.
On 2 August, the Council adopted a press statement condemning the terrorist attack that took place in a mosque in Herat, Afghanistan, on 1 August, which resulted in more than 90 people killed or injured, for which local affiliates of ISIL have claimed responsibility. On 24 August, the Council adopted a presidential statement confirming that the Council has reviewed the implementation of resolution 2255 and that no further adjustment to the measures outlined in the resolution was necessary at that time. The Council adopted resolution 2255 in December 2015 to clarify how the 1988 Afghanistan sanctions regime functions and to reflect the changing conflict dynamics in the country. The resolution called on the Council to review the implementation of the measures outlined in the resolution by August 2017.
In a press statement on 24 July, Council members condemned the terrorist attack that took place in Kabul that same day, which resulted in more than 70 people killed or injured, for which the Taliban claimed responsibility.
On 21 June, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of UNAMA Tadamichi Yamamoto briefed the Council on the latest Secretary-General report and recent developments. Yamamoto noted that Afghanistan is currently going through a political and security crisis and urged the National Unity Government to increase political inclusiveness, strengthen accountability and improve the government’s credibility to avert deterioration of the situation. Council members voiced concern regarding the recent surge of terrorist attacks in the country and expressed support for the government of Afghanistan in tackling ongoing political and security issues.
On 10 March, Tadamichi Yamamoto, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of UNAMA briefed the Council on the latest UNAMA report. Sima Samar, Chair of the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission, also briefed the Council. On 17 March, the Council adopted resolution 2344, renewing the mandate of UNAMA until 17 March 2018.
On 7 February, Council members issued a press statement condemning an ISIL perpetrated suicide bombing outside Afghanistan’s Supreme Court in Kabul that killed at least 21 people and injured more than 40, earlier that day. On 16 February, the 1988 Afghanistan Sanctions Committee delisted one individual, who is now known to have passed away in 2001.
On 11 January, Council members issued a press statement condemning terrorist attacks perpetrated by the Taliban in Kabul and Helmand the previous day, claiming the lives of over 133 people. The statement also condemned a10 January terrorist attack in Kandahar.
On 19 December, the Council held its quarterly debate on Afghanistan (S/PV.7844), during which it considered the Secretary-General’s report on UNAMA. Special Representative Tadamichi Yamamo, briefed along with the chair of the 1988 Afghanistan Sanctions Committee, Ambassador Gerard van Bohemen (New Zealand), and Yury Fedotov, Executive Director of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime.
The 1988 Afghanistan Sanctions Committee met on 24 October with the head of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization to discuss counter-narcotics efforts in Afghanistan, and on 27 October with the Mission of Afghanistan to the UN to discuss reconciliation efforts in the country.
On 14 September, the Council held its quarterly debate on Afghanistan which focused on the most recent UNAMA report. Special Representative Tadamichi Yamamoto briefed the Council for the first time in his new role. On the same day, the Council issued a presidential statement calling on the international community to continue its civilian and development efforts to assist Afghanistan, ahead of the 5 October 2016 Brussels Conference hosted by Afghanistan and the EU.
On 23 July, Council members issued a press statement condemning the terrorist attack that occurred earlier that day in Kabul, resulting in the death of at least 80 people killed and more than 230 wounded, for which local affiliates of ISIL have claimed responsibility.
On 21 June, the Council held its quarterly debate on Afghanistan (S/PV.7722) which focused on the most recent UNAMA report (S/2016/532). Exiting Special Representative Nicholas Haysom briefed the Council for the last time. On the same day, Council members issued a press statement, condemning the 20 June terrorist attacks in Kabul and Badakhshan Province (SC/12413). The 1988 Afghanistan Sanctions Committee held informal consultations on 1 June to meet with a representative of the Collective Security Treaty Organization about counter-narcotic efforts.
On 19 April, Council members issued a press statement condemning a terrorist attack in Kabul by the Taliban that claimed at least 28 lives and injured more than 300 people. The 1988 Sanctions Committee met on 20 April that focused on counter-narcotics efforts. Afghanistan’s Deputy Minister of the Interior Baz Mohammed Ahmadi briefed, as did the Committee’s Monitoring Team, which discussed the efforts of the Combined Maritime Force to track narcotic flows from Afghanistan.
On 15 March, the Council held its quarterly debate on Afghanistan which focused on the most recent report of the Secretary-General on UNAMA. Special Representative and head of UNAMA Nicholas Haysom briefed. The Council adopted resolution 2274, renewing the mandate of UNAMA for one year.
On 4 February, Council members were briefed under “any other business” by Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs Tayé-Brooke Zerihoun on Guinea-Bissau’s political crisis. On 17 February, the Council was briefed by Special Representative Miguel Trovoada, who presented the Secretary-General’s six-month report on Guinea-Bissau. The chair of the Guinea-Bissau configuration of the Peacebuilding Commission, Ambassador Antonio Patriota (Brazil), also briefed. Council members issued press elements expressing concern over the tensions within the PAIGC and national institutions and calling on political leaders to resume dialogue. Council members decided to include a visit to Guinea-Bissau as part of a broader Council visiting mission early in March. On 26 February, the Council adopted resolution 2267 renewing the mandate of UNIOGBIS for one year.
On 21 January, Council members issued a press statement in which they condemned a terrorist attack carried out by the Taliban on 20 January.
Council members issued two press statements condemning Taliban attacks near the Spanish embassy in Kabul on 11 December (SC/12158) and another near Bagram Air Field on 21 December (SC/12181). On 21 December, the Council adopted resolution 2255 which contained language clarifying how the 1988 Afghanistan sanctions regime functions and reflecting changing conflict dynamics in Afghanistan. The Council held its quarterly debate on Afghanistan on 21 December with Special Representative Nicholas Haysom briefing on the most recent UNAMA report.
On 12 October, the 1988 Committee held informal consultations focused on the impact of the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham in Afghanistan and Taliban financing through the trade in narcotics.
On 17 September, the Council held a debate (S/PV.7526) on the quarterly UNAMA report. Special Representative and head of UNAMA Nicholas Haysom and Executive Director of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime briefed the Council. Haysom emphasised the heavy toll the conflict continues to take on civilians and noted that foreign assistance beyond 2017 will rely on the government meeting agreed upon performance indicators, including those related to countering corruption. Fedotov argued that illegal drugs in Afghanistan “are supporting instability, insurgency, corruption and organized crime, while weakening state institutions and Afghanistan’s overall ability to promote peace and good governance.”
On 9 August, Council members issued a press statement condemning a series of terrorist attacks in Kabul.
On 10 July, Council members adopted a press statement in which they “welcomed the direct talks held on 7 July in Muree, Pakistan, between the government of Afghanistan and Taliban representatives, as a step towards peace and reconciliation” (SC/11967).
The Council held its quarterly debate on UNAMA on 22 June with Special Representative Nicholas Haysom briefing on the situation in Afghanistan and the UNAMA report. Haysom said that political progress had been achieved with the appointment of all cabinet members, but expressed concern with the challenging security situation, describing the infiltration of foreign terrorist fighters into the country. A press statement was issued by Council members on 22 June condemning the terrorist attack by the Taliban on the parliament in Kabul.
The Council held its quarterly debate on UNAMA on 16 March. Special Representative Nicholas Haysom presented the Secretary-General’s Afghanistan report, noting that UNAMA had urged Afghanistan’s political leaders to finalise the appointment of senior government officials and expressed concern with the rise of civilian casualties in the conflict. Afghanistan also addressed the Council. The Council adopted resolution 2210 renewing UNAMA until 17 March 2016.
On 11 December 2014, Council members issued a press statement condemning the attack on the French Institute of Afghanistan in Kabul by the Taliban (SC/11695). The Council met on 12 December (S/PV.7338) to adopt resolution 2189, welcoming the Afghanistan-NATO agreement to create the post-2014 Resolute Support Mission. On 18 December, the Council held its quarterly debate on the situation in Afghanistan (S/PV.7347) and considered the Secretary-General’s recent report on this issue (S/2014/876). The briefers were Nicholas Haysom, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Head of UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan, and Yuri Fedotov, the Executive Director of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime.
On 24 November, the Council issued a press statement that condemned a suicide bombing that killed over fifty civilians and wounded another sixty in Paktika, Afghanistan. On 27 November, the Council issued a press statement that condemned in the strongest terms the Taliban attack on 27 November on a UK Embassy vehicle in Kabul, Afghanistan, which resulted in a number of deaths and injuries to civilians and security personnel.
The Council held its quarterly debate on Afghanistan (S/PV.7267) on 18 September. Jan Kubiš, Special Representative and head of the UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA), briefed via video teleconference from Kabul on the Secretary-General’s latest report on the situation in Afghanistan (S/2014/656). Kubiš advocated for the formation of a government of national unity to break the electoral stalemate between the two presidential candidates, Ashraf Ghani and Abdullah Abdullah, arguing that “all other options are either accompanied by heavy risks or undermine the country’s constitutional framework.” On 21 September, Council members issued a press statement in which it welcomed the agreement by Ghani and Abdullah to form a government of national unity. On 29 September, Council members issued a press statement in which it welcomed the inauguration of Dr. Ashraf Ghani as the new President of Afghanistan, marking the first democratic transition of power in the country’s history.
Council members issued a press statement on 15 July that condemned attacks in Paktika and Kabul earlier that day that killed and wounded many civilians.
On 6 June, Council members issued a press statement condemning an attack in Kabul which caused a number of deaths and injuries to civilians and security personnel (SC/11431). On 17 June, the Council adopted resolution 2160 that renewed, with minor adjustments, the 1988 Taliban sanctions regime. On 25 June, the Council held its quarterly debate on Afghanistan (S/PV.7208) considering the most recent Secretary-General’s report (S/2014/420). Briefings were provided at the debate by Special Representative and head of UNAMA Jan Kubiš and Executive Director of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime Yuri Fedotov. The Council also adopted two presidential statements on Afghanistan at the debate, one on counter-narcotics (S/PRST/2014/12) and another on the elections (S/PRST/2014/11).
On 15 May, the Council issued a press statement welcoming the certification of the first-round results by the IEC, while underscoring the continued need to detect and prevent fraud (SC/11399).
On 5 April, the Council issued a press statement welcoming the holding of presidential and provincial council elections in Afghanistan.
On 17 March, the Council adopted resolution 2145 renewing UNAMA for a year. Jan Kubis, the Special Representative to Afghanistan and head of UNAMA, briefed on the Secretary-General’s latest report and Ambassador Zahir Tanin (Afghanistan) participated. During the debate, Council members focused on the upcoming national elections, the security transition and the UN and international community’s future role in supporting Afghanistan post-2014. A suicide bombing the next day, which killed at least 16 people, was condemned by the Council in a press statement. On 21 March, the Council also condemned the attack by gunmen on the Serena Hotel in Kabul, which killed nine people, including four foreigners.
The Security Council issued a press statement condemning in the strongest terms the terrorist attack by the Taliban at a Kabul restaurant on 17 January that caused numerous deaths and injuries to Afghan civilians and international personnel, including UN employees.
On 4 December, Council members issued a press statement condemning the attacks in Afghanistan’s Uruzgan Province on 26 November and Faryab Province on 27 November. On 17 December, the Council held a debate on the quarterly UNAMA report with Special Representative and head of UNAMA Ján Kubiš briefing. Kubiš emphasised the importance of credible presidential and provincial elections, scheduled for 5 April 2014.
The Council issued a press statement condemning the attack on the US consulate in Herat on 13 September that killed seven people. On 19 September, Special Representative and head of UNAMA Ján Kubǐs briefed the Council on the latest UNAMA report and said that while the capability of Afghan security forces was growing, they would need international support for at least five additional years to achieve requisite capacity.
On 5 August, the Council issued a press statement condemning the 3 August attack against the Indian consulate in Jalalabad that killed nine people and injured 24.
The Council issued a press statement on 11 June condemning the terrorist attack on the same day near the Supreme Court in Kabul. On 20 June, the Council held its quarterly debate on Afghanistan with Ján Kubǐs, the Special Representative and head of UNAMA briefing on the Secretary-General’s latest report. He noted his concern that important legislation regarding the 2014 presidential and provincial council elections had not been adopted. He also informed the Council that there has been a 25 percent increase in civilian casualties in the conflict during the first half of this year as compared to the first half of 2012.
On 26 May, the Council issued a press statement condemning the attack on an International Organisation for Migration (IOM) compound in Kabul on 24 May, killing an Afghan police officer and injuring 10 other people, including three IOM personnel.
On 4 April, the Council issued a press statement condemning a terrorist attack that occurred in Farah Province in the western part of Afghanistan, which caused numerous deaths and injuries, mainly to civilians.
On 19 March, the Council held a debate on the situation in Afghanistan during which it discussed the Secretary-General’s most recent report on UNAMA and adopted resolution 2096 extending the mandate of UNAMA until 19 March 2014 (S/PV.6935 and Resumption 1). Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon briefed the Council.
On 17 December the Council adopted resolution 2082 that modified the Taliban sanctions regime, allowing for a number of exemptions to make it easier for listed individuals to travel in order to participate in meetings in support of peace and reconciliation. On 19 December, the Council held a debate on Afghanistan following a briefing by Special Representative and UNAMA head Ján Kubiš on the Secretary-General’s latest report.
On 26 November, Council members held an informal interactive dialogue with Salahuddin Rabbani—the chair of the Afghan High Peace Council—and received an update on the reconciliation process. On 2 November, the 1988 Taliban Sanctions Committee placed the Haqqani network on its list of entities subject to sanctions. (The Haqqani network, based in areas along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border, has been responsible for many high-profile terrorist attacks in Afghanistan.)
On 9 October, the Council adopted resolution 2069, renewing the International Security Assistance Force authorisation in Afghanistan until 13 October 2013.
On 20 September, the Council held its quarterly debate on the situation in Afghanistan. Ján Kubiš, the head of UNAMA, briefed the Council on the Secretary-General’s report. Kubiš said that the security transition from international to Afghan forces was making progress, but noted that the security environment in the country was fragile. He also emphasised the need for Afghanistan and its international partners to adhere to mutual obligations made at recent high-level conferences, alluding to the May NATO summit in Chicago, the June Kabul conference on regional cooperation and the July Tokyo conference.
On 17 August the Council issued a press statement condemning coordinated attacks carried out by the Taliban on 14 and 15 August. In Zaranj, the capital of Nimroz province in the southwest corner of the country, suicide bombers killed 30 people and wounded 60. In northern Kunduz province, 10 civilians died and 30 were injured when an explosive device was remotely detonated.
The Council issued a press statement on 23 July welcoming the 8 July “Tokyo Conference on Afghanistan” and the conclusions of the conference.
The Council held a debate on the situation in Afghanistan on 27 June 2012 during which it considered the Secretary-General’s quarterly report on UNAMA. The Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and the Executive Director of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime briefed during the debate.
On 20-21 May a NATO Summit focusing largely on Afghanistan was held in Chicago, during which NATO reiterated its commitment to transition to Afghan responsibility for the country’s security. The president of France however reasserted his promise to remove the bulk of France’s approximately 3,400 troops in Afghanistan by the end of 2012. On 17 May the Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator briefed the Council in consultations on her 8-11 May trip, highlighting the difficult living conditions faced by the inhabitants of informal settlements, especially women and children.
The Council adopted a press statement on 17 April condemning the attacks of 15 and 16 April in Jalalabad, Kabul and Logar and Paktia provinces which led to 38 deaths, and commending the Afghan security forces for “their effective action” in response to them.
On 20 March the Council held a debate on the situation in Afghanistan at which the Special Representative of the Secretary-General gave a briefing. The Council adopted resolution 2041 renewing the mandate of UNAMA for an additional 12 months on 22 March.
On 3 February the NATO Secretary-General reaffirmed that NATO would withdraw from Afghanistan by the end of 2014 while France had said on 27 January that it would fully withdraw its combat forces from the country by the end of 2013.
On 19 December the Council held a debate on the Secretary-General’s report and adopted a presidential statement welcoming the Bonn conference and its conclusions and commending the outcome of the Istanbul conference. The statement also underscored the UN’s critical role in Afghanistan.The Bonn Conference focused on international political and economic engagement in Afghanistan, both after 2014, and during the transition period preceding it.
Addressing the Council during the 11 November open debate on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights said she was concerned that the number of civilians killed in Afghanistan was increasing in a climate characterised by a lack of accountability for serious violations of international law. Ealier this month Afghanistan and Turkey hosted a high-level conference in Istanbul to discuss strategies for promoting security and cooperation in Afghanistan and the neighbouring region.
The Council adopted resolution 2011 on 12 October extending ISAF’s mandate until 13 October 2012. The resolution underlined the significance of the transition of security responsibility to the Afghan government by the end of 2014, looked forward to the phased extension of the transition process and highlighted the need for a responsible transition and the long-term commitment of the international community.
The transfer of security tasks to Afghan local security forces began in Bamiyan province, followed by the provincial capitals of Mehtar Lam, Lashkar Gah, Herat, Mazar-e-Sharif and Panjshir. Meanwhile, on 16 July, former Afghan Taliban leaders were removed from the Taliban sanctions committee list at the request of the Afghan government. On 6 July the Council held an open debate on Afghanistan where it received a briefing from the special representative of the Secretary-General in Afghanistan, and head of UNAMA, Staffan de Mistura.
On 22 June the US president announced the US would reduce its troops in Afghanistan by 33,000 (of the approximately 100,000) over the next 12 months. The Council adopted resolution 1988 and 1989 on 17 June which split the sanctions regimes set up under resolution 1267 into two separate regimes covering the Afghanistan Taliban (resolution 1988) and Al-Qaida (resolution 1989).
On 22 March the Council adopted resolution 1974 renewing the mandate of UNAMA for a further 12 months. The Council held an open debate on 17 March, where it received a briefing from the head of UNAMA.
On 22 December the head of UNAMA briefed the Council.
19 to 20 November 2010
The NATO Summit was held in Lisbon, where NATO leaders backed the strategy to transfer leadership to Afghan forces by 2014.
24 November 2010
The Independent Elections Commission (IEC) certified parliamentary election results from 33 of 34 provinces, disallowing a quarter of the votes cast as invalid.
15 November 2010
The Electoral Complaints Commission (ECC) completed verifying complaints from the parliamentary elections, disqualifying 24 candidates (including seven current members of parliament) for alleged fraud.
22 October 2010
Four suicide bombers attacked the UN compound in western Herat.
13 October 2010
The Council reauthorised ISAF’s mandate till 13 October 2011.
28 September 2010
Staffan de Mistura briefed the Council.
18 September 2010
Parliamentary elections were held.
14 August 2010
Ethnic tensions in Kabul led to violent clashes in the Afghan capital.
10 August 2010
The Human Rights Unit in UNAMA released its midyear report on civilian casualties.
23 July 2010
The Secretary-General briefed the Council on the Kabul Conference. The Council issued a press statement welcoming the Kabul Conference communiqué, supporting the Kabul Process and looking forward to the timely implementation of the Afghan government’s commitments. The Council held an open debate on Afghanistan
20 July 2010
The Kabul Conference was held.
17 July 2010
Karzai signed a decree ordering the disbanding of all private security forces by the end of 2010.
21 – 24 June 2010
The Security Council , led by Turkey, conducted a mission to Afghanistan.
2 – 4 June 2010
An Afghan peace jirga was held.
22 May 2010
Insurgents fired rockets into the Kandahar airfield and attempted to storm the base
18 May 2010
A suicide bomber killed six NATO soldiers and 12 civilians
17 April 2010
The Electoral Complaints Commission (ECC) appointed two foreign commissioners and agreed to guarantee 68 seats to women in the lower house of parliament.
11 May 2010
The Secretary-General’s Special Representative in Afghanistan, Staffan de Mistura, signed an agreement with the chair of the Independent Election Commission, Fazel Manawi, pledging financial support for the parliamentary elections.
19 May 2010
There was an assault against Bagram air base north of Kabul
18 May 2010
A suicide bomber killed six NATO soldiers and 12 civilians
10 -13 May 2010
Afghan President Hamid Karzai visited Washington.
22 March 2010
The Council adopted resolution 1917 renewing and modifying the mandate of the UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) until 23 March 2011.
18 March 2010
The Council held a debate on Afghanistan
26 February 2010
A coordinated suicide and car bomb attack by the Taliban killed at leat 18 people.
13 February 2010
NATO and Afghan forces began Operation Moshtarak.
8 February 2010
Several Afghan Taliban were captured, including Mullah Abdul Ghani Baradar, a senior Taliban leaders.
5 February 2010
The Council issued a press statement on the London Conference.
28 January 2010
An international conference on Afghanistan took place in London.
26 January 2010
The Secretary-General announced the appointment of Staffan de Mistura as his new SRSG for Afghanistan.
26 January 2010
A regional summit on Afghanistan organised by Turkey was held in Afghanistan with Afghanistan, China, Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkey and Turkmenistan participating
25 January 2010
The fourth trilateral summit between Turkey , Afghanistan and Pakistan tool place in Istanbul.
25 January 2010
The Security Council Al-Qaida and Taliban Sanctions Committee removed five ex-Taliban from its sanctions list.
24 January 2010
Afghanisan’s Independent Election Commission delayed Afghanistan’s parliamentary election from 22 May to 18 September.
19 December 2009
Karzai nominated 23 cabinet ministers; many of the key cabinet posts were not changed.
15-17 December 2009
An anti-corruption conference initiated by Afghan President Hamid Karzai was held.
11 December 2009
Eide announced that he would not renew his contract when it expires in March.
9 December 2009
Eide called for key partners in Afghanistan to work together in a more coordinated and streamlined way to support national development.
5 December 2009
In Brussels, NATO foreign ministers announced that NATO would commit an additional 7,000 soldiers to Afghanistan.
1 December 2009
US President Barack Obama announced a revised US strategy for Afghanistan.
11 November 2009
During an open debate on protection of civilians in the Security Council, a statement on behalf of UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay expressed ongoing concerns about the climate of impunity in Afghanistan.
6 November 2009
The Council issued a press statement following a briefing by the Secretary-General. The press statement acknowledged the conclusion of the electoral process and stressed the need for a renewed inclusive poltical process led by the Afghan government.
2 November 2009
The Secretary-Genearl made a visit to Afghanistan.
1 November 2009
After candidate Abdullah Abdullah withdrew from the run-off election, Hamid Karzai was officially declared the winner of the presidential election by the Independent Election Commission.
29 October 2009
The Council issued a presidential statement condemning the attack on the UN guesthouse .
28 October 2009
A terror attack at a guesthouse in Kabul killed five UN staff members and three Afghans.
8 October 2009
The Council renewed the mandate of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan.
29 September 2009
The Council discussed the Secretary-General’s report on UNAMA and was briefed by the SRSG.
25 September 2009
The Canadian Foreign Minister, Lawrence Canon, hosted an informal meeting of Afghanistan where the SRSG briefed foreign ministers of key troop-contributing and donor countries and the Afghanistan foreign minister.
17 September 2009
A suicide bomb attack on a military convoy in Kabul killed six Italian soldiers and ten civilians.
9 September 2009
France, Germany and the UK wrote to the Secretary-General calling for a high-level international conference before the end of the year to take stock of progess in Afghanistan and assess the challenges ahead.
4 September 2009
A bomb exploded near a Polish convoy in eastern Afghanistan killing one Polish soldier and wounding five others.
4 September 2009
A NATO bombing raid in Kunduz killed thirty and wounded nine civilians. Also killed were 69 alleged Taliban.
25 August 2009
A terrorist attack in Kandahar killed more than forty civilians and wounded eighty others.
20 August 2009
The Council issued a press statement on 20 August welcomng the “historic” presidential and provincial elections and condemning the actions of the extremist groups, who sought to disrupt them.
20 August 2009
Provincial and presdiential elections were held.
12 August 2009
US marines launched an assault in lower Helmand river valley.
Early August 2009
In early August UNAMA released a report co-authored with the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC) which revealed that insecurity had hampered candidates’ ability to campaign by limiting their movement and curbing freedom of expression.
15 July 2009
On 15 July the Council adopted a presidential statement stressing that it was important for the elections to be free, fair, transparent, credible, secure and inclusive
30 July 2009
The Mid Year Bulletin on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict in Afghanistan, prepared by the Human Rights Unit of UNAMA and released on 30 July, reported that civilian casualties increased by 24 percent in the first half of 2009, with 59 percent of the civilians killed by anti-government elements and 30.5 percent by pro-government forces.
End of June
At the end of June the UK launched a five-week operation known as “Panther’s Claw” in Helmand province
11 May 2009
Citing the need for a wider change of strategy, the US replaced ISAF commander, General David McKiernan with Arm.y Lieutenant General Stanley McChrystal, a counterinsurgency expert.
10 May 2009
Afghan President Hamid Karzai accused the US of failing to abide by a “high moral” standard in its air strikes and demanded their cessation.
6 May 2009
The Secretary-General’s Special Representative, Kai Eide, expressed serious concern over reports of civilian casualties and fighting in Farah province.
27 March 2009
US President Barack Obama unveiled a new strategy for Afghanistan. The US will now treat Pakistan and Afghanistan as a single integrated challenge and engage them in a trilateral framework.
17 February 2009
US President Barack Obama authorised a 17,000 troop increase for Afghanistan.
11 February 2009
The Taliban conducted simultaneous attacks against government facilities in Kabul, killing at least twenty people and injuring many others.
Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Alain Le Roy visited Afghanistan in early February.
The new US Special Envoy to Pakistan and Afghanistan, Richard Holbrooke, met Afghan, Pakistani and Indian leaders.
UNAMA’s budget was doubled by the General Assembly which granted an increase in international staff from approximately 1,500 to 2,000.
30 November 2008
A meeting of the Joint Coordination and Monitoring Board (JCMB) was held in Kabul.
21-28 November 2008
The Security Council conducted a mission to Afghanistan visiting Kabul and Herat.
A decision was taken by Special Representative for Afghanistan Kai Eide to establish an OCHA presence in Afghanistan separate from the Humanitarian Affairs Unit in UNAMA.
26 August 2008
Investigations by UNAMA into reports that civilians had been killed in US-led air raids in Herat on 22 August revealed some ninety civilians were killed, including sixty children.
25 August 2008
The Afghan government called for a review of agreements regulating the presence of international troops in Afghanistan.
25 and 26 August 2008
Russia circulated a draft press statement deploring the civilian casualties caused by an Operation Enduring Freedom air strike in Herat on 22 August. The Council was unable to reach consensus on the text.
22 August 2008
US-led airstrikes were conducted in Herat.
7 July 2008
A suicide bomber targeted the Indian embassy in Kabul, killing 58 (including two Indian diplomats) and injuring 141.
France announced that it would rejoin NATO’s military command structure, from which it had withdrawn in 1966.
12 June 2008
An International Conference in Support of Afghanistan was held in Paris.
11 June 2008
The Council adopted resolution 1817, introduced by France, restricting the trafficking of chemical precursors used in narcotics production.
24 May 2008
A forum for civil society and the private sector was held in Paris to provide inputs for the 12 June International Conference in Support of Afghanistan.
19 May 2008
Officials from Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan met in Tehran as part of the “Triangular Initiative”, where they agreed to establish Border Liaison Offices to carry out joint operations targeting narcotics smuggling.
3 April 2008
NATO leaders issued a new strategic vision for Afghanistan at the Bucharest Summit.
29 March 2008
Kai Eide appointed the Special Represnetative of the Secretary-General for Afghanistan and Head of UNAMA.
5 March 2008
The International Narcotics Control Board released its 2007 annual report, highlighting the ready availability of a chemical precursor to heroin (acetic anhydrine) in Afghanistan.
17 February 2008
A suicide bomb killed more than 100 people outside Kandahar.
8 February 2008
US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and British Foreign Secretary David Milband visited Afghanistan.
5 – 6 February 2008
The Joint Coordination and Monitoring Board met in Tokyo.
14 January 2008
Six people were killed in a suicide bombing at the Hotel Serena in Kabul.
31 December 2007
Tom Koenigs stepped down as the Secretary-General’s Special Representative for Afhganistan.
6 November 2007
A Terrorist attack targeting members of a parliamentary delegation visiting Baghlan killed more than 40 people.
21 September 2007
Tom Koenigs suggested that peace talks between the Afghan government and the Taliban should be encouraged.
15 – 16 September 2007
High-level meeting on Afghanistan co-chaired by the Secretary-General and President Hamid Karzai.
8 – 12 August 2007
Peace “jirga” held in Kabul brought together presidents of Pakistan and Afghanistan, parliamentarians and tribal leaders.
2 – 3 July 2007
The governments of Afghanistan, Italy and the SG co-chaired the Rome Conference on the Rule of Law in Afghanistan
21 June 2007
The Conference on Disbandment of Illegal Armed Groups for the Stabilisation of Afghanistan was held in Tokyo
30 May 2007
The G8 foreign ministers met with the Afghanistan and Pakistan foreign ministers in Potsdam
29 and 30 April
Turkish president Ahmet Necdet Sezer hosted Afghanistan and Pakistan’s presidents at a meeting in Ankhara
29 – 30 April
A meeting of the JCMB was held.
5 February 2007
UN Special Representative Tom Koenigs briefed the Council.
30-31 January 2007
Joint Coordination and Monitoring Board (JCMB) that oversees the Afghanistan Compact held its third meeting.
7 December 2006
Council delegation led by Japan presented the report on Afghanistan to the Council.
11- 16 November 2006
Council delegation led by Japan visited Afghanistan.
5 October 2006
ISAF assumed control over peacekeeping across Afghanistan by placing US troops in the east under NATO control.
26 September 2006
President Karzai and Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf met at the White House under the auspices of US President George W. Bush.
21 September 2006
NATO met at the ministerial level, paving the way for the assumption of responsibility for the security in all of Afghanistan by ISAF in October.
9 September 2006
NATO defence chiefs agreed to increase troop numbers by 2,500.
31 July 2006
ISAF expanded its operations into southern Afghanistan.
18 September 2005
Parliamentary elections were held.
23 March 2006
Security Council extended UNAMA’s mandate until March 2007.
More robust engagement rules for NATO ISAF troops went into effect.
31 January 2006
Launch of the Afghanistan Compact, a five-year plan of peacebuilding in Afghanistan, at a meeting in London.
3 January 2006
The Secretary-General appointed Tom Koenigs of Germany to replace Jean Arnault of France as the Special Representative of the Secretary-General to Afghanistan.
The new parliament was inaugurated in Kabul.
18 September 2005
Parliamentary elections were held.
14 March 2005
The Council extended the mandate of ISAF.
Hamid Karzai was elected President.
The Berlin pledging conference took place.
Jean Arnault was appointed as the Secretary-General’s Special Representative to Afghanistan and Head of UNAMA.
4 January 2004
The Loya Jirga adopted the new constitution.
NATO took over ISAF’s command.
The Kabul Declaration on Good-Neighbourly Relations was signed by the neighbouring states of China, Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
Emergency Loya Jirga was held in Kabul, which resulted in the establishment of the Transitional Authority, and the election of Hamid Karzai as its president.
28 March 2002
The Council established UNAMA.
First contingent of peacekeepers arrived in Afghanistan.
The Tokyo pledging conference took place.
22 December 2001
Hamid Karzai was sworn in as head of a 30-member interim power-sharing government.
20 December 2001
The Council authorised the establishment of ISAF in resolution 1386.
6 December 2001
The Bonn Compact was endorsed by the Councilin in resolution 1383.
5 December 2001
The Bonn Compact was adopted, setting up the Afghan Interim Authority under Hamid Karzai.
US-supported forces marched into Kabul.
The international offensive against the Taliban began. Lakhdar Brahimi was reappointed as the Secretary-General’s Special Representative to Afghanistan.
11 September 2001
Al-Qaida carried out attacks on US soil.
9 September 2001
Ahmed Shah Massoud was assassinated.
UNSMA offices were forced to close and UN staff withdrew from Afghanistan.
The Council strengthened sanctions against the Taliban and imposed sanctions against Al-Qaida.
The Council imposed a sanctions regime against the Taliban after the group refused to hand over Usama bin Laden.
The Council imposed a sanctions regime against the Taliban and al-Qaida.
Al-Qaida attacked US embassies in East Africa. The United States retaliated with a cruise missile attack on Afghanistan.
Ambassador Lakhdar Brahimi was appointed as a high-level special envoy to Afghanistan by the Secretary-General.
The Council, in resolution 1076 , called upon all Afghan parties to cease hostilities and to engage in political dialogue.
The Taliban, led by Mullah Omar, seized control of Kabul. Taliban forces dragged former President Mohammad Najibullah from the UN compound and executed him.
Usama bin Laden was expelled from Sudan and came to Afghanistan.
The Office of the Secretary- General in Afghanistan and Pakistan was renamed and incorporated into UNSMA.
Factional fighting led to deaths of 25,000. Mahmoud Mestiri was appointed as the Secretary General’s Special Envoy to Afghanistan, and head of UNSMA.
The Pashtun-led Taliban emerged as serious rival to the Rabbani regime.
UNSMA was established by the Secretary-General following a request by the General Assembly. Afghanistan had requested assistance with rapprochement and reconstruction.
Rabbani replaced Najibullah as president. Rabbani led an alliance that included ethnic mujahedin forces.
The United States and the USSR agreed to stop support for the various factions fighting in Afghanistan.
The mandate of UNGOMAP ended. The Office of the Secretary- General in Afghanistan and Pakistan was established.
Soviet forces completed their withdrawal.
Accords were signed between Afghanistan, the United States, Pakistan and the USSR in April in Geneva and Soviet forces began its pullout. In October, the Council adopted resolution 622 , which authorised the United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP).
The Loya Jirga approved a new republican constitution.
Najibullah replaced Soviet-backed Babrak Karmal as president.
The United States armed mujahedin forces with Stinger missiles to attack Soviet helicopters.
The General Assembly adopted resolution 40/137 in December, which expressed profound concern at the disregard for human rights in Afghanistan. The resolution came after the Assembly was presented with a report from the Special Rapporteur of Commission on Human Rights of indiscriminate attacks against civilians.
The Commission on Human Rights appointed a Special Rapporteur on human rights in Afghanistan.
Diego Córdovez was appointed as the Secretary-General’s Personal Representative to Afghanistan. Córdovez served in that position until 1988, and oversaw the negotiations leading up to the Geneva Accords.
Javier Perez de Cuellar was appointed as the Secretary-General’s Personal Representative to Afghanistan.
An emergency session of the General Assembly adopted resolution ES.6/2 on 14 January, in which it called for the immediate withdrawal of foreign forces in Afghanistan and deplored the Soviet intervention. The Babrak Karmal government was installed by the Soviet forces.
Soviet forces invaded Afghanistan in December after Hafizullah Amin overthrew President Nur Mohammed Taraki and installed Babrak Karmal.
The Saur Revolution brought the communist party to power. The communist party installed Taraki as president, who signed friendship treaty with Moscow.
General Mohammed Daud took power in coup and declared a republic.
A democratic constitution was approved, with limited power for the monarchy and a limited role for Islamic law.
General Mohammed Daud was forced to resign from the prime minister post after introducing social reforms, including the abolition of the law against women appearing in public.
General Mohammed Daud became the prime minister and sought Soviet economic and military aid.